Toad croaking - Sounds made by the toad

Toad croaking - Sounds made by the toad

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The croaking of the toad

The toad, scientific name Bufo bufo of the family Bufonidae, is an amphibian and the characteristic croaking is produced by the male who swells the skin under the chin (which increases in volume) and consequently emits the characteristic sound that is a call for the females.

Photo Bufo bufo

Photo B. magnet to show how swollen the skin under the chin

If you want to get to know this animal better, consult the technical sheet: THE TOAD

The fish also speak

"Mute as a fish" is a way of saying that is destined to go out of fashion: in fact, fish communicate with each other using various types of sounds depending on the function they are intended for, intimidating towards enemies or to attract partners. But there's more, according to the magazine Science, the studies carried out on the brain area of ​​fish capable of producing sounds has shown an incredible affinity with the same area in the brain of terrestrial vertebrates such as amphibians, birds and primates.

COMMUNICATE TO THE SOUNDS OF GROUNDS AND BUZZERS - The sea is an environment that is anything but silent: one of the most particular voices heard and studied by marine biologists is the song of whales, low frequency sounds emitted by large cetaceans and everyone is well aware of the whistles and crackles emitted by dolphins for to communicate. But few know that even fish are able to exchange information through an acoustic language, audible even by the human ear. Particularly talkative are the species of the Batrachoididae family, to which the toad fish and the cadet fish belong, on which the studies have been carried out. These ocean floor dwellers can produce grunts, dull, guttural cries, similar to those of toads, to scare enemies or drive intruders out of their territory. Instead, to attract the females to their den, they emit a low and continuous hum, vaguely hypnotic, similar to the noise of a refrigerator.

THE ORIGINS OF THE SOUND MESSAGE - The vocalizations of fish certainly cannot compete with the serenades of nightingales and goldfinches, but their "voice" has a much more important scientific value. In fact, research published by Science, conducted by a team of Cornell University scientists in Ithaca, NY, would show that the origins of vocalization date back much earlier than previously thought. The similarity of the nervous system involved in the production of sounds in fish and birds, amphibians and primates demonstrates that living beings have developed the ability to communicate through sounds even before these categories of animals moved away from each other on the evolutionary scale. The primordial sound communication was born at least 400 million years ago, long before the chirping of birds, the croaking of frogs and man began to speak in the air.

Valentina Tubino
July 21, 2008 (last modification: 22 July 2008)

Insomnia for frogs and seagulls The annoyance of white noise

Liguria Enpa: hundreds of interventions. Cnr: no longer used to nature

Insomnia for frogs and seagulls
The annoyance of white noise

Exasperated tourists: get away from them, we don't sleep anymore
In Tarquinia a lady wanted to report
a cicada for "disturbance of public peace"

Seagulls in the center of Rome
ROME - After all, the frog was only doing his job as a frog. And every night he croaked hopping in the Ligurian stream. But the residents of the nearby condominium did not appreciate the sound accompaniment to their rest and began to storm the Municipality of Alassio with protest calls. "You can't sleep here anymore, do something." The most uncivilized stoned the amphibian, saved by the animal protection. «Now the frog is fine and we have moved it 200 meters higher» explains Gianni Buzzi, vice president of Enpa in Savona. "Many foreign tourists, on the other hand, liked that sound because it helps sleep." And anyway, it was enough to wait a few days. After the mating season was over, the brook would be quiet again.

The fact is that the Italians, stunned and deafened by the noises of the city, are no longer able to

A cicada
coexist with those of nature, white noises. Buzzi confirms: «How many calls do we receive at the beginning of the summer from the Milanese or from the Turinese who reopen their second home in Liguria and find a seagull's nest on the balcony». He too has a robust uvula, capable of very high-pitched screeches. "To avoid the worst, we often have to move them." On the night of August 15th, a restless lady called the Tarquinia police station asking for prompt intervention against the cicada chirping on the tree in front of her window, denouncing it for disturbing public peace. «Our nervous system gets used to frequent noises, catalogs them and we actually stop listening to them», explains Massimo Delle Piane from otorino. "The natural ones have become foreign to us, so they alarm us and disturb our sleep."
According to Professor Michelangelo Iannone, of the CNR Institute of Neurological Sciences, "in the case of the frog, more than the frequency it was probably the power of the sound that was annoying". That is the decibels released. «In our brain, when we hear a sharp noise, an internal alarm mechanism is activated and nitrogen monoxide is diffused, a gas that has an excitatory action and wakes us up. The croaking or crowing of a rooster, for those not used to living in the countryside, can be as disturbing as a barking dog or a siren ». Commonly sounds such as the wind or the undertow of the sea are considered "white" noises: constant, background, would favor sleep. “The frog's cry does not fit into the category. We fall asleep with certain frequencies, but it depends a lot on subjective sensitivity ».

