Cardiocrinum images

Cardiocrinum images

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Cardiocrinum images



(Click on # next to the term to open the first available image, search for any other images with MORE or NEXT from the open page.

N.B. The index refers only to the collection of photographs of examples of theuse of bulbous plants in gardens. For the most complete list visit the singles catalogs . )

(Click on # next to the word of choice to open the first page containing an image and then hit MORE or NEXT for any further photos on the subject.

N.B. This subject index refers only to some examples of the use of ornamental geophytes in gardens. For a more complete list, please visit the catalogs . )

- bicolor'Murielae' (Gladiolus callianthus 'Murielae') #

- christophii # ##

- sphaerocephalon #

Alstroemeria #

- caryophillaea #

-hybrid ligtu #

- Brazilian species #

- pretty Woman # ##

- blandBLUE SHADES # ##

- cordifolia #

- limbata #

Cardiocrinum #

- giganteum #

- forbesiiBLUE GIANT #

- byzantinum 'Album' #

- various #

Colocasia #

- esculenta 'Illustris' #

- atrosanguineum #

- chrysanthus(in variety) #

- chrysanthusBLUE PEARL #

- vernusNEGRO BOY #

- coum #

- hederifolium 'Album' #

- imperialis # ##

- spectabilis # ##

- imperialis'Lutea Maxima' #

- imperialis'Rubra Maxima' # ##

- callianthus'Murielae' #

Herbertia #

- platensis #

- papilio #

- uniflorum WHITE STAR #

- uniflorum ROLF FIEDLER #

- uniflorum FROYLE MILL #

- narcissiflora #

- x hollandica ORIENTAL BEAUTY #

- reticulate cv. #

- autumnal SEPTEMBER SNOW #

- martagon'Album' #

-various cultivated #















- poeticus recurvus # ##



- viridiflorus x jonquilla #

- caerulea #

- saundersiae #

- multiflorus #

Sisyrinchium #

- lutea #

- integrifolia #

- cyanocrocus #

- clusiana LADY JANE #

- Turkestan #









- JUAN #




- aethopica GREEN GODDESS #


Charimkotan is located in the northern part of the Kuril Islands, south of Onekotan, from which it is separated by the Krenicyn Strait (пролив Креницына, proliv Krenicyna), 15 km wide. To the southwest, 29 km away, is the island of Šiaškotan, separated by the Severgin strait. Charimkotan has an oval shape, with a length of 12 km and a width of 8 km [1]. Its surface is 68 km². On the island there are streams, and freshwater lakes (east and north-west).

The island is made up of a dormant stratovolcano, the Severgin (вулкан Севергина, vulcan Severgina), whose height is 1,145 m a.s.l. [1], 1,157 m according to other sources [2] [3]. The mount is characterized by two horseshoe-shaped volcanic craters due to collapses, evidence of which can be seen on the peninsulas to the east and northwest, which were formed by the debris [1]. There are records of eruptions in 1713, 1846, 1848 (?), 1883, 1931 [2] the last eruption dates back to 1933 when the collapse of the Severgin cone brought an avalanche of debris into the sea which caused a tsunami, which reached Paramušir and Onekotan causing the death of two people [1]. The path of the debris is visible in the satellite images.

The volcano took the name of the Russian mineralogist Vasilij Mihajlovič Severgin (Василий Михайлович Севергин, 1765-1826) [4].

On the island there are foxes and small rodents and on the coast ringed seals and Steller's sea lions. The vegetation is characterized by patches of Pinus pumila [5] [6] , Empetrum [7] and arctic raspberry. The coasts are rich in Laminaria [8], a species of brown algae.

Charimkotan was inhabited by the Ainu people at the time of contact with the Europeans, the inhabitants supported themselves with fishing and hunting and cultivating the edible bulbs of the Cardiocrinum. The remains of the village of Severgino are visible to the north of the island [3].

The island appears on an official map of the territories of the Matsumae clan, a feudal domain of the Edo period in Japan (1644) [9], domains officially confirmed by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1715. Subsequently, sovereignty passed to the Russian Empire, based on the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855 [9] [10].

