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Beauty of the North: we grow frost-resistant grapes in the garden

Beauty of the North: we grow frost-resistant grapes in the garden


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Grapes are a thermophilic culture. But residents of the northern regions of our country also have the opportunity to grow large and sweet clusters on their site. Breeders have bred frost-resistant varieties, one of which is Krasa Severa.

How the Krasa Severa grape variety was obtained: a brief history

The Beauty of the North (another name is Olga) has been cultivated by Russian winegrowers for several decades. The variety was included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements in 1994, although this grape has been on state variety testing since 1977. The variety was created specifically for the northern regions. Until now, Krasa Severa is considered one of the best in terms of frost resistance and unpretentiousness.

The hybrid variety was obtained by crossing the Zarya Severa and Taifi pink grapes by specialists from the Michurin Central Genetic Laboratory. Spouses I.M. Filippenko and I.L. Shtin gave him the name Olga in honor of his daughter, and later he received a second name - Krasa Severa.

Krasa Severa grapes are one of the best in terms of frost resistance

Main properties and signs

Krasa Severa is a table grape variety (although some craftsmen make good homemade wine from it) and belongs to the early varieties of the culture (the growing season is only 110 days). Loose and rather large clusters have a conical shape. The average weight of one grape cluster is 250 g.

The weight of a bunch of grapes of the Krasa Severa variety is on average 250 g

The berries are large, oval or round. The pulp is juicy, the taste is pleasant, slightly tart, with a slight sourness. The skin of the fruit is colored in a greenish-yellow tone, but when fully ripe, the berries turn white with a slightly pink tan.

Ripening of grapes occurs at the end of August. The variety is frost-resistant and can withstand winter temperatures down to -26 ° C, and with good shelter it does not freeze even at -30 ° C.

Table: advantages and disadvantages of the variety

Features of planting a grape seedling

Although Krasa Severa is suitable for growing in areas with unfavorable climatic conditions for this southern culture, in order to grow an excellent grape harvest, it is necessary to choose the right place for planting it and plant the vine according to all the rules.

The grapes will be large if you choose the right place for planting.

Choosing the best place

The site for planting the Beauty of the North should be sunny and sheltered from the winds. Also, when choosing a place, you must consider the following:

  • grapes do not tolerate even temporary shading. Under such conditions, the ripening period of berries increases, the quality of the bunches deteriorates, the plant's immunity decreases, as a result of which the risk of fungal diseases increases;
  • you can not plant a crop in a lowland, since the air here is colder, which causes damage to the vine;
  • it is not recommended to plant grapes on the northern slopes, as well as near roads, since compacted soil is more susceptible to freezing;
  • the rows of grapes should be arranged from north to south. So they are fully illuminated on one side in the morning, and on the other in the afternoon.

In order for the grapes to bear fruit stably, it is necessary to plant them in a sunny place.

Preparing a pit for planting

The vine must be protected from freezing. To do this, experienced winegrowers advise planting the culture in trenches 30–40 cm deep.

Grapes are advised to be planted in trenches or boxes with a depth of 30-40 cm

Instructions:

  1. First, they dig a trench, and in it there are holes 80x80 cm in size.

    In the trench, planting pits are prepared with a size of 80x80 cm every 1.5-2 m

  2. Planks or pieces of slate are installed on the sides.
  3. A gravel drainage is laid at the bottom, on which a layer of branches and chips is placed.
  4. Mix humus (2-3 buckets), phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (300 g), 1/2 bucket of wood ash. Pour the mixture onto the drain and trample down.

    Drainage is poured at the bottom, a nutrient substrate from humus, ash and fertilizers

  5. A layer of earth is poured over the fertilizer.

Planting grape seedlings

Grape planting dates - June 1-10. During this period, the threat of return frosts will pass, and the seedlings will take root well.

  1. The roots are freed from the packaging and straightened.
  2. The earth is shaken off and the seedling is placed in the planting pit.
  3. The voids are covered with earth so that 30–40 cm remain to the edges of the trench, and the cutting is completely covered with soil. In this case, he will give additional roots that will provide the nutrition necessary for the bush. The soil is lightly tamped.
  4. After planting, the seedling should be watered abundantly (approximately 15–20 liters of water per plant). As they grow, the young vine is tied up and the stepchildren are pruned over the first or second leaf.

The seedling is installed in a hole and the voids are filled with soil so that 30-40 cm remain to the edges of the trench

So that you can easily care for the vine, you must immediately install the trellis. To do this, pillars are dug in on the sides of the trench and 3-4 rows of wire are pulled, to which the vine is subsequently tied.

