From San Cono to the district of Sicily: the long road of prickly pear PDO
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When it comes to prickly pear, Sicily is obviously the region that comes to mind to all consumers conquered by the sweet taste of this fruit.
The fig shovels are part of the Sicilian imagination, especially in the areas of Catania, where the cultivation of figs takes up thousands of hectares of land.
Already since 2012 one of the prickly pear cultivations, the prickly pear San Cono, has been recognized by the European Union as DOP product. This recognition is added to that of the Etna PDO prickly pear, which obtained this denomination in 2003.
Since then, the prickly pear road has been all downhill. The crops have increased considerably up to almost eight thousand hectares of land dedicated to the cultivation of this juicy fruit.
In detail, almost two thousand hectares are now dedicated to specialized culture, and the figure is up sharply compared to the last few years. Unlike the combined crop, the specialized crop concentrates all production on a specific variety of prickly pear. It has been noted, in fact, that combined cultivation is less profitable, therefore specialized cultivation is lately favored.
Currently there are 2000 hectares in Sicily dedicated to specialized cultivation. Of these, in addition to the large concentration of San Cono, we find other offices in the provinces of Agrigento and Palermo.
The numbers are staggering. Current production would allow for one estimated prickly pear harvest Sicilians that oscillates between 5,000 and 6,000 quintals, for a gain of about 40-50 cents per kilo.
However, the interest shown in the fruit of the prickly pear does not seem to go hand in hand with the efforts of the regional authorities. At the moment, in fact, the application presented for the recognition of district of the prickly pear of Sicily it is firm.
The application is awaiting examination by the Production Activities Department of the Sicily region. Research centers, trade associations, farmers and universities are currently grouped within the district and are committed to maintaining high plant yields and studying new methods to increase their efficiency.
The recognition of the prickly pear district, according to the opinion of president Carmelo D'Anzì, would lead to a general improvement in the management of the fruit and the associated DOP brand. Interviewed by Agronotizie, he declared: "Let's say that today there is still a lot of work to be done to reduce production costs and allow the promotion of the product, which today is 60% marketed in Italy and 40% in Europe, the largest buyer in Germany, with demand sustained in Cologne and Munich. For the purpose of enhancing the product, the recognitions of both the Sicilian prickly pear production district and the new body for the protection of Etna PDO appear strategic, due to the public economic resources that these subjects are able to mobilize ". (source: Agronotizie)
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ITALY PIU 'DECEMBER 2016
L a R i v i s t a d e i C o m u n i e d e l T e r r i t o r i o Editorial realization: New Business Media Srl- Via Eritrea, 21 - 20157 Milan - Quarterly - Year 9 Issue 35 - December 2016 - in free combination with today's issue of Il Sole 24. Показать больше
T he R ivist of the C omuniedel T erritorio Publishing production: New Business Media Srl - Via Eritrea, 21 - 20157 Milan - Quarterly - Year 9 Issue 35 - December 2016 - in free combination with today's issue of Il Sole 24 Ore - Shipping with tariff Posta Target Magazine - Conv. Naz./304/2008 of 1 June 2008 ISSN 2279-9443 FIRST FLOOR VERONAFIERE SPA LOVOL ARBOS GROUP SPA UNILOG GROUP SPA COPURA SOC. COOP. NOVATEX ITALIA SPA POLOMARCONI TELSA SPA CASE HISTORY EDYNEA SRL MARELLI MOTORI SPA MAGANETTI SHIPMENTS SPA COMPANY AND TERRITORY REGION OF FRIULI VENICE GIULIA Lombardy SONDRIO, A PROVINCE TO DISCOVER Sicily ISLAND WONDERFUL Friuli Venezia Giulia LIGNANO SABENTIA FINCALTIA FINCALTO FINCALTO SABENTIA SPECIAL FOOD CHALLENGE HOLIDAY IN FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA PROMOTURISMO FVG Columns DEDICATED TO - CALABRIA - MARCHE - VALLE D'AOSTA - MEMORY South Tyrol ENCHANTED WINTER Спрятать
- 1 Etymology of the term
- 2 History of the book
- 2.1 Antiquity
- 2.1.1 Tablets
- 2.1.2 Roll
- 2.1.3 Codex
- 2.1.4 Egyptians and Romans
- 2.1.5 Papyrus and parchment
- 2.1.6 It was Christian
- 2.2 Middle Ages
- 2.2.1 Manuscripts
- 2.2.2 In the Islamic world
- 2.2.3 Woodcut
- 2.2.4 Movable characters and incunabula
- 2.2.5 Image Gallery
- 2.3 Modern and contemporary age