In 1875, sovereignty was transferred to the Japanese Empire with the Treaty of St. Petersburg [11] along with the rest of the Kuril Islands [9] [10]. Administratively the island was part of the sub-prefecture of Nemuro, in the prefecture of Hokkaidō.

After the Second World War, the island came under the control of the Soviet Union [10] and is currently part of the Russian Federation.


  • 1 Use
  • 2 Some species and varieties
    • 2.1 Subdivision according to the shape of the flower
  • 3 Medicinal properties
  • 4 Cultivation methods
  • 5 Adversity
  • 6 Heraldry
  • 7 Literature
  • 8 Related items
  • 9 Other projects
  • 10 External links

THE Lilium, commonly known as Lily, are cultivated mostly as ornamental plants, in the gardens for the elegance and the scent of the flowers carried by erect stems, in pots for the terraces, and industrially for the production of the cut flower.

The best known varieties are:

  • The Lilium candidum (also known as White Lily, white lily, lily of the Madonna, lily of St. Louis for heraldic use, or again lily of St. Anthony, with intensely perfumed white corollas) and the L. monadelphum from the Middle East
  • The L. martagon and the L. croceum (or Lilium bulbiferum, known as red lily or lily of St. John), of European origin
  • The L. tigrinum and the L. concolor from China
  • The L. auratum and the L. longiflorum from Japan and the Pacific Islands
  • The L. Nepalese, the L. regal and the L. speciosum from tropical Asian areas
  • The L. pardalinum and the L. canadense from North America.

Some species once included in the genus Lilium were later placed in distinct genera: among these the Notholirion, the Nomocharis and the Cardiocrinum, which is the only one used as an ornamental plant, differing from Lilium for the broad cordate leaves.

Subdivision by flower shape Edit

The variety and diversity of the shape of the flowers Lilium it is so vast that flower growers need to divide the various species into homogeneous sections (which we report below), based on the shape and bearing of the flowers:

  1. Martagon: pendulous flowers, petals very curved backwards belong to the species:
    • The L. martagon, spontaneous on our mountains, it bears stems over 1 m, with numerous pink flowers dotted with dark in some cultivars they are white in color, it grows on light, acid soils, rich in humus and reproduces by seed or with the scales of the bulbs.
    • The L. davidii (or L. willmottiae or L. sutchuenense) bears 20-25 small and elegant flowers, red-orange in color with small brownish points carried by stems about 1 m high, the subjects reproduced by sowing bloom already in the second year.
    • The L. pardalinum, originally from California (little cultivated in Italy), grows well in humid and peaty soils, with roots that fish in the water, can reach 2 m in height, produces dense inflorescences with yellow, red and orange flowers dotted with specks brownish.
    • The L. tigrinum, also known as L. lancifolium, in the varieties flaviflorum, splendens is fortunei with orange flowers dotted with black-brownish spots, it does not produce seeds but multiplies thanks to the bulbils that form on the stem at the axil of the leaves.
    • The L. hansonii, originally from Korea and Japan, with deep yellow flowers.
    • The L. tenuifolium, originally from Siberia, small in size with red colored flowers.
    • The species L. pyrenaicum, L. pomponium, L. chalcedonicum is L. carniolicum are very similar to the L. martagon.
    • The L. leichtlinii, native to the Asian regions, especially from Japan.
  2. Isolirion or Pseudolirion: upright funnel-shaped flowers include the species:
    • L. bulbiferum or L. croceum, spontaneous on our mountains, with dense erect inflorescences of yellow-orange color dotted with brown, on stems about 1 m high it easily multiplies with the cloves produced on the stem.
    • The L. davuricum, similar to the previous species, of Siberian origin, which crossed with the L. croceum gave rise to the L. umbellatum: much appreciated by flower growers, with many cultivated varieties, it easily multiplies with scales or bulbs obtained from the stratification of the stems in sandy soil.
  3. Eulirion or Leucolirion: trumpet-shaped horizontal flowers, the most interesting species are included in this group:
    • The L. longiflorum, with candid white flowers with a typical horizontal trumpet shape, native to the Ryūkyū islands, and from which different cultivars have been selected: among these we remember the Takesima and the Haraisii, industrially cultivated on large surfaces in the Bermuda Islands for the production of bulbs to be forced. It is rarely reproduced by seed, with flowering from the second year, even if the subjects obtained with the sowing are more rustic than the subjects obtained by forcing under glass and free from virosis. The L. longiflorum it lends itself well to forced flowering, to obtain flowers all year round, while in open ground cultivation it is not very rustic, fearing cold and humidity, with frequent rotting of the bulbs in winter, and short stems if spring occurs dry and warm.
    • The L. regal, native to China, rustic and decorative, with slender, erect, robust stems, over 1.5 m high, covered with narrow and elegant leaves, white flowers in the shape of an open trumpet, with consistent tepals tinged with yellow-sulfur in the throat and brownish-red on the outside are very fragrant, with summer flowering. It multiplies easily with copiously produced seeds, with flowering from the second year. It also lends itself to forcing, placing the bulbs in a greenhouse in January, after a period of forced rest.
    • Similar to L. regal I'm the L. sargentiae and the L. sulphureum, which are distinguished by the production of bulbils on the stem at the axil of the leaves.
    • The L. philippinense var. formosanum, native to the mountainous areas of the Luzón and Formosa islands, it is a very rustic and frost-resistant variety, does not like calcareous soils, and is subject to viral diseases. The flowers have reddish tepals on the outside. It multiplies by seed, with flowering after about 8-9 months from sowing the 3-4 year old plants easily reach 2 m in height, managing to bring about fifty flowers at the end of August. It does not lend itself to forcing.
    • The L. candidum, widely used in gardens as an ornamental plant, it easily adapts to any type of soil, as it does not produce seeds, it multiplies by burying the flakes during the summer rest period, with vegetative recovery in the first autumn rains.
    • The L. brownii, originally from China and the L. rebellum, native to Japan, with pink colored flowers, they are species of difficult habitat in our climates.
  4. Archelirion: large flowers, very open, petals only partially curved backwards includes well-known species such as:
    • The L. aurantum, native to the mountains of Japan, not very resistant to virus diseases, fears humid climates in winter and hot in summer, preferring volcanic and porous soils that are not easy to cultivate in Italy, has stalks up to 1.5 m high which carry a dozen of fragrant flowers, with a very open and curled shape, yellowish-white in color with papillose punctuation underneath of a brown-purple color. For cultivation it requires permeable and porous soil in depth and soil of leaves on the surface, with a position in the middle of the sun, cool in the summer. It multiplies by seed, which remains dormant for about 1 year in the soil, to obtain subjects immune to virosis, or by means of scales.
    • The L. speciosum, with countless varieties, among which we mention the rubrum, the roseum, the album and the melpomene it has stems over 1 m tall, bearing oval-lanceolate leaves and 3-10 pink-white flowers tinged with bright-red, with papillose dots colored in purple, the tepals are partially retroflexed, generally curled. It is grown in greenhouses or in open air, on soft and well-drained soil, dry in winter and cool in summer, in a semi-shaded position. It multiplies by means of the scales.
    • The L. henryi, native to China, where in the natural environment it reaches 1.5 m in height in cultivated forms, it has stems up to 2 m high, which carry many citrine-yellow flowers on long peduncles, greenish in the center, with papillose dots of color Brown. They multiply by means of the bulbs that form every year at the base of the stem.

