When should pears be removed from a tree?
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The flora is so big that you can easily get lost in its endless masks and images. For a better understanding of nature and himself, a person is simply obliged to understand, at least in the crops he grows.
How to tell if pears are ripe and it's time to remove them from the tree? How to preserve the fruit fresh at home for the winter? Our today's article will allow you to learn everything you need to do this.
How to know when it is time to remove pears from the tree: timing and ripeness
This is an important and dangerous step, as premature collection means wasted energy both man and nature in the form of a fruit-bearing tree.
First of all, it is worthwhile to understand that depending on the varieties and ripening time, the timing of collection also depends.
So, a day or two ago, the pears were still firm and dense, and after three or four days the brown flesh is still oozing and it's time to harvest the fruits.
The ripeness of pears is determined by several criteria.: appearance, range of taste and terms of regional and climatic ripening of the fruit. Temperature and precipitation also play an important role in maturation.
Nevertheless, let's take a closer look at this issue.
Climate influenced the fruit changes its skin color several times... This can be a transition from green to a green-yellow hue, while some species are characterized by reddish tints on the sides of the fruit.
How else to find out the ripeness of the fruit: ripe pears are easily removed from the tree, absolutely no effort is needed to separate the stalk from the tree branch.
Under mechanical action (pressure), the surface changes its density, "adjusting" to the center of gravity.
For complete confidence, it is recommended to remove one fruit and check its seeds, they will be guaranteed brown or even brown.
The most important sign of ripe pears is their sweet and specific aroma.
Harvesting period may take up to a week, depending on weather and climate conditions. However, if daily picking of ripe fruit is not possible, it is best to harvest it completely.
Even if some of them are still firm to the touch, it doesn't matter! Under the correct storage conditions, such the fruits will ripen in a couple of days.
Ripening pears at home
If you have collected a sufficient number of unripe fruits, then it is worth thinking about measures for fruit ripening... In this case, a few important tips will help you:
- First, you should definitely carry out a total "cleaning" of ripe and unripe fruits. The first ones should be placed in a cool place, preferably at a distance from each other.
- It is recommended to wrap unripe fruits in plastic bags. Then we make small holes for the necessary air intake.
- Periodically inspect each fruit for rot and percent spoilage in the fruit crop.
- It should be said that "spoiled" fruits should be immediately removed from common packages.
In short, the ripeness of all fruits is acquired over the course of a couple of days to one week... Another question, do you need such a rapidly ripening fruit?
How to properly preserve fruits in the winter in the cellar, basement, on the balcony
Every person wants to enjoy a fragrant and "sugar" pear on cold winter evenings. For this, at least the correct storage conditions are required and a clear understanding of the importance of this process. Otherwise, losses are inevitable.
So, the basic storage rules:
- There are not so many places for storing crops. The first and most logical thing cellar... It is a cool place that will satisfy your storage requirements;
- cellar or basement should be disinfected, fumigation of the room with sulfur vapor will be ideal. To do this, use brazier and sulfur powder, which is poured onto burning coals. After 2-3 days, the cellar is disinfected in full;
- the walls in no case contain mold and mildew! Balance is imperative air temperature and humidity;
- storage of pears next to other fruits is not allowed;
- storage containers must be at least 15-20 cm from the walls of the storage, as waste water or mold can be the death of your crop.
In general, the required conditions assume the absence of light, air humidity up to 85% and low temperature. If there are problems with the first point, then it is allowed to use a dark fabric that is capable of letting air through.
If you do not have the opportunity to store pears in the basement, then a couple more places are suitable for this purpose:
- Balcony - within a few months this place is perfect for arranging a storage facility. However, there is one important point - the air temperature must be above zero.
- Boxes - a convenient container for storage, which is not afraid of frequent movements to the same basement or balcony. For the long-term preservation of the fruits, they should be laid out in layers, in parallel sprinkling the rows with straw or sand.
- Refrigerator - an extreme case, a kind of cry of despair. Such a place can ensure the safety of pears for up to two months, provided that there are no spoiled specimens.
In any case, the storage of food must be approached with all possible responsibility, since this resource can bring you both positive emotions in winter and additional money.
Collection and storage features of winter pear varieties
We have already mentioned that the storage rules and collection times for different varieties are somewhat different from each other. Generally speaking, the basic rules apply to all varieties of pears, nevertheless, let's voice several features:
- since the ripening period for them is the longest, then the storage conditions should be appropriate. Low temperature, no mold and water in storage areas;
- storage is possible without special containers, then they talk about wooden racks, on which pears are laid out at a distance from each other.
