Why doesn't the plum blossom and bear fruit, and what to do about it?
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There can be several reasons why the plum does not bear fruit. Most often, there are six reasons. By eliminating them, you can ensure that the tree bears fruit constantly.
Why doesn't the plum blossom and bear fruit?
So, the reasons why your plum remains not blooming and not bearing fruit:
- physiological carrion;
- infertility of the tree variety;
- the presence of infectious diseases in a tree;
- insects - pests;
- climate features;
- the conditions in which the tree is planted.
Physiological carrion, this is a defect, as a result of which the plum ceases to bear fruit. Outwardly, this can be seen when several trees begin to bloom at the same time, at the same time ovaries appear on them.
But one tree cannot provide adequate nutrition for all new fruits, and as a result, some of the ovaries fall off. The reason for this is weak roots.
In this case, the fight or prevention of the defect will have no effect. There are cases when the owners of the trees form the crown of the plum in such a way that only part of the ovaries falls off, but this happens very, very rarely.
The infertility of the variety, the very name of the defect speaks for itself. When buying seedlings, the variety was chosen incorrectly, as a result, gardeners have been unsuccessfully waiting for fruits from the plum for several years.
It should be noted that the vast majority of plum varieties are sterile. In order for these varieties to be able to bear fruit, it is necessary to plant pollinator trees of a different variety.
With the help of insects, by the method of cross-pollination, the plum can bear fruit. But this method does not give any guarantee, because insects are active only in good weather. In the rain, flowers may not be pollinated.
Therefore it is better make a choice in favor of fruiting varieties that self-pollinate... Among these are:
- Italian Hungarian;
- Anna Shpet;
Some infectious diseases can prevent plum trees from bearing fruit. The most common types of infections are:
- Clasterosporium disease... It is a fungus that infects the tissues of newly born leaves. The fungus looks like a small reddish spot that gradually dies, leaving holes in the leaves. The pathogenic fungus, in addition to the leaves, infects the branches, trunk and even fruits.
- Gray fruit rot... This disease looks like a small gray speck on the fetus. With this disease, the pulp of the fruit rots, outwardly visible small specks of ash-gray color. The embryo of this disease tolerates the winter time on the diseased parts of the tree.
Disease can be avoided with prevention. You can burn leaves, pluck infected fruits, and spray trees with special preparations several times per season.
Plum may stop bearing fruit due to the invasion of pests... These can be the larvae of plum sawflies, caterpillars of the plum moth, caterpillars of the plum moth.
These insects eat the seeds of the fruit and the fruit itself. Affected fruits fall from the tree.
You can fight pests by treating trees with chemical compounds, using trapping belts, digging up the ground around the tree.
The moth can be destroyed with microbial preparations. Insecticides help well against thickeners.
Why does the plum not bear fruit? Plum Sawyer:
Weather is another factor, due to which the plum can stop bearing fruit. The buds can freeze after spring thaws. With temperature fluctuations and strong winds, pollen sterilization may occur. In harsh conditions, the plum is very uncomfortable, but in the heat, the plum can dry out.
When buying seedlings, you need to take into account the climatic conditions, and select such a variety so that the fruits ripen during the warm season.
The planting conditions of trees directly affect their ability to bear fruit. Plums are very moody trees... The ground under the drain should not contain a high concentration of acids.
For neutralization, ash or slaked lime can be poured into the ground. Plums should not be planted in the shade or next to a large tree. Plum feels great in the sun. If she does not have enough light, then she will cease to bear fruit.
It also happens that in spring, plum trees bloom, but do not bear fruit and even their ovaries crumble to the ground. There may be several reasons for this.
Freezing... When plum blossoms, one should consider not only the flower itself, but also its pistil. You need to pay attention to its color. If the pistil is frozen in winter, it will be black.
A healthy pistil is always green. A tree can freeze during the flowering period if the temperature drops below zero degrees in spring. If the pistil is damaged, then after flowering the fruits will not tie.
Insufficient pollination... Most plum trees self-pollinate, but if one tree or several of the same variety are planted in the garden, the trees may bloom, but no ovaries will appear. It is better to plant several trees of different varieties.
Trees may not pollinate if there were few bees in bad and rainy weather. Rain is also dangerous because during it, pollen rolls off the flowers. Wet pollen does not promote ovary formation.
Non-regionalized varieties... The plum variety must be suitable for the natural conditions of the area in which it will be grown. Having bought an exotic variety, you can never wait for fruits on it.
Lack of nutrition... A very common reason that ovaries do not form after flowering is that the soil is poor in nutrients. Basically, the earth has a very low potassium content.
And this is the most important element for the formation of ovaries. Therefore, when the plum is three years old, in the fall you need to feed the soil with potassium. Ash contains a lot of potassium.