Some species of lily such as L. candidum are also cultivated for medicinal properties, the parts used are:

  • The bulb, collected at the end of summer, the decoction has diuretic, emmenagogic and expectorant properties for external use used for emollient and resolving poultices on burns and paterecci the infusion is used for compresses, douching and gargle
  • The petals of the flowers collected in late spring, are astringent cleansing, and curative of eczema for external use are used to treat sores, burns, such as compresses and irrigations
  • The intense scent has relaxing properties. Useful at home and in the workplace, to spread its precious oily essence that remains firmly in any environment. Be careful not to exceed the following doses: a stem with about 5 open flowers every 10 m 2. Two or more stems can be placed where the presence of other odors requires it. It is a natural covering perfume, especially in environments with pets or common spaces with a dense human presence. A common mistake is to keep a large vase of three or more stems in one room. The scent becomes too intense and the beneficial properties are wasted. Japanese culture has developed the "ikebana" art precisely to dose these types of flowers: never bunches of a single essence but combinations of flowers with complementary properties. A bunch of Lilium must thus be distributed in several rooms or along a large room to give the best of its anti-stress healing properties.

Usually the cultivation of lilies does not present great difficulties, they want exposure to partial shade, a controlled dosage of watering. The Lilium with stage of adventitious roots on the stem, want well-drained soils, fresh in the summer, permeable in depth and enriched on the surface with well decomposed organic substances, only European species such as L. candidum or exotic ones such as the L. henryi and a few others adapt to calcareous soils.

The multiplication generally takes place by division of the bulbs, sowing or with the bulbils that appear on the stem in some species.

The seeds of Lilium they do not always germinate easily and spontaneously, in some species such as the L. regal, the L. davidii, the L. longiflorum, the L. concolor, the L. tenuifolium, and others still, germination is rapid and after a month the seedlings come out.

In other species such as the L. auratum, the L. canadense, the L. japonicum, the L. superbum, and others, there is first a hypogeal germination of the seeds, and for 1 year the cotyledons do not come out of the ground, in the meantime a bulb is produced from which the first leaves will originate in the second year from sowing.

Some species like the L. henryi it has a variable germinative behavior, behaving like the first group or the second.

The sowing period for best results is autumn, while in spring late flowering species such as the L. philippinense var. formosanum which is sown from mid-February to March, protecting the ground from late frost with mats.

The bulbs obtained from the seed are transplanted from the second year of sowing to the beginning of the vegetative restart at the end of winter.

The bulbs that form in the underground section of the stem do not immediately give flowering bulbs, they can be used to multiply the species L. henryi, L. speciosum, L. longiflorum is L. umbellatum for which the multiplication by separation of the scales of the bulb is preferred, or with the stratification of the stems.

The separated scales are stratified in sand in sufficiently humid environments and at temperatures around 18-25 ° C, from each scale 1 to 4 bulbs are obtained depending on the species. This method is used with the L. croceum and similar species.

Stem layering can be used with section species Isolirion and to L. candidum, by tearing the stems from the bulb at the moment of flowering, and placing them inclined in a hole that will be covered up to half, or by depriving them of the leaves under a bench in a greenhouse after about a month, numerous bulbs will form.

The species L. tigrinum, L. croceum var. bulbiferum, L. sulphureum is L. sargentiae they produce aerial bulbils that form at the axil of the leaves, sown like peas, give excellent flower bulbs in 2-3 years

Ecology [edit]

The Liliaceae are ecologically diverse. [6] Species of Liliaceae bloom at various times from spring to late summer. The colorful flowers produce large amounts of nectar and pollen that attract insects which pollinate them (entomophily), particularly bees and wasps (hymenopterophily), butterflies (psychophily) and moths (phalaenophily). [20] The seeds are dispersed by wind and water. Some species (e.g. Scoliopus, Erythronium and Gagea) have seeds with an aril structure that are dispersed by ants (myrmecochory). [6]

The proliferation of deer populations in many areas, due to human factors such as the elimination of their animal predators and introduction to alien environments, is placing considerable herbivory pressure on many of the family's species. [4] Fences as high as 8 feet may be required to prevent them from consuming the plants, an impractical solution for most wild areas. [5] Those of the genus Lilium are particularly palatable, while species in Fritillaria are repellant.