How and how much to store ripe pear fruits at home
Quite a difficult question, since each case is different. Someone can "trick" with storage and get a significant reduction in the time range, and some, on the contrary, will be able to fully enjoy winter pears.
Whatever it was, pears can be stored for a fairly short period of time, which largely depends on weather and climatic conditions. With an ideal combination of circumstances, it will be possible to preserve the juiciness and usefulness of the fruit for 2-4 months.
For instance, in the refrigerator, such fruits will be able to "live" for 1-1.5 months, after which the process of "universal" damage to the valuable resource will begin.
In ideal basement conditions such pears will be able to retain all their beneficial properties no more than three months.
Answering the question about the justification of such "troubles", it is worth saying unequivocally that it is worth it. Besides sweets for your stomach, keeping pears safe in winter can help you make good money.
What to do if pears start to spoil
The worst dream of any summer resident is to see how the fruits of his labors deteriorate and irrevocably go into another world. However, do not be sad, overripe fruits can be used to make some great dishes, use the received resources with benefit.
So, here are some of the most attractive options:
- you can make excellent preparations for future pies, desserts or other baked goods. Being a sweet fruit, it will save on sugar;
- put out overripe and perishable pears. After that, they can be used as a side dish for some dishes, or sent for further processing in the form of various jams or preserves;
- use pear fruits in numerous salads, which are abundant in most of the most famous of them;
- pears are often used in various oriental dishes. So having learned how to cook at least some of them, you are guaranteed to kill two birds with one stone.
If we talk about pear culture in general, then it is worth mentioning a certain exactingness and pampering of this fruit.
Weather conditions and changing climate can lead to the observation of overripe fruits, or vice versa - the complete "immature" of most of them.
In this regard, the question arises about the correct storage of such a specific culture, because it can bring many benefits for its owner.
In addition to purely carnal satisfaction from great taste, you can also make good money in the winter. In any case, it's up to you!
How and when do you need to prune pears for proper crown formation?
Growing a pear is a simple activity consisting of irrigation, fertilization and pruning, which is performed in spring and autumn. If you adjust the crown annually by removing excess shoots, the pear tree will bear many sweet fruits and delight you with health. We invite you to familiarize yourself with the features of this important part of tree care.
When should pears be removed from a tree?
By the time of the onset of removable maturity, summer, autumn and winter pear varieties are distinguished. In summer ripening varieties, the removable ripeness of the fruit almost coincides with the consumer ripeness. The shelf life of the fruits of the varieties of this group is 10-15 days. Pears of autumn and winter varieties are well stored. Many gardeners, choosing a pear variety for their garden, refuse varieties of winter ripening, assuming that the fruits of these varieties are viscous, not juicy, not of the best taste. However, this is a misconception. It is possible to enjoy pears of excellent taste in the late autumn and winter periods by competently approaching the choice of the variety. Winter ripening pears, harvested during the period of removable maturity, reach the consumer only during storage. Winter pear varieties are tough when picked, but after a while, having reached consumer maturity, they become juicy and sweet.
Winter pears are very popular among gardeners. In autumn, when fruit trees are harvested, and there are almost no fresh fruits, beautiful, juicy fruits still hang on these trees, delighting with their excellent taste. On their site, amateur gardeners are trying to plant pear varieties with different ripening periods. But if the farm has conditions for long-term storage of fruits, then varieties of the winter ripening period become the most relevant.
Excellent taste of fruits and the possibility of their long-term storage are huge advantages of winter varieties of pears over pears of other ripening periods. These fruits can be stored in the cold for a very long time, until the next harvest.
When to pick apples and pears?
In fruits, removable and consumer maturity is distinguished. The onset of the first means it's time to start harvesting. At this moment, the growth of fruits ends, the accumulation in them of all that they can receive from the mother tree ends. A signal that the removable maturity has come - the stalks begin to easily separate from the tree, the pear will be removed even with little effort. On the eve of harvest, you can lightly shake the branch of the tree. The falling of fruits with whole stalks and without leaves is a sure sign that the harvest time has come. If you miss this time, the crop will be on the ground pretty quickly. Do not worry if at the moment of removable maturity the pears are harsh - they are able to “reach” during subsequent storage.