A group of frogs (Ap)
Fulco Pratesi, honorary president of WWF Italia, acquits the species: "The green tree frog is pretty, the green toad has such a beautiful trill, the loudest is the bullfrog, but I can't see it, near Alassio". He defends the rural rumors: "I'm in the countryside and every morning at 4 there is a rooster crowing, it wakes me up, yes, but I love it" and rather condemns "those horrendous bikes with the smashed muffler". The disturbers of the night, he lists, may be owls, owls, collared doves (the ones that "uhh-uhh" near our windows) and above all, early in the morning, the seagulls. "A real plague, of which I am responsible". He often tells it: «It was 1973, I found a lame female gull, which at the time there were none. I took her to the zoo in Rome, in the seal tank. He recovered. A passing male fell in love and they started a family. '

Giovanna Cavalli, Erika Dellacasa

Toad croaking - Sounds made by the toad

Since 1982, each edition of the Biella Carnival ends with the trial of the Babi and the consequent and obvious condemnation to the stake: but which blame of which it is stained Gipin's antagonist toad?

In the most common version of the legend it is said that the Babi, originally from the swampy areas of the lower Vercelli area, he started one day towards the Biella mountains intoxicated by the climate and the view of the landscape, began to jump all around and with a mighty leap it landed on the branch of a tree.

In that while Gipin and Catlin-a arrived: the woman, attracted by the sounds emitted by the Babi, exclaimed "What a beautiful bird, and what an original!Arousing in the toad a surge of pride.

Gipin, not at all impressed, he turned to his wife telling her that that it was not a bird but a babi: this call to reality provoked the angry reaction of the toad and originated enmity between him and Gipin.

Since the Babi, accused to pretend to be the most beautiful bird in Biella, is brought to court by Gipin e invariably condemned: usually the speech of the Public Prosecutor it concluded with these words: "[...] cease once and for all the dirty rumor that the most beautiful bird in Biella is the Babi. I ask for the maximum penalty for him: death. Your condemnation is severe, inexorable, exemplary».

  • Pralavorio Luigi, The trial of the babi: Biella carnival representation with accusing Gipin The story of Gipin: characteristics and origins of the mask, Polgraf Editions, Gaglianico 1979


  • 1 United States
    • 1.1 Violence against Italians
    • 1.2 Stereotypes on Italian Americans
    • 1.3 Italian American organizations
  • 2 United Kingdom
  • 3 World War II
  • 4 Second post-war period
  • 5 France
  • 6 Cases
  • 7 Institutional and private bodies that fight discrimination
  • 8 Typology of derogatory terms
    • 8.1 Typical Terms
    • 8.2 Terms referring to onomastics
    • 8.3 Terms referring to linguistic habits
    • 8.4 Terms referring to ethnic prejudices
    • 8.5 Terms referring to history
    • 8.6 Other terms
  • 9 Filmography
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 Bibliography
  • 12 Related items
  • 13 Other projects
  • 14 External links

Anti-Italianism arose among the American people in the face of large-scale immigration of Italians to the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most of the Italian immigrants arrived in waves in the United States, many of them from agricultural backgrounds. Almost all Italian immigrants were Catholic, as opposed to the nation's Protestant majority. Since immigrants who arrived later had often not received formal education, competing with those who arrived earlier for jobs and cheap housing, all of this provoked significant hostility towards them. [2] Protestant Americans originally from Northern Europe immediately showed themselves aggressive and agitated, they often tended to judge them badly and there were also episodes of racism towards Italians, especially in the southern United States, the population was predominantly Anglo-Saxon and Protestant. In response to large-scale immigration from southern and eastern Europe, Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act in 1921 and the Immigration Act in 1924, which severely restricted immigration from those regions, but placed comparatively fewer restrictions on those. who had already settled from Northern Europe. [without source]