- 2.1 Antiquity
- 3 Book formats
- 3.1 Pocket book
- 4 Parts of a book
- 4.1 Guard cards
- 4.2 Imprint
- 4.3 Blanket or cover
- 4.3.1 Flap
- 4.3.2 Front cover
- 4.3.3 Back cover
- 4.3.4 Dust jacket or dust jacket
- 4.3.5 Cutting
- 4.4 Back
- 4.5 Ex libris
- 4.6 Clamp
- 4.7 Frontispiece
- 4.8 Nerves
- 4.9 Eyelet
- 4.10 Tables
- 5 Value of the book
- 6 Notes
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Related items
- 9 Other projects
- 10 External links
The Italian word book comes from the Latin liber. The word originally also meant "bark", but since it was a material used to write lyrics (in book scribuntur litterae, Plautus), later by extension the word took on the meaning of "literary work". The Greek word βιβλίον (biblìon): see the etymology of the term library.
In English, the word "book" comes from the Old English "bōc" which in turn originates from the Germanic root "* bōk-", a word related to "beech" (Beech tree).  Similarly, in Slavic languages (eg, Russian, Bulgarian) "буква" (bukva— "letter") is related to "beech". In Russian and Serbian, another Slavic language, the words "букварь" (bukvar ') and "буквар" (bukvar) refer respectively to school textbooks that assist elementary school pupils in learning the techniques of reading and writing. It is deduced that the first writings of the Indo-European languages may have been carved on beech wood.  Similarly, the Latin word codex / code, meaning book in the modern sense (bound and with separate pages), originally meant "block of wood".
The story of the book follows a series of technological innovations that have improved the quality of preservation of the text and access to information, portability and the cost of production. It is closely linked to the economic and political contingencies in the history of ideas and religions.
Since Gutenberg's invention of movable type printing in 1455, for more than four centuries the only true mass medium has been the "printed word".  
Writing is the condition for the existence of the text and the book. Writing, a system of durable signs that allows information to be transmitted and stored, began to develop between the seventh and fourth millennium BC. in the form of mnemonic symbols which later became a system of ideograms or pictograms through simplification. The oldest known forms of writing were therefore mainly logographic. Later syllabic and alphabetic (or segmental) writing emerged.
When writing systems were invented, those materials were used that allowed the recording of information in written form: stone, clay, tree bark, metal sheets. The study of these inscriptions is known as epigraphy. Alphabetic writing emerged in Egypt about 5,000 years ago. The ancient Egyptians used to write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. The terms were initially not separate from each other (scriptura continues) and there was no punctuation. The texts were written from right to left, from left to right, and also so that the alternating lines read in opposite directions. The technical term for this type of writing, with a pattern reminiscent of the furrows traced by the plow in a field, is "boustrophedical".
A tablet can be defined as a physically robust medium suitable for transport and writing.
The clay tablets were what the name implies: flattened, easy-to-carry pieces of dry clay, with inscriptions made by means of a stylus possibly moistened to allow for written imprints. They were in fact used as a writing medium, especially for the cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and up to the middle of the Iron Age.
The wax tablets were wooden slats covered with a fairly thick layer of wax that was engraved by a stylus. They served as regular writing material in schools, in accounting, and for note-taking. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted and reform a "blank page". The custom of binding together several wax tablets (Roman pugillares) is a possible precursor of modern books (i.e. the codex, code).  The etymology of the word codex (block of wood) suggests that it could derive from the development of wax tablets. 
Papyrus, made of thick paper-like material that is obtained by weaving together the stems of the papyrus plant, then beating it with a hammer-like tool, was used in Egypt to write, perhaps as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence it comes from the books of King Neferirkara Kakai of the 5th dynasty of Egypt (about 2400 BC).  The papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll (scrollo). Tree barks were also used, such as those of Tilia, and other similar materials. 