It is especially important to determine the onset of removable maturity for late pear varieties. If they are harvested prematurely, they are not yet ripe and later will not be able to acquire the characteristic taste and aroma. If the harvest is delayed, the yield losses from fruit shedding increase sharply. With subsequent storage, such pears easily rot, their pulp becomes mealy, and in some varieties it turns brown. By the time of ripening, late pears acquire characteristics characteristic of the varieties. The main color turns from green to yellowish, the blush becomes brighter. A waxy coating appears. The surface of the fruit, previously dull, seems glossy, shiny.
The experience of gardeners shows that winter pears are in the cellar, but their storage is different from apples. These tender juicy fruits are very capricious: as soon as something goes wrong, they immediately rot. But if you follow the rules, then they will last until spring.
Take your time cleaning.
In general, experts advise to remove pears as late as possible. At the beginning of autumn, the air temperature decreases slowly, and the fruits begin to gradually get used to the cold. And after hardening, they feel better in a cool cellar. But here it is important that they get into the storage directly from the branches - if you keep the pears warm, their keeping quality decreases sharply. Collect fruits with gloves. It may seem overkill, but pears with the slightest skin damage will not be stored.
1. In boxes. Boxes for storing pears should be shallow and trellised (they usually sell fruits and berries in the markets). The fruits in them are laid in one row diagonally. At the same time, the tails should be in the gaps between the fruits, otherwise they can scratch the neighbors. In the cellar, the boxes are stacked on top of each other. In this case, air will circulate between them, which is very useful for fruits. You can cover pears with foam crumbs, healthy and clean leaves of oak, maple, aspen, buckwheat husks, moss. It is better not to use sawdust.
2. In packages. In this case, the fruits are placed in a tight plastic bag and sealed hermetically. Any punctures in the film are not allowed! Fruits must be packed in bags right in the cellar so that the temperature inside the bag is the same as in the storage. Otherwise, moisture will collect inside the bag and the pears will rot.
Sanitary measures to remove incorrectly growing shoots and branches in the fall are carried out before the onset of subzero temperatures. Depending on the climatic conditions in a particular region, pruning time may vary. In the mild climate of the middle zone and southern regions, pears can be pruned in autumn in October and even early November. In Siberia, where frosts begin in September, the event is held immediately after the harvest and partial fall of the foliage. In the Moscow region in the fall, pear pruning is carried out at the end of August, but no later than mid-September.
Forming and sanitary pruning of a pear depends not only on the season, but also on the age and type of tree. An incorrect branch removal scheme or a mistake in timing can lead to a decrease in the yield of an adult pear tree or its death.
For beginners, tips from experienced gardeners will help you to properly prune pears:
- Sharply sharpened tools are used for the event.
- Wounds will heal faster if you cut the growth into a ring.
- Large branches must be removed in several steps, dividing the procedure by seasons.
- When pruning with pruning shears, the blade should be facing the sprout.
- Sections are treated with garden varnish or special disinfectants for trees.
Some gardeners use a gentle method to remove excess growth. To do this, use a thin steel wire to pull the branch at a given height. After a while, the metal thread will cut off some of the branch without damaging the rest of the tree.
Pruning young pears in autumn
When planting a one-year-old seedling, it is necessary in the fall to shorten the trunk at a height of 60 to 90 cm. This will accelerate the development of the root system.
If you do not limit the growth of the tree in the first year of development, then the main bearing branches are formed too high, which will complicate the collection of fruits in the future. Too low crown of a pear will interfere with caring for the tree.
Rules for pruning pears in the fall in pictures for beginners:
Pruning is carried out with a sharp pruner or knife over the kidney.
How to properly prune a two-year-old pear in the fall
A tree that has overwintered in the open field is considered biennial. The trunk (guide) has 8 - 10 lateral shoots, from which the skeletal branches of the future adult tree should be formed.
Only half of the branches are left for normal development. They should be evenly distributed around the circumference at different heights. It is necessary to leave those branches that are located in relation to the trunk at an angle of about 50 degrees. A tighter fit runs the risk of splitting in strong winds.
Excess shoots are cut into a ring, leaving no stumps. The rest are shortened by a quarter of the length to the upper outer kidney. With proper pruning, the buds are at different heights.
- All skeletal branches should be positioned as the length increases from bottom to top. The lower the branch grows, the shorter it should be in relation to the upper ones.