Varieties and their correct planting
After planting seedlings, you should not expect the first fruits to appear immediately. There is a certain periodthrough which the plum trees will begin to bear fruit.
It depends on the genetic characteristics of the variety and the pollinating variety, as well as on the conditions in which the trees grow.
To understand how long does it take for a tree to give its first fruits, you need to take into account the distinctive features of the variety, which can be combined into three large groups:
- Trees that bear fruit on a one-year growth... This group includes varieties of Canadian, Chinese, Ussuriyskaya and American plums. These varieties develop powerful shoots, on which a large number of new buds are born. For these varieties, it is necessary to ensure continuous growth of the shoots. The stronger the shoots grow, the faster the tree will bear fruit.
- Trees bearing fruit on perennial overgrown branches... This type includes varieties that originated in Western Europe and the south. These are the varieties: Peach, Anna Shpet, Hungarian Domashnyaya. It is important for these varieties that their crown is constantly thinned out.
- Intermediate fruiting... The principle is as follows: on annual growth and on perennial branches. This type includes varieties: Volzhskaya krasavitsa, Pamyat Timiryazeva, Mirnaya and others. It is important to thin out the crown and maintain the growth of the shoots when leaving.
The first fruits appear when the shoots reach a certain number of internodes on the kidneys. To make these processes go faster, you can independently shape the crown by cutting out skeletal branches.
Good feeding and timely soil moistening are required.
In what year does the plum begin to bear fruit?
If you grow seedlings according to the rules, then the plum will begin to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting... Therefore, when choosing seedlings, they will definitely find out what kind they are: self-fertile or self-fertile.
Based on this, other seedlings of other varieties are bought and matched to each other. It is better opt for self-fertile plum varieties.
When planting a tree, and after receiving the first fruits, many gardeners begin to wonder how many years a plum tree can bear fruit. BUT how many years can it even live?
To keep the plum alive as long as possible, seedlings are planted on lighted plots of land so that several varieties of plums coexist nearby. If favorable conditions are created for the growth of plums and they are maintained all the time, then the crop can be harvested every year.
But in some varieties, fruitful years alternate with lean ones. At all, the plum tree can bear fruit for up to 20 years... After this age, the tree begins to age, dries out very much, and soon it simply dies.
What to do?
There are a few simple steps you can take to get a good harvest of plums every year. Here is some of them:
- Transplanting trees, planting new ones is carried out only in the spring.
- About 15 kg of rotted manure or compost, 0.5 kg of superphosphate, a little potassium salt or 1.5 kg of sifted ash are pre-poured into a dug hole for planting a tree.
- In the first three years of life, "vitamins" can be added to the soil near the tree: in the spring, add urea or saltpeter, manure, and ash.
- If the weather is dry, then plum trees need to be watered a lot.
- In order for the frost and the sun not to negatively affect the trees, you need to whitewash and tie the boles.
- It is better to clean and wash cracks in the bark with a 2% solution of ferrous sulfate.
The answer to these simple steps is stable annual harvest of plums.
Why do the leaves dry up and the fruits fall off near the plum, and how to help the tree:
Why does the plum not bear fruit - what to do?
Plum is a rather unpretentious plant that usually gives an excellent harvest. We all love these juicy and sweet fruits full of tasty pulp since childhood. Unfortunately, it sometimes happens that the plum ceases to bear fruit at all, or there are very few fruits. Let's try to understand the reasons for this annoying phenomenon in order to understand how to defeat it.
Reasons for the lack of fruiting plum
There are many explanations why the plum does not bear fruit, and recommendations on what to do in each case.
The first reason is associated with the so-called physiological volunteers. Usually the picture looks like this: the tree blooms profusely, ovaries form, but some of them crumble. Probably, the tree is simply not able to "feed" too many fruits. This may mean that the tree has an underdeveloped root system. You can only help through the correct formation of the crown.
Another reason may be that your plum variety is self-fertile. If the variety of seedlings was initially selected incorrectly, you can expect fruits for a long time and to no avail. In this case, the only way to make the plum blossom and bear fruit is to plant a different variety of pollinating neighbors nearby for cross-pollination by insects.
Also, the plum may not bear fruit due to infectious diseases. The most common diseases are gray fruit rot and clasterosporium disease. In order to prevent the spread of the disease, it is necessary for prevention to burn the leaves and destroy the mummified fruits, as well as to treat the crown with special chemical preparations.
The reason that the plum blooms, but does not bear fruit, may be the peculiarities of the climate. Weather conditions sometimes lead to freezing of ovaries, and wind and sudden changes in temperature lead to sterilization of pollen. In the northern regions, the plum may lack warmth, in the southern regions - moisture. Plum is equally bad for both prolonged drought and excessive moisture. Choose a variety deliberately, taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region of residence.