Pests and predators [edit]

Liliaceae are subject to a wide variety of diseases and pests, including insects, such as thrips, aphids, beetles and flies. Also fungi, viruses and vertebrate animals such as mice and deer. [48] ​​[49] An important horticultural and garden pest is the scarlet lily beetle (Japanese red lily beetle, Lilioceris lilii) and other Lilioceris species which attack Fritillaria and Lilium. [50] Lilium species may be food plants for the Cosmia trapezina moth. A major pest of Tulips is the fungus, Botrytis tulipae.

Both Lilium and Tulipa are susceptible to a group of five viruses of the family Potyviridae, specifically the potyvirus (named for potato virus Y) group, which includes the tulip-breaking virus (TBV) and the lily streak virus (lily mottle virus, LMoV) resulting in 'breaking' of the color of the flowers. The viruses are transmitted by aphids. This breaking effect was of economic importance during the tulip mania of the seventeenth century, because it appeared to be producing new varieties. [51] [52] In modern times tulip breeders have produced varieties that mimic the effect of the virus, without being infected. One of these varieties is known as 'Rembrandt', after the Dutch artist of that name. Contemporary tulip owners commonly had Rembrandt and other artists paint their flowers to preserve them for posterity, hence the 'broken' tulips were known as Rembrandt tulips at that time. Another modern variety is 'Princess Irene'. [53] [54] [55] One of the tulip breaking viruses is also named the Rembrandt tulip-breaking virus (ReTBV). [56] [57]

Additional reading [edit]

Books [edit]

Systematics [edit]

  • Judd, Walter S. Campbell, Christopher S. Kellogg, Elizabeth A. Stevens, Peter F. Donoghue, Michael J. (2007). Plant systematics: a phylogenetic approach. (1st ed. 1999, 2nd 2002) (3rd ed.). Sinauer Associates. ISBN978-0-87893-407-2. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  • Simpson, Michael G. (2011). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN978-0-08-051404-8. Archived from the original on 27 April 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  • Rodolphe Spichiger Mathieu Perret, eds. (2004) [2002]. Botanique systématique des plantes à fleurs: une approche phylogénétique nouvelle des angiospermes des régions tempérées et tropicales (Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants). Lausanne: Science Publishers. ISBN978-1-57808-373-2. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
  • Stevens, Peter Francis (2013). The Development of Biological Systematics: Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, Nature, and the Natural System. Columbia University Press, 2013. ISBN978-0-231-51508-5. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  • Stuessy, Tod F. (2009). Plant Taxonomy: The Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data. Columbia University Press. ISBN978-0-231-14712-5. Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2014.

Taxonomic classifications [edit]

  • Adanson, Michel (1763). Familles des plantes. Paris: Vincent. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
Table of 58 families, Part II: Page 1Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback MachineTable of 1615 genera, Part II: Page 8Archived 12 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  • Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1789). Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam. Paris. OCLC5161409. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
  • A. P. de Candolle (1813). Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de arte de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  • Gray, Samuel Frederick (1821). A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, & c. including those cultivated for use with an introduction to botany, in which the terms newly introduced are explained. London: Baldwin. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  • Lindley, John (1830). An introduction to the natural system of botany: or, A systematic view of the organization, natural affinities, and geographical distribution, of the whole vegetable kingdom: together with the uses of the most important species in medicine, the arts, and rural or domestic economy. London: Longman. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  • Lindley, John (1846). The Vegetable Kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. London: Bradbury. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  • Bentham, G. Hooker, JD (1862–1883). Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definite. London: L Reeve & Co. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  • Engler, Adolf Prantl, Karl, eds. (1887–1915). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten, insbesonde den Nutzpflanzen, unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  • Adolf Engler, ed. (1900–1968). Das Pflanzenreich: regni vegetablilis conspectus. Leipzig: Engelmann. Archived from the original on 18 January 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  • Engler, Adolf (1903). Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien: eine Übersicht über das gesamte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen nebst einer Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen und Studien über medical botanisik. Berlin: Borntraeger. Archived from the original on 25 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
  • Carter, Humphrey G. (1912). Genera of British plants arranged according to Engler's Syllabus der pflanzenfamilien (7th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  • Lotsy, Johannes Paulus (1907–1911). Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik. Jena: Fischer. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  • Hutchinson, John (1959). The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny. 2 vols. Macmillan.
  • Dahlgren, R.M. Clifford, H.T. Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN978-3-642-64903-5. Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  • Takhtadzhi︠a︡n, Armen Leonovich (2009). Flowering Plants. Springer. ISBN978-1-4020-9609-9. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2014.