The nuances of caring for the Krasa Severa grape variety

In the first three years after planting, the gardener needs to pay special attention to the formation of the vine and the protection of the grapes from frost.

Pruning

Usually the vine is recommended to be shaped like a fan. To form the so-called sleeves, allowing the grapes to build up the supply of perennial wood, proceed as follows:

  1. In the first year, the 2 strongest shoots are left and all stepchildren are cut off.
  2. In autumn, the top of these shoots is cut off by 30-40 cm.
  3. Next year, 4 shoots are left, cutting off the stepsons from them.
  4. Sleeves are tied to the trellis wire at an angle of no more than 45about.
  5. Minting is carried out in August. As a rule, more than half of the grape shoot does not ripen, so this part must be shortened. It is cut over the top wire of the trellis, about 18–22 leaves. This procedure will be enough to form a good harvest and get large bunches.
  6. In October, the final pruning is carried out: all leaves remaining on the vine are removed and unripe shoots are removed.

Fan-shaped single-plane shaping of the vine is the best way to grow the Beauty of the North

The advantages of fanning are obvious. The grape bushes are illuminated from both sides, the vines are conveniently laid in trenches for the winter. Fruit branches give an excellent harvest of well-ripened berries, and the bush can bear fruit for 10-15 years. After this period, you can simply form new sleeves, and the grapes will continue to present their owners with an excellent harvest.

Top dressing and watering

Grapes need abundant watering in the first half of summer, while it is necessary to moisten all the soil in the plantings. The procedure is carried out in the morning or in the evening after sunset, trying to prevent drops from falling on the leaves (this can cause burns).

Drip irrigation is well suited for irrigating grapes - water is guaranteed not to fall on the leaves

Top dressing of grapes requires both root and foliar. Dates and fertilizers for root dressings:

  1. In early spring (after removing the shelter). In the grooves dug under the bush, 50 g of nitrogen, 40 g of phosphorus, 30 g of potash fertilizers are introduced (sprinkle everything with earth).
  2. 1.5 weeks before flowering. A solution of chicken manure (diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 2) is diluted with water 5 times, adding 20 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium salt (per 10 l of the mixture). You need 1-2 buckets per bush. Immediately after this procedure, the grapes must be watered abundantly.
  3. The period when the berries have reached the size of a pea. Top dressing, similar to the second, but in a much lower concentration.
  4. The ripening period of berries is 50 g of potash and phosphorus fertilizers for a bush.

Foliar dressing takes place:

  • in spring, before flowering;
  • after the formation of the ovary;
  • at the beginning of berry ripening;
  • 10-15 days after the previous one.

For foliar dressing, complex fertilizers with the addition of microelements are used. It is better to purchase ready-made mixtures (Aquarin, Novofert, Kemira) and follow the instructions.

The Krasa Severa variety is prone to mildew (powdery mildew) and mildew (downy mildew), therefore it is recommended to systematically carry out preventive spraying with Topaz, Tiovit Jet or Ordan preparations. A solution is made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and the grape bushes are processed in a timely manner.

A variety of formulations are available in Grape Nutritional Blend

Preparing for winter

The harvest of the Beauty of the North must be harvested by mid-September, then remove all shoots from the trellis and carry out preliminary pruning, removing all weak and small branches. Final pruning is carried out in early or mid-October. All leaves are removed and the soil is thoroughly cleaned of all plant debris. The cut vines are tied together in bunches. Then they and the soil are sprayed with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate and immediately, while the shoots are still wet, sprinkle with wood ash (vitriol and ash destroy fungal spores).

In the trench and next to the plant, bait with poison is laid out for mice, which are very attracted to vines in winter.

The tied bundles are carefully laid in a trench and covered with spruce branches, boards, pieces of cardboard, pieces of linoleum. In such a warm box, the vines of the Beauty of the North will perfectly endure frosts.

The vine is laid in a trench and covered with spruce branches, boards, covering material

Video: features of growing grapes in Siberia

Gardeners reviews

Krasa Severa is considered one of the best varieties for growing in areas with adverse weather conditions. The grapes are distinguished by excellent frost resistance - the vine does not freeze at low temperatures, and with good shelter it will also endure strong Siberian frosts. The berries of this variety have a juicy pulp and a pleasant taste.

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Landing

According to the description, the Krasa Balok grape variety is picky about climatic conditions; it is planted only in regions where winters are mild. Since this plant is at the testing stage, it is not yet possible to determine all the advantages and disadvantages.