According to Herodotus (Stories 5:58), the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th century or 9th century BC. The Greek word for papyrus as a writing material (biblion) and book (biblos) comes from the Phoenician port of Byblos, from where papyrus was exported to Greece.  The word also derives from the Greek tome (τόμος), which originally meant a slice or piece, and gradually began to mean "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen (see below also the explanation of Isidore of Seville).
Whether made of papyrus, parchment or paper, scrolls were the dominant book form of Hellenistic, Roman, Chinese and Jewish culture. The codex format settled in the Roman world in late antiquity, but the scroll persisted much longer in Asia.
In the 5th century, Isidore of Seville explained the then current relationship between codex, book and scroll in his work Etymologiae (VI.13): "A codex is made up of many books a book is made up of a scroll. It is called codex for a metaphor of a trunk (codex) of a tree or vine, as if it were a log of wood, since it contains a multitude of books, as if they were branches. "Modern usage differs from this explanation.
A codex (in modern use) is the first repository of information that people recognize as a "book": sheets of uniform size tied somehow along one edge, and typically held between two covers made of a sturdier material. The first written mention of the codex as a book form is made by Martial (see below), in his Apophoreta CLXXXIV at the end of his century, where he praises its compactness. However, the code never gained much popularity in the Hellenistic pagan world, and only within the Christian community did it gain widespread circulation.  However, this change took place very gradually over the course of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and the reasons for the adoption of the code model are manifold: the format is cheaper, as both sides of the writing material can be used, and it's portable, searchable, and easy to hide. Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from pagan texts written on scrolls.
The history of the book continues to develop with the gradual transition from the scroll to the codex, moving from the Near East of the II-II millennium BC. to the early Byzantine period, during the 4th and 5th centuries AD, when the spread of Christianity and monasticism fundamentally changed the course of book history.
Until the second century AD, all written heritages were preserved in the form of scrolls (or scrolli), some of parchment, but the majority of papyrus. At the arrival of the Middle Ages, about half a millennium later, the codices - similar in shape and construction to the modern book - replaced the scroll and were composed mainly of parchment. The scroll continued to be used for documents and the like, writings of sorts that are sorted into filing cabinets or archives, but the codex had supremacy in literature, scientific studies, technical manuals, and so on, writings of sorts that are placed in libraries. It was a change that profoundly affected everyone involved with books, from the casual reader to the professional librarian.
The first references to the codes are found on Martial, in some epigrams, such as that of Book XIII published in the year 85/86 AD:
«Omnis in hoc gracili Xeniorum turba libello / Constabit nummis quattuor empta libri. / Quattuor est nimium? to be able to consist duobus, / Et faciet lucrum bybliopola Tryphon.»
“The Xenia series collected in this nifty little book will cost you a penny if you buy it. Are four too many? You can pay them two, and Trifone the bookseller will make his profit anyway. "
Even in his couplets, Martial continues to mention the codex: a year before the aforementioned, a collection of couplets is published with the aim of accompanying donations. There is one, which bears the title "Le Metamorphoses by Ovid on Membranae" And he says:
«OVIDES METAMORPHOSIS IN MEMBRANIS. Haec tibi, multiple quae structa est massa table, / Carmina Nasonis quinque decemque gerit.»
«THE METAMORPHOSES OF OVID ON parchment. This mass made up of numerous sheets contains fifteen poetic books by Naso "
Over time, the book object underwent significant changes from a material and structural point of view. The oldest book specimens were in the form of volumen or scroll and mostly handwritten on papyrus. From the 2nd century BC a new type of writing medium appears: parchment. In the ancient world it did not enjoy much luck due to the high price compared to that of papyrus. However, it had the advantage of greater resistance and the possibility of being produced without the geographical limitations imposed by the hot climate for papyrus growth. The book in roll form consisted of sheets prepared from papyrus fibers (phylire) arranged in a horizontal layer (the layer that then received the writing) superimposed on a vertical layer (the opposite face). The sheets thus formed were glued to each other laterally, forming a long strip that could have two sticks at the ends (humble us) on which it was rolled up. The writing was carried out on columns, generally on the side of the papyrus which had horizontal fibers. There is not much evidence on parchment rolls however their shape was similar to that of papyrus books. The black inks used were based on carbon black and gum arabic. From the 2nd century AD onwards a new form of book begins to spread, the codex or codex in both papyrus and parchment. The old scroll book form disappears in the book field. In a considerably different form it remains in the archival field. In the Middle Ages some innovations made their way: new iron Gallic inks and, starting from the middle of the 13th century, paper. The very low price of this material, made from rags and therefore more abundant than parchment, favors its spread. But we have to wait until the second half of the fifteenth century to encounter the printing process traditionally attributed to an invention by the German Gutenberg. This means, allowing the acceleration of the production of copies of texts, contributes to the diffusion of the book and culture.