- The conductor should rise no more than a quarter of a meter above the upper branches.
- You need to cut out competing shoots (they grow at an acute angle to the trunk).
After pruning, nitrogenous compounds must be excluded from the dressing, otherwise the plant will increase the growth of greenery, instead of the necessary wound healing.
How to properly cut a three-year-old pear in the fall
The older the pear, the more carefully you have to monitor the correct formation of the crown. Pruning a three-year-old from previous years differs only in scale.
Scheme of pruning pears in the fall by years:
- Delete the branches competing with the explorer.
- Cut off shoots growing at a right angle and too sharp an angle to the trunk.
- Shorten all others by a quarter of the annual growth.
- Remove root shoots.
- Eliminate tops (upright growth on a branch and trunk).
Scheme for trimming tops on a pear in the fall:
How to rejuvenate an old pear in autumn
A pear 8 years of age and older needs anti-aging pruning. By this time, the crown of the plant usually thickens too much, although the growth rate of young branches decreases. Pruning the old pear in the fall is necessary to improve aeration and stimulate the development of new fruit branches. Due to the scale, the cut is carried out in several stages, evenly distributed over the seasons.
First of all, old and dried branches are eliminated. Cut branches competitive to the conductor.
Large branches inside the crown are removed up to two or three buds, leaving a replacement knot on which the next fruit branch will develop. A branch is considered a large branch, which in diameter exceeds the conductor by about half.
Last of all, they work with incorrectly regrown branches, shortening the annual growth by a quarter.
It is better to start the rejuvenating procedure of pruning an old pear in the fall according to the scheme after a lean year in the spring, and in the fall to carry out the second stage.
Features of pruning a columnar pear in the fall
The scheme for pruning a columnar pear is slightly different from working with other varieties. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the fall. Remove old and drying out shoots. Cut off "blank" branches that have not laid flower buds, but at the same time take away nutrients from the tree.
In the first year of life, the main trunk is shortened at a height of about half a meter from the soil level. The cut is made on the kidney, which is located on the opposite side of the graft. Every year, the trunk of a columnar pear is shortened, leaving no more than 20 cm above last year's processes.
Slow growth of branches is a distinctive feature of columnar varieties. Therefore, only by the fourth year does the pear have a sufficient number of branches, from which the fruiting crown is formed.
For this, no more than half of the strongest branches are left, located around the trunk at the same level, and the rest are cut into a ring to avoid the appearance of tops. The branches and trunk are shortened annually to ensure the growth of fresh fruit shoots.
How to prune a dwarf pear in the fall
Dwarf pear varieties were bred relatively recently, but, despite this, they quickly won the love of gardeners. The work of caring for small bushes is much less than growing tall species. And it is much easier to shelter a small pear from frost, which is especially important for cold regions.
Pruning a dwarf pear must be carried out in the first years of its development. After planting, the seedling is cut at a height of about half a meter. In the second and third years, it is enough to shorten the lateral branches and cut the conductor, leaving up to 20 cm of growth. Already in the third year, up to 5 - 6 strong skeletal branches should appear in the crown of a dwarf variety, on which fruit branches will develop. In the future, pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes, removing damaged branches and root shoots.
When is it better to transplant a pear
There is a need to transplant a pear to a new place, you need to know when to carry out this procedure so that the tree takes root as quickly as possible. Transplantation of the culture in question can be carried out in spring and autumn.
In the spring
During this period, young pear trees are transplanted. To know when to start work, you need to observe the condition of the trees. When the snow has melted, but the buds are not yet swollen, it's time to start transplanting, that is, in early spring.
In the spring, young pear trees are transplanted
Autumn transplanting ensures active development of the root system. Before the frosts come, the tree will have time to take root, and with the arrival of spring, new shoots will begin to develop. Moving in the fall allows you to quickly adapt to new conditions and start the development process. If this period turned out to be warm and long, the plants later go into a dormant state. Therefore, the transplant dates are in late October-early November. Before the cold weather arrives, the tree will have time to prepare.
If the region is characterized by a mild climate, then mature pear trees can be transplanted in winter, in the absence of snow and temperatures around 0 околоС. In this case, the seedling is dug out with a large earthen clod in order to exclude shedding of the soil and damage to the roots. When transplanting in cold weather (-10˚C and below), freezing of the root system is possible.
