Calceolaria: home care, growing from seeds, reproduction, photo
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Plant calceolaria (lat.Calceolaria) belongs to the genus Calceolaria of the family Norichnikovs, although English scientists distinguish the genus Calceolaria in a separate family. The genus has about 400 species of plants growing in Central and South America. In translation "calceolaria" means "slipper". Representatives of the genus are herbaceous plants, dwarf shrubs or shrubs, among them perennials, biennials and annuals, but in room culture, calceolaria flowers are usually grown as annual herbaceous plants.
Planting and caring for calceolaria
- Bloom: in April or May for 3-5 weeks.
- Lighting: penumbra (north, north-west or east window).
- Temperature: not higher than 15 ˚C.
- Watering: constant, so that the soil in the pot is slightly damp all the time.
- Air humidity: very high. It is recommended to keep the plant on a pallet with wet pebbles or to line the pot with peat and keep it moist all the time. It is not recommended to spray the plant.
- Top dressing: two weeks after planting and before flowering - with mineral fertilizer solutions twice a month. In autumn and winter, no top dressing is applied.
- Cropping: after flowering.
- Rest period: after flowering for 1-1.5 months.
- Transfer: do not transplant. The life of a plant is 2 seasons, then the plant does not bloom anymore.
- Reproduction: seeds, cuttings.
- Pests: aphids, whiteflies.
- Diseases: gray rot.
Read more about growing calceolaria below.
The calceolaria flower grows in height and width to about 30-50 cm.The leaves of the plant are lanceolate, corrugated, bright green, with pubescence on the underside of the leaf plate, reaching a length of 5 to 10 cm.The main advantage due to which calceolaria and gained its popularity, are its flowers, shaped like clogs-clogs of bright yellow, orange, white or red colors, monochromatic, with strokes or speckled. The shape of the flower is very funny: it seems to consist of two lips - one large, inflated, spherical, and the other small, almost invisible. Indoor calceolaria blooms in April or May and blooms for 3-5 weeks. On one plant at the time of flowering, up to 50 flowers ranging in size from 2.5 to 6 cm can open.
Caring for calceolaria at home
In the question of how to care for calceolaria, the most difficult thing is to create the conditions necessary for the plant. Caring for calceolaria flowers is complicated by the fact that heat and dry air are contraindicated for them, and in apartments that are not equipped with an air conditioning system, it is hot and dry in the summer. At home, calceolaria prefers partial shade of the northern, eastern or northwestern window, the temperature is not higher than 15 ºC and humid air, therefore, you need to keep the pot with calceolaria on a pallet with wet pebbles, and water it with soft, settled water so often so that the soil does not dry out.
After flowering, watering is gradually reduced. So that the plant does not suffer from dry air, you can keep the pot in a spacious planter, placing peat between the walls of the pot and the flowerpot, which should be moist all the time. It is undesirable to spray calceolaria. If the plant is too hot and dry, it sheds its buds, is easily affected by pests and generally ages quickly.
Calceolaria care involves feeding the plant with soluble mineral fertilizers twice a month, starting two weeks after planting the plant and before flowering. In autumn and winter, the plant is not fertilized, after flowering it is cut off, transferred for a month and a half to two months in a cool, gloomy place, occasionally moistening the soil in a pot. When new growth begins to grow in calceolaria, the intensity of moisture is gradually increased, the plant is moved to its usual place and mineral fertilizing is resumed.
The overwintered plant blooms two months earlier than calceolaria grown from seeds in the current year, but the decorativeness of last year's bush is much lower than that of a newly planted or purchased one, therefore professional florists recommend that calceolaria lovers buy or grow a new plant every year.
If you are faced with a problem of how to transplant a purchased plant from a technical pot into your own, decorative one, then it is easy to do: put a decent layer of drainage in a new pot, then transfer the plant along with a lump of earth from a technical pot into a decorative one and add land for heather or substrate for geraniums to fill the voids. You can compose the soil for calceolaria yourself, for this you will need two parts of sod and leafy land, one part of peat land and half of sand.
Pests and diseases
Of the insect pests, aphids and whiteflies are most often affected by calceolaria. You can try to collect aphids mechanically and destroy, but if the infection is total, you will have to resort to treating the plant with a chemical preparation actellik, which will help you out in case of damage to calceolaria by a whitefly. If the infection is too strong, it will be necessary to repeat the treatment after 3-4 days - no more than four treatments are allowed at the same interval.
Of the diseases for calceolaria, gray rot is most dangerous. It occurs when the plant has been exposed to chronic waterlogging for a long time at too low a temperature and too high humidity in the room. Growing calceolaria requires strict adherence to the rules, otherwise troubles can begin. The plant is also weakened by the excessive concentration of nitrogen in fertilizers, which provokes infection of the flower with gray mold. Severely affected areas are removed with a sharp knife, and the plant is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid or oxychom, topaz, cuproscat - any copper-containing preparation.