Prejudice against Italians was sometimes associated with the anti-Catholic tradition also present in the United States, which was inherited as a result of competition and wars between Protestants and Catholics in the previous three centuries. When the United States was founded, it inherited anti-Catholicism and anti-papal resentment from its Protestant colonizers. Anti-Catholic sentiment in the United States peaked in the 19th century when the Protestant population felt threatened by the large number of Catholics who had emigrated to the United States. In part it was due to the tensions that arose between native citizens and immigrants. With Nativism, an anti-Catholic movement that achieved some prominence in the 1840s, the ensuing hostility led to mass violence, including fires on Catholic property. [3] Italian immigrants inherited this anti-Catholic hostility shortly after arriving, however, unlike other Catholic immigrant groups, they did not bring priests or other religious figures with them in order to facilitate their transition to American life. To remedy this situation, Pope Leo XIII sent a contingent of priests, nuns and missionaries from San Carlo, among the most prominent figures was Sister Francesca Saverio Cabrini, who helped found hundreds of parishes to serve the needs of the Italian communities , for example the church of Our Lady of Pompeii in New York. [4]

At the beginning of the twentieth century, some Italian immigrants brought with them a political disposition towards socialism and anarchism. This was a reaction to the economic and political conditions they had experienced in Italy. Famous people such as Arturo Giovannitti, Carlo Tresca and Joseph Ettor were the first to create Italian trade union organizations which demanded better working conditions and shorter working hours in mines, in the textile, clothing, construction and other industries. These efforts led to mass strikes, which often resulted in violence between strikers and scabs. The anarchist movement in the United States at the time was responsible for bombings in major cities and for attacks on officials and law enforcement. [5] Following the Labor and Anarchist movements, American Italians were labeled as "Labor agitators" and radicals by many of the capitalists and the upper class, which led to further anti-Italian sentiment.

The majority of Italian immigrants worked hard and lived honest lives, all of which was documented by the police in the early twentieth century in Boston and New York. Italian immigrants had an arrest rate that was no higher than that of other large immigrant groups. [without source] In 1963, James Wilfrid Vander Zanden observed that the rate of criminal convictions among Italian immigrants was lower than that of white Americans. [6]

Criminal elements such as extortion, intimidation and threats in order to extract money through the lace from the richest immigrants and shopkeepers were active in the communities of Italian immigrants who were in the large eastern cities, among the gangs that practiced it there was also the Black Hand. With the rise of Fascism in Italy, it came into strong contrast with the Sicilian mafia, up to its destruction. Between 1920 and 1930, hundreds of mobsters fled to the United States to avoid trial.

When the United States enacted prohibition in 1920, the restrictions proved an economic boon to those in the Italian-American community and to escaped Sicilians who were already involved in illegal activities. They smuggled liquor across the country, in bulk, and were sold through a network of outlets and nurseries. While members of other ethnic groups were deeply involved in these illegal smuggling and violence activities between rival gangs, Italian Americans were among the most famous. [7] Because of this, Italians became associated with the figure of the prototypical gangster in the collective mind, which had a lasting effect on the Italian-American image.

The experiences of Italian immigrants in North American countries were noticeably different from those in South American countries, where many of them emigrated in large numbers. The Italians were fundamental in developing countries such as: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. They quickly joined the middle and upper class in those countries. [8] In the United States, Italian Americans initially encountered a majority of the Protestant culture of Northern Europe. For a time, they were regarded primarily as construction and industrial workers, cooks, plumbers, or blue-collar workers. As with the Irish who arrived before them, many also joined the police and fire brigade. [9]

In the 1930s, Italians and Jews were targeted by Sufi Abdul Hamid, [10] an anti-Semite and admirer of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin al-Husseini. [11] [12]

Violence against Italians Edit

After the American Civil War, during the labor shortage that occurred and the South converted to free labor, the planters of South America recruited Italians to come and work in the United States, as agricultural workers and laborers. Many of them soon found themselves victims of prejudice, economic exploitation and sometimes even violence. Anti-Italian stereotypes abounded in this period as a means of justifying the mistreatment of immigrants. The situation of Italian immigrant agricultural workers in Mississippi was so serious that the Italian embassy undertook to investigate their mistreatment in cases studied for peonage. Later came other waves of Italian immigrants who inherited these same virulent forms of discrimination and stereotyping which, by now, had taken root in the American conscience. [13]