Video: when is it better to transplant seedlings
Which trees are suitable for transplanting
If you need to transplant a pear, then one important nuance should be taken into account: the older the tree, the worse it tolerates this procedure. Trees at the age of 2–3 years are best tolerated to change the place of growth. Plants with vegetative stock show good results in survival rate. Such trees are able to restore the root system, which is laid down at the level of genetics.
Vegetative stock is a clonal stock that is obtained by propagation by cuttings or cuttings.
Young pears at the age of 2-3 years are suitable for transplanting
An adult tree that is more than 15 years old should not be replanted. This is due to the fact that the plant's root system is large and during the digging process, most of it can be damaged. The remaining roots will not be able to provide the tree with the necessary nutrition. Before proceeding with the transplant, you need to examine the tree for diseases. A good pear seedling should be flexible, with tough twigs and stems, and healthy bark without any blemishes or damage. When diseased areas are found, they are immediately removed.
Despite the fact that the pear is a thermophilic crop, picking up a zoned variety and planting it on time, you can grow a healthy and strong tree. The opinions of gardeners with regard to the time of planting differ, but adhering to the information presented, it will be easier to make a choice.
Fruit harvests from tall trees are removed by climbing a folding step ladder of the required height or with the help of special fruit pickers fixed on a long handle. They can be purchased at garden stores, or you can make your own from plastic bottles. During harvesting, pears are put in baskets, perforated plastic, wooden boxes with smooth walls, at the bottom of which there is soft paper or small shavings.
Apples of the new harvest
This story is a warning to all people. It happened to me in 2007, during pregnancy. The deadline was already long, it was the eighth month, I already went on maternity leave.
In the morning I woke up early, looked out the window - there was a golden autumn outside, the end of September. And suddenly I wanted apples - delicious and healthy gifts of autumn. Since there was nothing to do, I got dressed, took an umbrella and went to the grocery store for apples.
I went out into the street, I was greeted by a light rain. The store was not far away. The window was full of various fruits and vegetables, but the gaze lingered on the apples of the new harvest (there were, as it turned out later, two types - yellow and red).
Honestly standing in line, I asked for a kilogram of apples of the new harvest. The bad black eyes of the overweight saleswoman looked at me: "What are you looking for?" I say again, more insistently: "New harvest." Again the question: "What are you?" Here I, due to the syndrome of "nervousness of pregnant women", flared up and rude to the seller, saying: "Is it really incomprehensible, I have apples of a new harvest." I just did not notice that they were of two types. As a result, when the seller admitted that they are different, she chose the red ones. When I was leaving the store, the salesman hissed after me: "So young and early, you will cry more, soon you will be very bad." I did not attach much importance to her words and almost forgot about this incident.
Time passed, the due date was approaching. I gave birth painfully, like all women, but what happened after the birth, I want to tell you about this.
The baby was born at 10 o'clock in the evening: healthy, pretty. On the first day of my happiness there was no limit, I phoned all my relatives to tell the good news. The next morning I started hysterical, I could not sleep, all the time I was afraid that the child would wake up and cry, I had little milk, and after a week it was completely over.
Upon returning home, I could not live normally - I was afraid of everything, like a hunted animal. Maybe I will say scary words, but I stopped reacting to the child: it seemed to me that I did not love him. My husband and parents also became indifferent to me, I did not want to live. I could not sleep normally, all the time there was a feeling of anxiety and depression. I could not do basic things (for example, such trifles as cooking soup, counting money). And then I realized that this is nothing more than postpartum depression. I lived in such a terrible state for two months.
So, after some time, I thought what could have caused my torment, I could not understand why I am sinful? And suddenly the face of that saleswoman from the vegetable stall surfaced, with the prophetic words: "You will be bad." I, headlong, ran to that woman to ask for forgiveness, because I no longer knew what to do (I went to church and prayed, nothing helped). After asking for forgiveness from the woman, she ran out into the street and cried. On the same day, my mother called and said that she had found an experienced specialist in the field of depression treatment. I had to seek help from this specialist, who brought me to a more or less normal state (I could not do without depressants).
Dear people (not only pregnant women)! Always think hard before you say nasty things. Sometimes, in your opinion, harmless words can turn into a tragedy. After all, people come across different, they can take offense and think something bad at you. Always be careful with your words.
2012-01-28 16:03 PM by olqa.weles Views: 4 399 Comments: 14 +19
Keywords: apples saleswoman depression