How to cure dysbiosis in pets
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We have already written about some of the causes of dysbiosis in pets. To solve the problem, we proposed the use of the complex probiotic Intestevit.
During the time that has passed since the publication of the article, many people have contacted our laboratory with various questions, the essence of which boiled down to the following: "a dog (cat) suffers from intestinal dysbiosis. We have tried many drugs, but after they are canceled, the disease returns ... “Today we will try to briefly talk about modern views on the relationship of a macroorganism with microorganisms of the gastrointestinal tract.
Make friends with ... bacteria
We all know about the presence of "good" and "bad" bacteria in the intestines. One gets the idea that the former should be encouraged, and the latter should be oppressed. But is it that simple? In fact, microorganisms have a much more complex, diverse relationship both with each other and with the host organism.
The cells of the mucous membrane of the small intestine form villi and produce mucus. This mucus contains a huge variety of microorganisms. They perform many functions: they prevent the colonization of the intestine by opportunistic bacteria; produce vitamins, enzymes; destroy toxins, allergens and carcinogens; affect the immunological reactivity of the body ... This list can be continued for a long time, especially since every day there is more and more information on this issue. Let us dwell on the participation of the intestinal parietal microflora in the digestive processes. The food that animals receive, along with saliva, gastric and intestinal juices, is exposed to bacterial enzymes. Amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, i.e. the products formed during digestion are primarily used by microorganisms, and only part of them goes to the animal itself. The question is quite logical - so who are we feeding? A dog, a cat ... or a microscopic population of their gastrointestinal tract? The answer is obvious: both. Moreover, it has been proven that many products are absorbed most fully only with the participation of microorganisms. And when microbes break down indigestible carbohydrates (cellulose), short-chain fatty acids are formed. They participate in the energy metabolism of intestinal cells and improve the nutrition of the mucous membrane (Parfyonov, 2003). Lack of fiber in the diet leads to dystrophic changes in the mucous membrane, which is accompanied by increased permeability of the intestinal wall for antigens of food and microbial origin (Shenderov, 1998; Osipov, 2001). From the point of view of microbiology, the gastrointestinal tract is a continuous system for the cultivation of microorganisms, in different parts of which a constant temperature and acidic composition of the environment is maintained, but food resources are constantly changing. Consequently, depending on the composition of the diet and feed additives, the composition of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract also changes in a certain way, and therefore its effect on the physiological functions of the body.
On the menu - food additives
Our animals, and we ourselves, are in close symbiotic relationships with the intestinal parietal microflora. We share nutrients with it and influence it by synthesizing and secreting various biologically and chemically active substances in the cavity of the digestive organs.
Here it would be appropriate to return to the issue of using probiotic preparations. When we introduce cultures of beneficial bacteria into the gastrointestinal tract of animals and want them to have a beneficial effect, we must take care to create acceptable living conditions for them. Only in this case, you can count on success, and not regret the money thrown away. In addition to complete food, animals should receive any prebiotic supplements. This term refers to substances that are not of nutritional value for animals and humans, but are important for the vital activity of symbiotic bacteria. Lactulose, for example, is a nutrient substrate for bifidobacteria, and the importance of cellulose was mentioned above. No wonder, in a wide range of food products presented today, a considerable share is occupied by confectionery products prepared with the addition of wheat bran - a natural source of vegetable fiber. For pets, this is no less important (to eat right, and not to eat gingerbread with bran).
This healthy cellulose
Russian scientists have developed the drug "Promilk", which contains natural cellulose and bacteria that can effectively break it down. Experience has shown that "Promilk" contributes to the creation of an environment in the intestines of animals that is optimal for the existence of normal microflora, and also increases the immune resistance of the organism. In addition to cellulose bacteria, the bacteria in the preparation have a number of enzymatic activities that allow them to increase the digestibility of some feed components. In this case, acidification of the intestinal contents occurs, unfavorable conditions are created for putrefactive microflora and there is an advantage for the development of lacto- and bifidobacteria.
"Promilk" corrects mistakes made when feeding animals, restores digestion and ensures the survival of strains of beneficial symbiotic bacteria.
Ph.D. E.L.Provorov "BIOTROF" LLC, State Scientific Institution VNIISKhM RASN
How and how to treat diarrhea in cows
Diarrhea in a cow or goby may indicate a variety of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as poisoning or infectious diseases. Treatment of the animal will depend on the test results, but when the first signs of diarrhea appear, measures must be taken to prevent dehydration.
Diarrhea is very dangerous for cattle and can kill animals. The earlier treatment is started, the higher the chance of a favorable outcome.
Folk remedies for black spot on roses
Signs of black spot: rounded purple-brown, gradually blackening spots on the leaves. Over time, the spots merge, the leaves curl and fall off.
As soon as you find the first symptoms of the disease, you need to urgently suppress the activity of the fungus. Otherwise, the rose will begin to lose its leaves. The mullein will come to the rescue! Dilute it with water in a ratio of 1:20, let it brew for a couple of days and spray the bushes. Repeat the procedure once a week until signs of mottling disappear.