One of the largest mass lynchings in American history caused the death of eleven Italians in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1891. The city had been the destination of numerous Italian immigrants. [14] Nineteen Italians who were thought to have murdered Police Chief David Hennessy were arrested and held in the county jail. Nine were tried, resulting in six acquittals and three cancellations. The next day, a mob stormed the prison and killed eleven men, none of whom had been convicted and some of them had not been tried. [15] Later, the police arrested hundreds of Italian immigrants under the false pretext that they were all criminals. [16] [17] Theodore Roosevelt, not yet president, became famous for saying that lynching was indeed "a good thing". John M. Parker helped organize the lynching and was elected governor of Louisiana in 1911. Parker described Italians as "worse than African Americans, they are disgusting in their habits, criminal and treacherous". [18]

In 1899, in Tallulah, Louisiana, three Italian-American shopkeepers were lynched for treating blacks in their shops like whites. A vigilante hanged five Italian-Americans: the three shopkeepers and two spectators. [19]

In 1920, Sacco and Vanzetti were tried for robbery and murder in Boston, Massachusetts. Many historians agree that Sacco and Vanzetti were subjected to a poorly managed trial, the judge, the jury and the prosecution were prejudiced against them because of their anarchist political views and because of the status of Italian immigrants. Judge Webster Thayer called the two Italians "Bolsheviks". In 1924, Thayer confronted a Massachusetts attorney and said, "Did you see what I did with those bastard anarchists the other day?" Despite protests from around the world, Sacco and Vanzetti were still sentenced to death in the electric chair. [20] Exactly fifty years after their death, on August 23, 1977, Michael Dukakis, Governor of the State of Massachusetts, officially recognized the mistakes made in the process and completely rehabilitated their memory, via the Sacco and Vanzetti Memorial Day. His proclamation , issued in both English and Italian, declared that Sacco and Vanzetti had been unjustly tried and convicted, also said that "any misfortune should be removed forever from their names". He did not forgive them, because that would imply that they were guilty. [21]

Anti-Italianism was part of anti-immigration, the anti-Catholic ideology of the Ku Klux Klan, after 1915 white supremacy and the nativist group targeted Italians and southern Europeans, which sought to preserve the alleged domination of the Protestant Anglo-Saxon White. In the early 20th century, the KKK became active in the northern and mid-western cities of the United States, where social change was rapid due to immigration and industrialization. In 1925, in the southern part of the United States, there was a spike in membership and influence in the organization. An outbreak of anti-Italian activity organized by the KKK developed south of New Jersey in the mid-1920s. In 1933, a mass protest against Italian immigrants took place in Vineland, New Jersey, where Italians made up the 20 % of the city population. Eventually the KKK lost all power in Vineland and left the city.

Stereotypes on Italian Americans Edit

Since the early decades of the twentieth century, Italian Americans have been portrayed with stereotypical characterizations. [22] Italian Americans in contemporary US society have actively objected to pervasive negative stereotypes by the mass media. Stereotyping of Italian Americans was usually associated with organized crime, it was also a constant feature of films such as the trilogy de The Godfather, Those good guys, Casino and the television series The Sopranos. [23] These stereotypes were reinforced by the frequent reproduction of these films and television series on television. Video games, board games, TV and radio commercials with mafia themes further reinforced this stereotyping. The media have stereotyped the Italian American community as tolerant of the figure of the violent and sociopathic gangster. [24] Other important stereotypes portray Italian Americans as aggressive and prone to violence. [25] Jersey Shore, an MTV reality show was considered insulting to the Italian-American group UNICO National. [26] [27]

A comprehensive study of Italian-American culture on cinema, conducted from 1996 to 2001, by the Italian Institute of America, revealed the extent of stereotyping in the media. [28] More than two-thirds of the 2,000 films evaluated in the study put Italian Americans in a negative light. Nearly 300 films featuring Italian Americans playing the mafia role were produced later The Godfather of 1972, averaging about nine films a year. [29]

According to the Italian Institute of America: [without source]

"The mass media has consistently ignored five centuries of Italian American history, and has elevated what was never more than a minute subculture to the dominant Italian American culture."