Determine the location of the seedling planting, since this species grows actively, and food should be regular and abundant.

The site must be well lit as in the shade, the plant will be uncomfortable, and also protected from drafts. It is contraindicated to plant in swampy and dry soils, sandy ones are well suited. So that the root system does not start to rot from a large amount of moisture after precipitation, the cutting is planted on a hill.The occurrence of groundwater should be no closer than 3 meters in the soil.

The land is prepared before planting - all weeds and previous plants are removed. The seedling is soaked in water for several hours before planting so that it absorbs enough water. This variety requires systematic abundant watering. Young bushes are planted in early spring.

Beauty, like other grape varieties, is a sun-loving plant, needs a lot of light and warmth. Any soil composition is suitable for growing, but it is imperative that good drainage be arranged on the site for planting. Average acidity of the soil is allowed.

Ideally, for planting grapes, there will be sandy or black earth soils, rocky and crushed stone soils are suitable. It is under such conditions that the berries are of the best quality. Places with excessively saline and wetlands should be excluded. The groundwater level should be no higher than one and a half meters from the earth's surface.

The soil must be prepared before planting. It is dug up, acidic soils are limed. The site must be fertilized with manure, humus, if necessary, add vitamin complexes.

In the planting hole, in order to improve the quality of the soil, they introduce crushed stone mixed with the soil. If the soil is clayey, it is recommended to add superphosphates.

Top dressing is important. When fertilizing compositions are laid at the planting stage, then the vine should not be fed until three years of growth.

When the bushes begin to build up greenery, nitrogen-containing compounds can be added. Phosphorus and potassium are required for flowering and ripening berries.

Manure is introduced annually as an organic composition, foliar dressing is carried out with a liquid mineral preparation.

Already in the fourth year of growth, the bush has four fruit vines. To build up strength, it is necessary to have up to three fruit shoots on each of them. The vines are cut into 4 - 6 or 6 - 8 eyes.

The soil around the vines is mulched. For the winter period, the bushes are recommended to be sheltered from frost.

Watering begins after the buds have awakened on the vines, and frosts have ceased to return at night. Moisture is added until the plant is covered for the winter season.

The creation of protection for the plant for the winter is a prerequisite, because it has not been finally established what frosts "Pretty Woman" endures without problems.

The harvested grape variety beauty

  • unpretentious care
  • beautiful appearance of the fruit
  • disease and pest resistance


Description and characteristics of the grape variety "Timur"

Selection "Delight" and "frumoasa alba"
Ripening period Early
Bunch mass 400-700 g.
Berry mass 6-8 g.
Yield 15-20 kg. from the bush
Taste Nutmeg
Bush Undersized
Frost resistance Up to -25 ° C.
Disease resistance Average

The Timur grape variety has become very popular among gardeners. Its tenacious character is not afraid of most diseases that are prone to vineyards. It also perfectly tolerates cold winters and bears fruit abundantly even in the northern regions of Russia. Also noteworthy are such varieties as "radiant kishmish", "monarch" and "victoria".

Advantages and disadvantages

  • Early ripening of fruits.
  • Berries with a delicate nutmeg flavor and thin skin.
  • High resistance to disease.
  • Frost resistance.
  • Stable and abundant yield.

  • Bushes are undersized, require rootstock for more vigorous varieties.
  • When grown in wet and heavy soils, the berries can lose their flavor and become herbaceous.
  • The sweet flesh and thin skin attracts a large number of wasps.

Description

The grape variety "Timur" was bred by Russian breeders at the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking. ME AND. Potapenko.

At the end of the 20th century, breeders crossed the "rapture" and "frumoasa alba" grape varieties. The result is a light-colored table grape called "timur".

Parents of "Timur" - "Delight" and "Frumoasa Albe"

From the parent varieties "Timur" has inherited a high resistance to diseases and the ability to produce crops in a very short time.

Main characteristics

Ripening period

Timur berries ripen in a short time from the beginning of the growing season - 105-115 days. This grape belongs to the very early varieties.

Bush

The bushes of this variety are compact, undersized. Forms up to 80% percent of fruiting shoots. Each of which is capable of producing up to 3 large bunches of berries. Stepson's harvest is practically not inferior to the main one and even surpasses in pollination.

Large three-lobed leaves look very decorative. And due to the rapid growth of shoots, it can be grown to decorate the site with hedges.

Bunches and methe years

Bunches of medium size are conical in shape. They weigh an average of 400-700 grams. The density is moderate.