To prevent black spot, treat with iodine: 5 ml per 2 liters of water.
At the beginning of the development of the disease, you can carry out the treatment with infusion of garlic. To do this, grind 500 g of heads, pour 5 liters of warm water in a saucepan. After an hour, drain the water into a separate container and fill the pomace with 1 liter of clean water. Wait another hour, combine both solutions and add 4 liters of water. To spray plants, take 1.5 cups of the finished infusion and dilute it in a bucket of water.
If there is no improvement, treatment with fungicidal preparations will be required.
Major leg diseases
Diseases associated with impaired mobility and transformation of the lower extremities are susceptible to all breeds and ages of chickens, although there are categories with more or less predisposition.
The same trend can be seen in the percentage of mortality of the outcome of some especially dangerous diseases.
Other names for this disease are scabies or calcareous foot. The causative agent of the disease is the itch mite, which gnaws at the passages in the skin of the unfeathered part of the paws, feeds on interstitial secretions and lays eggs. Symptoms of infection appear in young animals at the age of six months. The disease progresses in stages.
- 1. Hard bumpy bumps appear on the legs.
- 2. The scales protrude and partially exfoliate.
- 3. Gradually the entire stratum corneum becomes covered with gray crusts.
- 4. The crusts are torn apart by cracks, from which the ichor oozes.
- 5. The joints of the fingers become inflamed. Their partial or complete withering away is observed.
Ticks are very annoying to chickens. In addition to severe itching, birds experience painful sensations as a result of the toxic breakdown of the waste products of parasites in the subcutaneous layer, which leads to extensive inflammatory processes in the affected limbs.
Chickens infected with knemidocoptosis:
- lose their keen interest in food
- often freeze on one leg, convulsively squeezing and unclenching the toes of the raised paw
- peck to blood the scaly cover of the legs
- refuse to enter the chicken coop in the evenings from a walk (at night the activity of parasites increases).
Treatment of the disease at an early stage has a positive effect. There are many proven methods:
- keeping chicken paws in a soapy solution (15-20 minutes) followed by treatment with boric vaseline or ASD-3 (Dorogov's antiseptic stimulator)
- cleaning the affected areas with hydrogen peroxide (pharmacy) and applying Vishnevsky ointment
- foot baths with birch tar.
The latter option is relevant for small and large farms. The whole procedure consists in dipping chicken legs in a container of tar. The process takes little time, makes it possible to quickly organize treatment and preventive measures in a herd with a large number of livestock.
All these methods require repetition. First, after two to three days to consolidate the effect of killing adult ticks, and two weeks later to neutralize the offspring that left the eggs.
With an advanced disease, the possibility of full restoration of the functions of the bird's motor apparatus after treatment is not guaranteed. The relevance of the treatment is assessed after the fact. The discarded bird is slaughtered.
Healing herbs for pets
Let's find out which herbs help our pets with various ailments.
Have you noticed that while walking, your pet is carefully looking for some plants and chews green grass with appetite? Domestic cats and dogs are so self-medicated.
Our pets suffer from the same diseases as people, so our remedies are similar. This also applies to beneficial herbs. If your pet gets sick in the country, where there is no veterinary clinic nearby, you can cure it with the help of folk recipes.
St. John's wort
This is a universal remedy for almost all diseases. St. John's wort is good for both humans and pets. This plant perfectly heals wounds, stops blood, normalizes the digestive tract and kills microbes.
With gastritis and diarrhea, you can give your pets an infusion of St. John's wort diluted with boiled water in a ratio of 1:10. Dogs are given 3-7 ml of medicine at a time, and cats - 1-3 ml.
St. John's wort is astringent, so prolonged use can cause constipation.
Also, with an infusion of St. John's wort, you can irrigate the oral cavity of an animal with stomatitis and inflammation of the gums.
Shallow wounds, burns and ulcers quickly heal with a compress of St. John's wort and oil, which is quite easy to make: for 3 weeks, infuse St. John's wort flowers in olive oil in a ratio of 1: 2.
We all know that this plant literally drives cats crazy, but not everyone knows that valerian infusions are good for treating neuroses, convulsions, spasms and thyroid diseases.
5 g of crushed valerian root, pour 250 ml of boiling water and keep in a water bath for 2 hours. Feed the animals with healing infusion 2 times a day. Dogs are given 8-50 ml, and cats - 3-8 ml.
Crushed valerian roots can also be fed to animals. For dogs, 1-5 g of roots are mixed with a small amount of tasty food (otherwise they will not eat this medicine), and cats are given no more than 1 g in pure form.
Infusions of dried chamomile flowers are used for gastrointestinal diseases, diseases of the gallbladder, kidneys, liver, as well as for neuroses, convulsions and any skin damage.