The word membranae, literally "skins", is the name that the Romans gave to the parchment codex the gift that the aforementioned couplets had to accompany was almost certainly a copy of the complete work of Martial, fifteen books in the form of a code and not a scroll, more common at that age. His other couplets reveal that among the gifts made by Martial there were copies of Virgil, Cicero and Livio. Martial's words give the distinct impression that such editions were something recently introduced.
The codex originated from the wooden tablets that the ancients had used for centuries to write annotations. When more space was needed than that offered by a single tablet, the scribes added others, stacked one on top of the other and tied together with a rope that passed through the holes previously drilled on one of the edges: thus a " notebook". "Notebooks" containing up to ten tablets have been found. Over time, luxury models made with ivory tablets instead of wood were also available. The Romans called these tablets with the name of codex and only much later did this term acquire the meaning we currently give it. At a certain point the Romans invented a lighter and less bulky notebook, replacing wood or ivory with parchment sheets: they placed two or more sheets together, folded them in the middle, punctured them along the fold and passed a string inside to hold them ( re) related. It was a short step from using two or three sheets as a notebook to binding a certain amount together to transcribe extended texts - in other words, creating a codex in the proper sense that we use today. 
Egyptians and Romans Edit
The Romans deserve the credit for having taken this essential step, and they must have done so a few decades before the end of the 1st century AD, since since then, as the couplets of Martial show us, editions of common authors in format became available in Rome. codex, although still a novelty. Since Rome was the center of the book trade of books in Latin, it can certainly be concluded that the production of these editions originated from this city. The great advantage they offered over rolls was their capacity, an advantage that arose from the fact that the outer face of the roll was left blank, empty. The codex, on the other hand, had written both sides of each page, like in a modern book.
«Quam brevis inmensum cepit Maronem membrane! Ipsius vultus first gerit table.»
«How small is the parchment that gathers all of Virgil! The first page bears the poet's face. "
Thus Martial marveled in one of his epigrams: the Aeneid alone would have required at least four or more scrolls.
The codices he spoke of were made of parchment in the couplets that accompanied the gift of a copy of Homer, for example, Martial describes it as being made of "leather with many folds". But copies were also made of papyrus sheets. In Egypt, where the papyrus plant grew and was the center of its manufacture for writing material, the codex of this material was naturally more common than parchment: among the thousands of fragments of Greek and Latin writing found in the Egyptian sands, about 550 are of codices and just over 70% of these are made of papyrus.  It is also assumed that the papyrus codex was also more common outside Egypt. When the Greeks and Romans had only the scroll to write books, they preferred to use papyrus rather than parchment. It is therefore logical to believe that the same preference was used for the codex when it became available.
The Egyptian findings allow us to trace the gradual replacement of the scroll by the codex. It appeared in Egypt not long after Martial's time, in the 2nd century AD, or perhaps even earlier, at the end of the 1st century. His debut was modest. To date, 1,330 fragments of Greek literary and scientific writings have been found, datable to the first and second centuries. They are all on scroll, except just under twenty, just 1.5%, on codices. In the third century the percentage increases from 1.5% to about 17% clearly the codex was having success. Around 300 A.D. the percentage goes up to 50% - a parity with the scroll that is reflected in certain representations that show a man holding a scroll next to another holding a code.  By 400 A.D. it reaches 80% and in 500 to 90%. The scroll, however, still had several centuries ahead of it, but only for documents what people read for pleasure, edification or education was practically all about codices. 