"The mass media has consistently ignored five centuries of Italian American history, and has also elevated what has never been more than a minute of subculture to the dominant Italian American culture."

According to recent FBI statistics, there are about 3,000 members and associates of Italian-American organized crime. Given that the estimated Italian-American population is around 18 million, the study concludes that only one in 6,000 people are involved in organized crime. [30]

Italian American Organizations Edit

The most active national organizations in the fight against media stereotypes and the defamation of Italian Americans are: Order Sons of Italy in America, UNICO National, Columbus Citizens Foundation, National Italian American Foundation and the Italic Institute of America. [31] Among the most active digital organizations for this cause are: Annotico Report, [32] Italian-American Discussion Network, [33] ItalianAware [34] and Italian American One Voice Coalition. [35]

A first manifestation of anti-Italianism in Britain was in 1820, when King George IV tried to dissolve his marriage to Caroline of Brunswick. A sensational proceeding, the Pains and Penalties Bill of 1820, which was held in the House of Lords in an attempt to prove Carolina's adultery since she had lived in Italy, many prosecution witnesses were among her servants. The reliance of the accusation on low-standing Italian witnesses has brought anti-Italian sentiments to Britain. The witnesses were to be protected from the angry mob and were depicted in popular prints and pamphlets as venal, corrupt and criminal. Some street vendors sold prints that Italians had accepted bribes for committing perjury. [without source]

Anti-Italianism erupted again, in a more sustained way, a century later. After Benito Mussolini's alliance with Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, there was growing hostility towards Italy in the United Kingdom. The British media have ridiculed Italy's ability to fight in war, pointing to the poor state of the Italian army during its imperialist phase. "Musso the Wop", was an English comic that started shooting in 1938 by the magazine The Beano, it portrayed Mussolini as an arrogant buffoon. [36]

Wigs on the Green is a satirical novel by Nancy Mitford first published in 1935. The novel illustrates a ruthless satire of British fascism and the Italians living in the UK that supported it. The book achieved some notoriety after ridiculing the political enthusiasm of Diana Mitford, the author's sister and wife of Oswald Mosley, about her ties to some Italians who promoted the British Union of Fascists. [37] Furthermore, Benito Mussolini's decision to side with Nazi Germany led by Adolf Hitler during the spring of 1940 caused an immediate response. By order of the UK Parliament, all enemy foreigners were to be interned, despite the fact that there were few active Italian fascists. In June 1940, this anti-Italian sentiment led to a night of nationwide riots against the Italian communities. Italians were seen as a national security threat linked to the feared British fascist movement, Winston Churchill gave instructions on how to contain the threat. Following Churchill's speech, thousands of Italians aged between 17 and 60 were arrested. [38]

Adolf Hitler recognized the ancient history of the Roman Empire. He considered the Italians to be more artistic but less industrious than the Germans. The fact that the Kingdom of Italy stabbed the German Empire in the back by siding with its allies during World War I has not been forgotten, this historic event being identified as the 1915 Pact of London.

During World War II, the United States and the United Kingdom defined Italian citizens living in their countries as outsiders, regardless of how long they lived there. Hundreds of Italian citizens, suspected of being loyal to fascist Italy, were locked up in internment camps in the United States and Canada. [39] Thousands of Italian citizens in the United States, suspected of being loyal to Italy, were placed under surveillance. From Joe DiMaggio's father who lived in San Francisco, his boat and house were confiscated. Unlike Japanese Americans, Italian Americans and Italian Canadians never received compensation from their respective governments. Bill Clinton later made a public statement admitting the US government's error of judgment regarding internment. [40]

Due to the brutal war in Ethiopia and the alliance between Italy and Nazi Germany, a popular anti-Italian sentiment developed in the United Kingdom. Many Italian citizens were deported as enemy foreigners, there were also deaths by some German submarines that torpedoed the transport ships. [41]

During the Second World War, strong allied propaganda spread against Italian military performance, expressing the stereotype of the "incompetent Italian soldier". Historians documented the fact that the Italian Army suffered great defeats due to its poor preparation for the most significant fighting due to Mussolini's refusal to heed the warnings of the Italian army commanders. [42] The objective of the Second World War shows that, despite having to rely in many cases on obsolete weapons, [43] the Italian troops often fought with great valor and distinction, particular units such as the Bersaglieri, the 185th "Folgore" and Alpini paratroopers division. [44] [45]

"The German soldier has impressed the world, however the Italian Bersagliere soldier has impressed the German soldier."