For oral administration, an infusion of chamomile flowers is prepared in a ratio of 1:10. Dogs (depending on size) are given from 1 tsp. up to 2.5 tablespoons medicines. It is also recommended to wipe inflamed ears and eyes of pets with such a decoction.
When treating skin diseases, pour a small amount of boiling water 2-3 tbsp. flowers to make a gruel. Wrap it in gauze or a tight bandage and apply the compress to the damaged area.
Plantain leaves contain vitamins A, C and K, which make this plant an excellent wound healing, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent. Wash fresh plantain leaves well with boiled water, crush and apply to the wounds - the juice of this plant will very quickly put your pet on the legs.
In addition, plantain is a good expectorant. For diseases of the upper respiratory tract, the following decoction is used: 1 tbsp. crushed dry leaves are poured with 1 glass of water and infused in a water bath for 15 minutes. Dogs are given 1-4 tsp to drink. medicines, and for cats - 0.5-1 tsp.
Traditional medicine will not help cure serious diseases of your pets, but rather only prevent the development of certain diseases. So don't forget to take your pets to the vet.
It is also better to consult a specialist before using medicinal herbs. After all, animals, like humans, can be allergic to certain medications. And may your four-legged friends be healthy!
Listeriosis: what is it and how to treat it
Listeriosis is a widespread, extremely dangerous disease of agricultural, domestic animals and humans.
Listeria is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria. People and animals become infected by eating food contaminated with listeria through uncooked meat and fish, through poorly washed vegetables and fruits, through instant foods.
Farm animals become infected after eating feed contaminated with the excrement of sick rodents and birds, in utero, as well as through contact through damaged skin with the bedding of a sick animal, where the discharge of blood, urine, milk, etc. could remain.
In litter, manure and soil, Listeria can live and multiply for up to a year, in silage - up to one and a half years.
From the moment of infection until the first clinical symptoms appear, it can take from 5 to 30 days. Listeriosis is characterized by a variety of symptoms.
In cats and dogs:
● partial or complete refusal of food
● loss of orientation, impaired coordination
● muscles of the face are affected, because of this it seems that the face of the animal is as if skewed * paralysis of the hind limbs.
● pregnant females often die after contracting listeriosis. Survivors lose offspring and remain sterile
● in pregnant women, a week before the birth, bloody discharge appears
● decreased activity and appetite
● hind limb paralysis.
● increased overall body temperature
● lacrimation and photophobia
● apathy, the animal may be in a coma
● dehydration due to decreased appetite and diarrhea
● convulsions and paralysis of the hind limbs
● mastitis and delayed placenta
In sheep and goats:
● decreased appetite and activity
● increase in general body temperature up to 41 ° C
● the animal makes circus movements, can get up and fall, lose balance
● on the second day of the course of the disease - convulsions and loss of consciousness
● in pregnant women - abortion and mastitis
● lambs and kids have diarrhea and fever.
● stillbirth, abortion
● the appearance of abscesses in organs and tissues.
Piglets become agitated, refuse to feed, move around, muscle tremors can be replaced by convulsions. Body temperature can be elevated and then fall below normal. The skin around the ears and abdomen may turn bluish.
● conjunctivitis and photophobia
● convulsions, paralysis, general weakness.
The duration of the disease, depending on the type of animal, its age and immunity, can range from several hours to two weeks. In most cases, animals die.
TREATMENT OF LYSTERIOSIS
To try to cure listeriosis, the veterinarian needs to differentiate it from food poisoning, rabies, pasteurellosis, influenza, salmonellosis and other diseases, depending on the affected animal species.
Treatment is successful only at the onset of the disease. If changes appear in the functioning of the nervous system, animals die in 90% of cases. In the early stages, listeriosis in animals is difficult to identify and define. Therefore, preventive measures will always be of great importance. Upon confirmation of the diagnosis or suspicion of it, the body of the deceased animal must be cremated, this is the only way to prevent the development of infection.
Reasons for the appearance
Parasites that provoke the inflammatory process of the outer and inner sides of the ear penetrate into the apartment and onto the animal's hair in different ways. Even cats watching what is happening on the street only from the window of an apartment are not 100% insured against infection with ear scabies.
For cat owners:
- fluffy pets walking on the street are more likely to suffer from tick attacks. In the grass, pieces of garbage, basements, and attics, ticks, fleas, and other dangerous parasites often live. Visiting these areas often provokes infection of pets.
- communication with stray animals is another way of transmission of ticks and other parasites. The owner can also pet a stray cat, forget to wash his hands, talk to a pet, and pass on ticks attached to clothes from a furry inhabitant of streets and basements.
- a dirty doormat that is rarely washed or washed with a disinfectant solution is a convenient temporary habitat for parasites. With particles of dirt, sand, grass, garbage from shoes, parasites brought from the street get onto the litter. If the owner is not used to immediately taking off his shoes at the doorstep, he often walks in boots not only in the hallway, but also in other rooms, the risk of tick penetration increases several times.