An adult vine produces larger clusters in comparison to young vines. If growing conditions are unfavorable, grape peas can be encountered.

Quite large berries of an elongated shape with a pointed end, amber green. The average weight of one fruit is from 6 to 8 grams.

The flesh is firm and crispy. The high sugar content in the pulp - 17-22%, makes them very sweet in taste. Also, the fruits have a bright nutmeg aroma. The berries are suitable for drying, although they have from 1 to 3 small seeds.

Growing features

When planting and growing "timur", you need to take into account some of the features and preferences of this variety:

  • The cuttings take root well, therefore, these grapes are often grafted into more vigorous varieties.
  • It should be planted in an open, sunny place, avoiding places near buildings and trees, so that they do not create shade for the vines.
  • The sweetest berries grow on light sandy soils.
  • Watering the bushes should be moderate, and with the beginning of flowering, increase the amount of watering.
  • From time to time, carry out root dressing.

This variety begins to bear fruit 3 years after planting the cuttings.

Landing

Seedlings of "timur" are planted in autumn or spring. When planting in autumn, it is necessary to be in time before the first frost, as a rule, this is the period from September to October. Spring planting is carried out after warm weather is established - in May-June.

They are grafted onto vigorous rootstocks in the spring.

Pruning

Timur produces many stepchildren, which bear fruit just as well as the main vine. Therefore, to increase the number of bunches, it is necessary to prune the bushes annually.

For this variety, both short and long pruning are suitable. It is recommended to leave up to 20 eyes on a rooted bush.

Short pruning is most commonly practiced. With her, 2 to 4 eyes are left on the shoots. Pruning this way will not only help shape the bush, but it will also increase yields and make the bunches larger.

In the summer, you need to regulate the density of the bush and remove excess shoots, prune branches. In order not to burden the vine with fruits, from 1 to 2 bunches are left on each shoot. The rest of the ovaries are cut off.

Diseases and pests

"Timur" has a high resistance to powdery mildew and mildew. If preventive treatment is carried out occasionally, then these fungal diseases are not terrible for your vineyard.

However, this variety has no immunity to the grape mite. Therefore, the disease is rather difficult to treat.

Also, sweet grapes attract a large number of wasps and birds, which can cause significant damage to the crop.

To combat the wasps, containers with sugar syrup mixed with insecticides are placed near the grape bushes.

To protect against birds on the bunches of grapes, they wear a net or nylon tights. They also completely cover the vineyard with a net so that the birds cannot enter it.

Shelter for the winter

The Timur hybrid grape variety is frost-resistant and can withstand temperatures as low as -25 ° C.

Despite its good resistance to frost, it is recommended to cover it for the winter, because most regions of Russia have rather severe winters. This will help protect the vine from freezing.

Winegrowers of the southern regions can quite successfully grow this variety without a winter shelter.

Harvest storage

The variety tolerates transportation well over short distances. Ripe berries can be stored on the bush for up to 2 weeks, while the berry picks up sugar and becomes sweeter. The collected bunches, if stored in the refrigerator, retain their freshness for up to 12 days.

Regions

Due to the rapid survival of cuttings and the very early ripening of fruits, "timur" is grown in almost all regions of Russia: from the south to the northern climatic zones. It is important to plant grapes in suitable soil and cover them for the winter in regions with harsh winters.

Comparison with "pink timur"

This variety was obtained by crossing the white "timur" and red "delight" varieties.

It has similar properties to its counterpart, but is less popular among gardeners due to the longer ripening period of the fruit.

Difference from the main variety "timura":

  • Longer ripening period - 110-130 days.
  • The structure of the bunch is loose, it weighs about 800 grams, the berries are very large.
  • More calories (about 70 calories).
  • The berries are sweeter than the white "timur".
  • The vine is cut by an average of 7 eyes.

Photo

Read on for photos and reviews of the Timur variety.

Testimonials

Sergey Andreevich, Zaporozhye

"Timur" attracts not only with beautiful, large bunches, but also with its unpretentiousness and ease of care. This variety can be grown on their site by both experienced growers and beginners who only know the basics of growing grapes. Observe the cultivation conditions and at the end of summer the vine will thank you with a rich harvest of sweet berries with a nutmeg aroma.

Useful video

In this video, the author will introduce us to the Timur variety, and also show the yield of grapes with proper care.


Watch the video: Growing grapes outdoors in cold climates.


Comments:

  1. Nagami

    How does this sound fun?

  2. Ives

    Very quick answer :)

  3. Aashish

    This is great. This is our Brazilian. Well done



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