Papyrus and parchment Edit
The Egyptian finds also shed light on the codex transition from papyrus to parchment. In theory, in Egypt, a land rich in papyrus plants, the papyrus code should have reigned supreme, but it was not so: the parchment code appears in the area at the same time as that of papyrus, in the 2nd century AD. Although the eleven codices of the Bible dated in that century were papyrus, there are about 18 codices of the same century with pagan writings and four of these are in parchment.  Furthermore, some interesting information is provided by a letter of the time, found in an Egyptian village - a son writes to his father that
“Deios came to us and showed us the six parchment codices. We did not choose any, but collected eight more, for which I gave him 100 drachmas on account.  "
Deios, apparently a traveling bookseller, wanted to sell a quantity of at least fourteen parchment codes, which interested a resident of the Egyptian village. The codex much appreciated by Martial had therefore come a long way from Rome.
In the third century, when such codes became widespread, the parchment ones began to be popular. The total number of surviving codices currently amount to more than one hundred at least 16 of these are parchment, so 16%. In the fourth century the percentage rises to 35% - of about 160 codices, at least 50 are parchment - and remains at the same level in the fifth century. In short, even in Egypt, the world source of papyrus, the parchment codex occupied a significant market share.  
It was Christian Edit
The earliest codices that have survived outside Egypt date from the fourth and fifth centuries AD. and they are few - different for the Bible, some by Virgil, one by Homer and little else. They are all parchment, elegant editions, written in elaborate calligraphy on thin sheets of parchment. For such luxury editions, papyrus was certainly unsuitable. 
In at least one area, Roman jurisprudence, the parchment codex was produced in both economic and luxury editions. Famous compilation titles, the Theodosian Code promulgated in 438, and the Justinian Code promulgated in 529, indicate that the emperors had them written on codices, certainly of parchment since they were more durable and more capacious and also of excellent quality, since they were produced under the aegis of the emperor. On the other hand, based on the annotations of Libanius, a fourth-century intellectual who in his many activities was also a law teacher, we learn that his students' textbooks were parchment codes. The reasons were good: the parchment could withstand various mistreatments, the code could be consulted quickly for legal references, sentences and judgments, and so on. The parchment used must certainly have been of low quality, with skins so thick that the pupils carrying them would bend their knees. Weight was, however, another factor of importance for the activities out of class: they were used for fights between students and books were used instead of stones.   
Middle Ages Edit
The fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century AD saw the decline of the culture of ancient Rome. Papyrus became difficult to find due to the lack of contact with Ancient Egypt and parchment, which had been held in the background for centuries, became the main writing material.
The monasteries continued the Latin scriptural tradition of the Western Roman Empire. Cassiodorus, in the Monastery of Vivario (founded around 540), emphasized the importance of copying texts.  Subsequently, also Benedict of Norcia, in his Regula Monachorum (completed in the mid-sixth century) promoted reading.  The Rule of Saint Benedict (Chap. XLVIII), which reserves certain moments for reading, strongly influenced the monastic culture of the Middle Ages and is one of the reasons why clerics became the greatest readers of books. The tradition and style of the Roman Empire still predominated, but gradually medieval book culture emerged.
Irish monks introduced word spacing in the 7th century. They adopted this system because they read Latin words with difficulty. The innovation was then also adopted in neo-Latin countries (such as Italy), although it did not become common before the 12th century. The insertion of spaces between words is believed to have favored the transition from semi-vocalized to silent reading. 
Before the invention and spread of the printing press, almost all books were copied by hand, which made them expensive and relatively rare. Small monasteries usually possessed at most a few dozen books, perhaps a few hundred medium-sized ones. In the Carolingian period the largest collections gathered about 500 volumes in the Late Middle Ages the papal library of Avignon and the library of the Sorbonne in Paris possessed about 2,000 volumes. 
The process of producing a book was long and laborious. The most used writing medium in the Early Middle Ages, parchment, or vellum (calfskin), had to be prepared, then the free pages were planned and ruled with a pointed instrument (or lead), after which the text was written by the scribe, who usually left blank areas for illustrative and rubric purposes. Finally, the book was bound by the bookbinder.  The covers were made of wood and covered with leather. Since dried parchment tends to take on the shape it had before transformation, the books were fitted with clasps or straps.