Reproduction of calceolaria
Growing from seeds
If you do not know how to grow calceolaria from seeds, purchase from a store or make your own mixture of sand and peat in a 1: 7 ratio with a slight addition of ground chalk or dolomite flour (20 g per 1 kg of soil mixture). Calceolaria seeds are not in short supply; they can be purchased at any large specialized store, including via the Internet. Sowing seeds of calceolaria is carried out in April on a previously disinfected by calcining and moistened mixture, without embedding them in the soil, but covering the container with crops with glass or film, from which condensate will need to be removed as necessary.
Crops are kept in a warm (18 ºC), well-lit place, regularly ventilating and moisturizing the soil by spraying. Two weeks later, when shoots appear, they are watered with a thin stream between the rows. After a month, they are dived for the first time, and after another two months, when rosettes are formed, they are dived a second time into individual pots with a diameter of 7 cm, watered once every two weeks. In September, seedlings are transplanted into pots with a diameter of 9-11 cm and placed in a light and more than cool - 8-10 ºC - room.
In January-February, calceolaria is planted in large pots with a nutrient mixture for adult plants, pinched over 3-4 leaves, transferred to a permanent place and await flowering, which usually occurs 8-10 months after sowing the seeds.
You can try to root cuttings from shoots cut off after flowering calceolaria. Cuttings can be cut in August, or in February-March. Root the shoots in a nutritious potting mix. Usually 3-4 weeks are enough for roots to appear. In order to get a dense bush, several rooted cuttings are planted in one pot.
Types and varieties
The following types of plants are most known:
Calceolaria rugosa, or whole-leafed (Calceolaria rugosa)
In bloom, it looks like a cloud of yellow drops. It grows up to half a meter in height, small leaves form a rosette, small flowers 1.5-2 cm in diameter are painted pure yellow and decorated with brown specks.
- Sunset - leathery dark green leaves, collected in a rosette, from which up to 10 short peduncles with red, orange or yellow "shoes" grow;
- Goldbouquet - large-flowered variety 25-30 cm high.
Calceolaria mexicana (Calceolaria mexicana)
Delicate yellow flowers up to 5 cm in diameter. Depending on growing conditions, it reaches 20 to 50 cm in height.
Calceolaria purpurea (Calceolaria purpurea)
Herbaceous perennial up to 50 cm tall with spatulate root leaves jagged along the edge and small reddish-lilac flowers with an oblong, grooved lower lip.
In room culture, varieties and forms of plants are most often grown, combined under the name hybrid calceolaria (Calceolaria x herbeohybrida)... The leaves of these plants are usually light green, and the flowers are of a wide variety of colors - from boiling white to variegated in a variety of combinations. One of the popular varieties is Danti's calceolaria, an exquisite flowering plant with red flowers.
In addition to the above, calceolaria are also known fine, delicate, multi-petiolate and Darwin's calceolaria.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Calceolaria
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Plants on K Noricum Calceolaria
Calceolaria: care and reproduction of the "shoe" on the windowsillThe author of the article: Pravorskaya Yulia Albinovna, 69 years old
Agronomist, over 45 years of experience in gardening
Description of the characteristic features of the flower, tips for growing calceolaria, recommendations for reproduction, pest and disease control, interesting facts, species.
The content of the article:
- Care, growing at home
- How to multiply yourself
- Pests and diseases, methods of dealing with them
- Interesting Facts
Calceolaria belongs to the genus of plants included in the family of the same name Calceolariaceae. The native habitat falls on the lands of Central and South America. Today the number of these "green inhabitants" of the planet reaches 400 units.
This representative of the flora received its name thanks to the translation from Latin of the word "calceolatus", which meant "shoe". Indeed, calceolaria flowers resemble a small children's shoe in their outlines. Because of this, it is often called the "shoe" among the people.
This specimen of flora is a perennial plant with a herbaceous form of growth. Its stems can grow both straight and rise above the soil. The height of a calceolaria directly depends on the variety, and can range from 10 cm to meter values. The leaf plates are collected in the root section and form a rosette. The shape of the leaf also varies greatly among varieties, for example, it can be a shovel, wide or ovoid, oblong and narrowed. The size is quite large, varying within 5-10 cm. The color varies from light to dark green. On the surface, there is most often a dense pubescence of small whitish hairs, which is why the leaf is soft and silky to the touch.