"The German soldier impressed the world, yet the Italian bersagliere impressed the German soldier."

Former Italian communities once thrived in the African colonies (Eritrea, Somalia and Libya) and in the areas bordering the Kingdom of Italy. Following the end of the imperialist colonies and other political changes, many ethnic Italian citizens were violently expelled from these areas.

Libya and Yugoslavia showed a high level of anti-Italianism since World War II, as illustrated by the following manifestations:

  • During the years of the Italian administration of Libya, about 150,000 Italians emigrated to the country, constituting approximately 18% of the total population. [46] During the rise of the independence movements, anti-Italian hostility was drastically increasing. The last Italians and Jews who remained in Libya were expelled in 1970, the year in which Muʿammar Gaddafi seized power, on 7 October 1970 this day is also known as the "Day of vengeance". [47]
  • At the end of the Second World War, Istria and Dalmatia, which were Italian territories, became part of Yugoslavia through the Treaty of Paris between Italy and the allied powers of 1947. Economic insecurity, ethnic hatred and international political context that led to the Iron Curtain, about 350,000 people almost all of Italian ethnicity, were forced to leave the region during the dictatorship of Josip Broz Tito. [48] ​​[49] Some scholars such as Rudolph Joseph Rummel noted that the number of Italian Dalmatians dropped to 45,000 in 1848, which comprised nearly 20% of the total Dalmatian population under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, [50] the demographic decline it dropped to 300 in modern times, due to democide and ethnic cleansing, during the two great wars.

Other forms of anti-Italianism appeared in Ethiopia and Somalia in the late 1940s, as happened with the Somali nationalist rebellion against the Italian colonial administration which culminated in a violent confrontation in January 1948, this event is remembered as the massacre of Mogadishu. In the tragedy 54 Italians lost their lives and 55 others were injured, [51] later in Mogadishu there were other political revolts in various coastal cities. [52]

Marine animals hear the sounds of the ocean from far away

Marine animals can hear ocean sounds at much greater distances than they can see or smell, making sound crucial to many aspects of life. From whales to shellfish, marine life uses sound to capture prey, navigate, defend territory and attract companions, as well as find homes and warn of an attack. Noise pollution increases the risk of death and in extreme cases, such as explosions, kills directly.

The emissioni di anidride carbonica, dalla combustione di combustibili fossili, stanno anche rendendo gli oceani più acidi, il che significa che l’acqua trasporta il suono più lontano, portando a un oceano ancora più rumoroso, hanno detto i ricercatori.

Ma il movimento di mammiferi marini e squali in aree precedentemente rumorose quando la pandemia di Covid-19 ha ridotto il traffico oceanico ha dimostrato che la vita marina potrebbe riprendersi rapidamente dall’inquinamento acustico.

Una “nebbia acustica” nell’oceano

Il professore Steve Simpson dell’Università di Exeter, in Inghilterra ha definito l’inquinamento acustico come una “nebbia acustica” nell’oceano. Infatti tutti gli esseri marini, dal più piccolo plancton fino agli squali, percepisce il proprio ambiente acustico. Di conseguenza, gli animali devono produrre suoni per comunicare, ma anche per ricevere suoni.

Gli animali marini possono vedere solo qualche decina di metri al massimo e possono sentire gli odori a qualche centinaio di metri, ma possono sentire attraverso interi bacini oceanici.

E’ ciò che ha spiegato lo studioso Carlos Duarte della King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Arabia Saudita, che ha guidato il revisione.

Duarte ha affermato che le principali valutazioni sulla salute dell’oceano ignoravano il rumore: “Eppure la letteratura scientifica, se letta con attenzione, fornisce prove convincenti che il rumore causato dall’uomo è una delle principali fonti di interruzione dell’ecosistema marino“.

Il rumore danneggia la fauna marina al 90%

Gli scienziati hanno analizzato più di 500 studi ed hanno pubblicato i lori risultati sulla rivista Science. Hanno dunque valutato gli effetti del rumore umano sulla vita marina.

Circa il 90% degli studi ha riscontrato danni significativi ai mammiferi marini, come balene, foche e delfini, e l’80% ha riscontrato impatti su pesci e invertebrati. Il suono è una componente fondamentale degli ecosistemi ed il rumore pervasivo colpisce gli animali a tutti i livelli.