In this period different types of ink were used, usually prepared with soot and rubber, and later also with gallnut and ferrous sulphate. This gave the writing a brownish black color, but black or brown weren't the only colors used. There are texts written in red or even gold, and different colors were used for the miniatures. Sometimes the parchment was all purple in color and the text was written on it in gold or silver (for example, the Codex Argenteus).  See illustration in the margin
Throughout the early Middle Ages, books were copied mainly in monasteries, one at a time. With the emergence of universities, the manuscript culture of the time led to an increase in the demand for books and a new system for their copying was developed. The books were divided into unbound sheets (pecia), which were distributed to different copyists as a result, the speed of book production increased considerably. The system was run by secular corporations of stationers, who produced both religious and profane material.  In early public libraries, books were often chained to a bookcase or desk to prevent theft. These books were called chained books. This custom lasted until the eighteenth century. See illustration in the margin
Judaism has kept the art of the scribe alive to this day. According to Jewish tradition, the Torah scroll placed in the synagogue must be handwritten on parchment and therefore a printed book is not permitted, although the congregation may use printed prayer books and copies of the Hebrew Bible can be used for study outside the synagogue. . The Hebrew scribe (sofer) is highly respected within the observant Jewish community.
In the Islamic world Edit
Arabs also produced and bound books during the medieval Islamic period, developing advanced techniques of Arabic calligraphy, miniature and bookbinding. A number of cities in the medieval Islamic world were home to centers of book production and book markets. Marrakech, in Morocco, had a street named Koutoubia, or "book sellers", which in the 12th century the famous Koutoubia Mosque overlooked in the twelfth century is so called because of its location on that street. 
The medieval Islamic world also used a method of reproducing reliable copies in large quantities known as "check reading", in contrast to the traditional method of the scribe who, alone, produced a single copy of a single manuscript. With the control method, only "authors could authorize copies, and this was done in public meetings, where the copyist read the text aloud in the presence of the author, who then certified it as accurate".  With this controlled reading system, "an author could produce a dozen or more copies of a given reading, and with two or more readings, more than a hundred copies of a single book could easily be produced." 
In woodcut, a full-page bas-relief image was carved onto wooden tablets, inked, and used to print copies of that page. This method originated in China, during the Han Dynasty (before 220 BC), for printing on textiles and later on paper, and was widely used throughout East Asia. The oldest book printed with this system is the Diamond Sutra (868 AD).
Questo metodo (chiamato "intaglio" quando lo si usa in arte) arrivò in Europa agli inizi del XIV secolo fu adoperato per produrre libri, carte da gioco e illustrazioni religiose. Creare un libro intero era però un compito lungo e difficile, che richiedeva una tavoletta intagliata a mano per ogni pagina, e le tavolette spesso si crepavano se tenute oltre un certo tempo. I monaci o altri che le scrivevano, venivano pagati profumatamente. 
Caratteri mobili e incunaboli Modifica
L'inventore cinese Bi Sheng realizzò caratteri mobili di terracotta verso il 1045, ma non esistono esempi sopravvissuti della sua stampa. Intorno al 1450, in quello che viene comunemente considerata come un'invenzione indipendente, il tedesco Johannes Gutenberg inventò i caratteri mobili in Europa, insieme allo stampo per la fusione in metallo dei caratteri per ciascuna delle lettere dell'alfabeto latino.  Questa invenzione gradualmente rese i libri meno laboriosi e meno costosi da produrre e più ampiamente disponibili. La stampa è una delle prime e più importanti forme di produzione in serie.
I primi libri stampati, i singoli fogli e le immagini che furono creati prima del 1501 in Europa, sono noti come incunaboli.
«Un uomo nato nel 1453, l'anno della caduta di Costantinopoli, poteva guardarsi indietro dal suo cinquantesimo anno di una vita in cui circa otto milioni di libri erano stati stampati, forse più di tutto quello che gli scribi d'Europa avevano prodotto dal momento che Costantino aveva fondato la sua città nel 330 d.C.  »
Galleria d'immagini Modifica
Folio 14 recto del Vergilius romanus che contiene un ritratto dell'autore Virgilio. Da notare la libreria (capsa), il leggio ed il testo scritto senza spazi in capitale rustica.