Other [edit]

  • Boisset, Caroline, ed. (2007). Lilies and related plants. 2007-2008 75th Anniversary Issue (PDF). London: Royal Horticultural Society Lily Group. ISBN978-1-902896-84-7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  • Erhardt, Walter et al. (2008). Der große Zander. Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer. ISBN978-3-8001-5406-7.
  • Mabberley, David J. (2013). Mabberley's Plant-Book (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-1-107-78259-4. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  • Sharma, O. P. (2009). Plant Taxonomy (2nd ed.). Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN978-1-259-08137-8. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  • Reddy S. M. et al., Eds. (2007). University Botany - 3. New Age International. ISBN978-81-224-1547-6. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  • Kamenetsky, Rina Okubo, Hiroshi, eds. (2012). Ornamental Geophytes: From Basic Science to Sustainable Production. CRC Press. ISBN978-1-4398-4924-8. Archived from the original on 24 October 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  • Redouté, P. J. (1802–1816). Les liliacées. Paris: Redouté. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014. See also HTML version Archived 19 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  • Kerner von Marilaun, Anton (1895–96). The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution ', trans. FW Oliver et al. from Pflanzenleben, 1890–1891. New York: Holt. p. 4: 603. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014. See also HTML version
  • Walters, Dirk R. David J. Keil (1996). Vascular Plant Taxonomy . Kendall Hunt. ISBN978-0-7872-2108-9. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  • Weberling, Focko (1992). Morphology of Flowers and Inflorescences (trans. Richard J. Pankhurst). CUP Archive. ISBN978-0-521-43832-2. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  • Williams, D. M. Knapp, Sandra, eds. (2010). Beyond Cladistics: The Branching of a Paradigm. University of California Press. ISBN978-0-520-26772-5. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2014.

Symposia [edit]

  • Columbus, J. T. Friar, E. A. Porter, J. M. Prince, L. M. Simpson, M. G., eds. (2006). "Symposium issue: Monocots: comparative biology and evolution (excluding Poales). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons, 31 Mar – 4 Apr 2003". Aliso. 22 (1). ISSN0065-6275. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  • Anders Barfod Jerrold I. Davis Gitte Petersen Ole Seberg, eds. (2010). Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons (Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons and the Fifth International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution, Copenhagen 2008). Aarhus University Press. ISBN978-87-7934-398-6. Archived from the original on 10 May 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  • "MONOCOTS V: 5th International Conference on Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons. New York July 2013". Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2014.

Journal articles [edit]

  • Kelch, D. G. (2000). "What happened to the lily family?". Pacific Horticulture. 61: 76–79.
  • Peruzzi, Lorenzo Jarvis, Charlie E. (2009). "Typification of Linnaean Names in Liliaceae". Taxon. 58 (4): 1359–1365. doi: 10.1002 / tax.584024. JSTOR27757024.

Web [edit]

Databases [edit]

  • AP Website. "Liliaceae". Missouri Botanical Garden. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • GRIN. "Liliaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • ITIS. "Liliaceae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 22 January 2014. [permanent dead link]
  • NCBI. "Liliaceae". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 10 October 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • Watson, L. Dallwitz, M.J. (1992–2014). "The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval". DELTA - Description Language for TAxonomy. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • Desmet, Peter Brouilet, Luc (2010). "Liliaceae de Jussieu". Global Biodiversity Information Facility Version [xx]. 2013. 25 (25): 55–67. doi: 10.3897 / phytokeys.25.3100. PMC3819130. PMID24198712. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

Flora [edit]

  • Chen, Xinqi. "Liliaceae". Flora of China. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • Utech, Frederick H. "Liliaceae". Flora of North America. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
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Other [edit]

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