When flowering, buds of a characteristic type are formed. They are crowned with elongated flowering stems, the height of which can reach 35 cm. From the flowers, inflorescences are collected, resembling bunches or brushes in outlines. The inflorescence can collect from 20 to 60 buds. The diameter of the flower depends on the variety, it can be as large representatives, with flowers 6 cm and very small in diameter, about 2–3 cm. The corolla has a two-lipped shape, where the upper lip is quite miniature, and the lower lip is many times larger, as if pumped up air. The color of these petals is also very diverse, it depends on the variety and varies from snow-white to bright red or violet-purple. There are also variegated color variations. Grooves, specks or specks may form on the lower lip. The flowering process begins in the spring (from April to June) and lasts about a month, and hybrid varieties bloom up to two.
After this comes the ripening of the fruit in the form of a box. There are varieties suitable for growing in the open field, but only in the summer, but they are mainly cultivated on the windowsills of rooms and then calceolaria is an annual. After fruiting, such a plant dies off.
How to care for calceolaria at home
First of all, I would like to draw attention to her three main whims. Hybrid calceolaria does not like too high temperatures, scorching sunlight and dry air. Calceolaria is a plant for partial shade. In most cases, this is a big advantage over many light-loving indoor plants. Calceolaria has special temperature requirements. It should be no higher than +15 degrees, otherwise the plant can shed flowers and buds. Since in ordinary home conditions such conditions can be created for her only in winter on the windowsill, then her flowering (acquisition) must be adjusted for the winter season. Considering not a special love for bright lighting, calceolaria will feel most comfortable on the northern windowsill.
Calceolaria should be watered quite abundantly, but very carefully. From excess moisture, the roots can rot and the plant will die. This is especially dangerous at such a low temperature, which she prefers.
You can spray calceolaria, but only flowers. The ingress of moisture on its pubescent leaves is highly undesirable. You can completely abandon spraying, use other methods of air humidification (read about it - here)
Before flowering begins, when budding begins, it is necessary to start feeding calceolaria. During this period, she should receive fertilizer for flowering houseplants twice a month. When flowering begins, the dressing is cut in half. That is, for the entire flowering period, it will have to be fed only a couple of times.
How to care for calceolaria after flowering
In order for calceolaria to live longer and bloom again, after flowering, it must be thoroughly cut off and placed in a dark, cool place. Ideally, a cellar, but a dark pantry will do. In these conditions, she will stay for about two months. During this period, it should not be heavily watered, only occasionally moisten it so that the earth does not dry out too much. When new shoots begin to hatch, transfer it from the dark to its original place and look after as usual. You can go the other way. But this is already from the section on reproduction of calceolaria, although it cannot be called full-fledged reproduction. In terms of efficiency, this method is inferior to seed reproduction. But at the same time, calceolaria, rejuvenated in this way, will have more beautiful than the maternal second year of life.
How to propagate calceolaria by seeds
This activity is troublesome and does not always give the expected result. But you can try. Calceolaria grown from seeds is a full-fledged plant, beautiful and abundant flowering, unlike calceolaria of the second year or grown from cuttings. For sowing seeds, prepare light sand and peat soil in a ratio of 7: 1.To reduce unwanted acidity, add a little chalk to the mixture, per kilogram of the mixture, 20 grams of chalk. Moisten the mixture well and sow calceolaria seeds on its surface. You should not cover them with earth from above. For more effective subsequent moistening of the seeds, put a paper towel on top, which you periodically moisten from the spray bottle. For successful germination of calceolaria seeds, a constant temperature is required within + 18-20 degrees. As for the sowing dates, the flowering of the plant will also depend on them. For example, calceolaria, the seeds of which were sown from early to mid-July, will bloom in March.
Cut seedlings of June sowing
When the seedlings grow up and are ready for a dive, cut them out. And when the leaf rosette of the calceolaria is already formed, then they can be seated in separate 5-7 centimeter pots. The next transplant will take place around the beginning - mid-September. The pots are selected depending on the size to which the calceolaria has grown. Usually, pots of 9 cm are used. The soil for this transplant is already prepared for an adult: leaf earth, peat, humus (or greenhouse soil) and sand are mixed in equal parts. After transplanting, for branching of the plant, the tops of young calceolaria are pinched. The last transplant into a large bowl occurs in mid-winter (January - early February), when calceolaria has gained strength and is ready to bud.
Successful cultivation and abundant flowering!
Features of plant care
The beauty of flowers, his bright photos in gardening magazines make you wonder if there are any secrets of care so that the plant will be a decoration of the house longer. If you know a few secrets, you can grow a strong and strong calceolaria, the main thing is to provide proper care.
Attractive photos of a calceolaria flower will not leave anyone indifferent, but so that the plant does not die in the cold season, when there is a short daylight hours, it is necessary to provide additional light sources. The ideal option would be to use fluorescent lamps, it is enough to turn them on for several hours every day.
For irrigation, only soft and settled water at room temperature should be used. It is strictly forbidden to use tap water, as it negatively affects health.