L’impatto più evidente è il legame tra il sonar militare e le detonazioni sismiche e la sordità, gli spiaggiamenti di massa e la morte dei mammiferi marini.

I suoni degli animali

Ma molti usi del suono possono essere danneggiati, come i ronzii che il pesce rospo maschio usa per attirare le femmine e il clacson che il merluzzo usa per coordinare la deposizione delle uova .

Le balene producono chiamate per aiutare la coesione e la riproduzione del gruppo e questi suoni possono viaggiare attraverso i bacini oceanici. Le megattere cantano complesse canzoni di accoppiamento I capodogli e vari delfini e focene usano il sonar per ecolocalizzare le prede. Altri animali usano il suono per nutrirsi: alcuni gamberetti producono uno “schiocco” per stordire la preda.

L’inquinamento acustico è aumentato di 32 volte

Purtroppo negli ultimi 50 anni, l’aumento del traffico marittimo ha aumentato di 32 volte il rumore a bassa frequenza sulle rotte principali. I pescherecci usano il sonar per trovare banchi di pesci e le reti a strascico creano un rumore sordo. Anche la costruzione e il funzionamento di piattaforme petrolifere e parchi eolici offshore causano inquinamento acustico, così come la detonazione delle bombe della seconda guerra mondiale nel Mare del Nord.

Pesci, vongole, granchi e coralli sentono tutti il ​​suono e lo usano per trovare luoghi sani in cui vivere“, ha detto Simpson aggiungendo: “Quindi il rumore del trasporto o della costruzione toglie quel senso di ritorno. Significa anche che le balene che potrebbero aver vissuto in una famiglia e cacciato per centinaia di miglia devono vivere entro 10 miglia l’una dall’altra per poter comunicare“.

Troppo rumore umano e poco spazio per i suoni marini

Gli scienziati hanno evidenziato come gli animali siano direttamente stressati dal rumore, e quindi prendono decisioni sbagliate che spesso portano alla morte. Inoltre il rumore dei motoscafi sulla Grande Barriera Corallina in Australia porta a raddoppiare la mortalità da predatori.

Il rumore subacqueo è una preoccupazione seria e sta crescendo“, ha detto il ricercatore Daniel Pauly dell’Università della British Columbia in Canada. Il livello di rumore a cui sono esposti i mammiferi marini è devastante, le onde sonore sottomarine sono molto più violente delle onde sonore nell’aria.

Possibili soluzioni

Lo studio però porta uno spiraglio di salvezza per il panorama acustico marino. Esistono infatti possibili soluzioni secondo gli esperti.

Il retrofit di cinque grandi navi portacontainer da parte del gigante Maersk nel 2015 dimostra che i nuovi design delle eliche riducono il rumore e aumentano anche l’efficienza del carburante. The eliche più silenziose sono la massima priorità.

I motori elettrici sono un’altra possibile soluzione, così come piccole riduzioni di velocità. Ad esempio, il taglio della velocità delle navi rumorose nel Mediterraneo da 15,6 a 13,8 nodi ha ridotto il rumore del 50% tra il 2007 e il 2013.

Le indagini sismiche possono essere eseguite anche utilizzando vibratori del fondo marino, anziché inviare onde di rumore attraverso l’intera colonna d’acqua.

Il taglio del rumore è quello che serve per fare la differenza e si potrebbe fare da subito. Se riduciamo al minimo le nostre rumorose e fastidiose attività potremmo donare una speranza alla fauna marina e gli oceani tornerebbero ad avere il loro sano panorama acustico.

Il pollice

I maschi hanno spesso sui loro arti anteriori delle ventose circolari, in prossimità del pollice, che gli permettono di aggrapparsi meglio alle femmine durante il periodo di riproduzione. In particolare, durante questo periodo, il pollice dei maschi apparirà più grande e più largo, soprattutto all?apice, rispetto alle altre dita, e presenterà delle macchie nere e rugose.
Speriamo, allora, di avervi aiutato con la nostra guida e se continuate ad avere dei dubbi sul sesso della vostra rana potete sempre ricorrere ad un veterinario che vi aiuterà a scoprire se si tratta di un maschietto o di una femminuccia.

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