During watering, it is necessary to ensure that no stagnation of water occurs in the sump, and the soil should not be allowed to dry out too much. As soon as active flowering begins, you need to reduce watering, with regrowth it will be necessary to gradually restore the previous watering regime.
With proper and constant care, Calceolaria will delight you with its beauty for a long time. This amazing flower will be a wonderful decoration for any home. In the summer season, potted plants can be taken out not only to the balcony, but also to the garden, to make bright compositions in combination with other flowers.
Read other interesting rubrics
Reproduction of calceolaria from seeds
My favorite is the Dainty Mix Calceolaria seeds. She is not so capricious, seeds with different color of flowers and blooms 7-8 months after sowing. By the way, it also blooms longer than others, almost 2.5 months.
I sow in mid-March, along with tomatoes. In this case, the flowering of calceolaria occurs in the fall. Recently I learned that you can sow them in the fall, for spring flowering. I haven't tried it myself yet. I suspect that in this case, backlighting will be needed in the evenings.
I sow the seeds in peat, without sprinkling them with earth, only moisten them. In order not to dive once again - one granule at a time in separate cups with soil. The seeds of calceolaria themselves are very small, resemble dust, so they are sold in a protective shell that gives the plant an initial supply of nutrients and increases the percentage of germination.
I cover it with glass or a transparent bag, periodically ventilate and moisten the crops. The optimum temperature for germination of calceolaria seeds is + 18 ° C.
Seedlings are born after about 2 weeks, sometimes - after three. For planting in a permanent place at the age of 1.5 months, I make up a mixture of leafy and sod land, peat with a small addition of coarse river sand. Calceolaria lives well in a soil mixture for geraniums. It is imperative to lay a drainage layer, since the flower does not tolerate high humidity and stagnant water.
After the transplant, I treat Calceolaria with Epin to enhance immunity and better adapt to the new place. To form a bush and remove excess green mass, I pinch once, leaving 3 pairs of leaves.
An interesting option turned out with the planting of several bushes in a long balcony pot. The flowering was abundant, and, moreover, different shades were caught.
After wintering and the awakening of my first calceolaria, I decided to root the cutting for the sake of experiment. I cut off a new shoot, kept it in Kornevin for half an hour and planted it in wet peat, covering it with an inverted jar. The experiment failed. The stalk rotted at the base, although I tried to ventilate it and water it very sparingly. Apparently, this method is not for me.
Caring for bashful mimosa at home
It is important to know how to care for the bashful mimosa. Ideal conditions are considered to be close to the tropics. But they are not found in our homes. Therefore, you need to try to imitate them with the help of timely watering and humidification of the air, constant feeding and proper placement in space.
Loves bright places with access to direct sunlight. Well tolerates prolonged exposure to the rays of the sun. The southern windowsill will be perfect for this delicate beauty. Those who live to the south can settle it on the southeast windowsill. It happens that there are no windows on the desired side, then place it on the east or west.
In spring and summer, it is advisable to take a pot of mimosa outside. Do not place it immediately under the scorching rays, but do it gradually. First, place in the shade so that the sun shines for no more than an hour, and so gradually, increase the time. She gets used to the street quickly, and grows there much better.
The most optimal temperature regime for her is 22 degrees Celsius. From May to September, there is an activation of all plant processes, a suitable temperature during this period is + 20 ... + 25 degrees. In winter, a slightly lower temperature is needed from + 17 ... + 20.
Loves high humidity from 70% and above. You can increase the humidity on your own with a periodic warm shower and a container of water located near the pot.
You need to water with settled water. During the period of active growth, we water every day in the morning or in the evening. If the ground is still wet, then water as the top layer dries. In winter, keep the earthen lump moist, but slightly reduce watering. Here you need to be able to feel the measure so as not to flood the plant, otherwise root rot may appear.
Land for planting should be fertile and loose. Any general purpose primer from the store will do. Add some sand, perlite or peat to it. If you decide to make the mixture yourself, then the recipe is as follows:
Take 1 part of garden soil, 1 part of sand, 1 part of peat and 0.5 part of perlite. Everything is thoroughly mixed and the substrate is ready. Be sure to do drainage using expanded clay or small stones, you can use foam. We make a drainage layer 4 - 7 cm.
In spring and summer we feed once a week. We use a universal fertilizer for flowers, which will be available.
Negative factors for growing bashful mimosa
Smoke from cigarette smoke or cooking. She also does not like sudden changes in temperature, night frosts and drafts.
Leaves do not open and do not curl when touched: excessive waterlogging or sudden changes in temperature. Leaves and branches become elongated: low illumination of the place where it grows. We need to find a more illuminated place for her. Does not bloom: the temperature is lower than expected.
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