Pest insects sometimes also cause the lack of fruit on the plum tree. For example, the larvae of plum sawflies, caterpillars of the plum peduncle and tolstostozh devour the fruits and seeds of the fruit. Such plums fall to the ground. Against these pests, chemical methods of protection are used, trapping belts, digging the soil and loosening it. Microbial preparations work well against the plum moth. And against the thickened - insecticides.
In order not to worry in vain, you need to know when the plum begins to bear fruit after planting. This does not happen earlier than the 4th year of life, and some varieties begin to give a full harvest only for 6-8 years.
What to do to resume fruiting
Depending on the established cause of unstable fruiting, appropriate action must be taken. Timely restoration measures will help preserve crops and save trees.
Prevention of plum diseases
The consequences of diseases can lead to the death of plants, therefore it is recommended to periodically carry out prevention of infections. For this, the soil around the trunks is fertilized with mineral and organic fertilizing. Also, as a prophylactic agent, you can use Bordeaux liquid, which is a fungicidal drug.
Correct crown molding
In the second half of the spring, when the risk of return frosts passes, it is required to carry out the formation of the crown. The process involves removing excess shoots and wilting leaves. On trees with a formed crown, air flows to the fruits, which favorably affects their growth.
The main material used to reduce acidity is lime. In its pure form, lime is not introduced into the soil, since it destroys soil microorganisms and harms the roots of trees. To deoxidize the soil, it is recommended to use slaked lime, dolomite flour, cement dust or peat ash.
Fertilizers are applied to the soil 3-4 times per season. Complex mineral substances are used as a top dressing for plums.
It is necessary to water the plums as the soil dries up. Depending on the amount of precipitation, the frequency of soil moisture can vary.
Root collar care
The root collar is a vulnerable part of trees. When planting plums, it is important to locate the root collar above ground level, therefore, the seedling should not be buried.
Protection from cold winds
To protect the plum from the through wind, you can use the enclosing structures in the form of a fence. Also, the impact of the cold wind is reduced by other types of trees planted nearby.
Transfer to the sunny side
If the seedling was originally located in a shaded area, the plum should be transplanted to the sunny side. Constant lighting is one of the main steps in tree care. It is recommended to replant plants during a warm period to prevent freezing of the roots.
Why the plum does not bear fruit
Novice gardeners often wonder about the timing of the appearance of fruits on plums. In most cases, trees begin to bear fruit 4-5 years after planting, but if by this time the fruits have not appeared, then the care of the crop should be disassembled and some of its aspects should be corrected. So, the lack of fruit speaks of:
- incorrectness of the selected type of soil when planting young seedlings
- illiteracy of planting seedlings (violation of agrotechnical issues)
- crop diseases, pest attacks
- lack of proper watering and fertilization.
We figured out the main reasons, now it is worth considering these points in more detail and finding out what to do in this or that case.
Plum grows well on heavy soils that retain moisture - clay and medium clay. The only thing to consider when planting is the acidity of the soil, because the plum prefers slightly alkaline and alkaline soils.Less acidic soil can be made by introducing a mixture of lime, chalk and ash into it, taking these components in equal proportions.
The plum does not tolerate deep planting well enough; in some cases, an illiterate procedure may later affect the fertility of the culture. It is worth remembering that the root collar during planting should be at least 5-10 cm from the soil surface, this is very important.
Now for watering and fertilizing. Some gardeners unknowingly try to fertilize and water the plums as much as possible, thinking that by doing so they help the culture to quickly settle in a new place, strengthen immunity, gain strength for fruiting, but in reality these actions only harm the seedlings. Plum needs feeding no more than 3 times a season - in spring, immediately after the snow melts, during flowering and after harvesting. The optimal frequency of watering is 2-3 times a week, provided that the weather is hot and dry.
The defeat of plums by pests and diseases can not only deprive the crop, but also destroy the trees. The culture is most often exposed to diseases - coccomycosis, homoz and fruit rot, from pests - caterpillars, plum moth and plum aphid, therefore, first of all, in the absence of fruits, it is necessary to exclude infection of trees with diseases and attack by pests. The fact is that if in the previous season the seedlings were sick, then in the coming season it is not worth waiting for the fruits.
Impact on the yield of diseases and pests of plums
Plum also does not bear fruit due to various infectious diseases. The most common of those that cause the absence or delay of fruiting are as follows:
- Clasterosporium disease (perforated spot). The disease is caused by the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum, which settles on the plates of young plum leaves. Microorganisms multiply intensively in moderately warm and rainy weather, and small rusty specks appear on the surface of the leaves. After a while, they gradually die off, and small holes remain in their place. The fungus also infects thin twigs, buds and unripe fruits. Large depressed spots appear on them, which then dry out to the very bone.
- Gray rot of fruit. This is another contagious plum disease caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. The microbe parasitizes ripe fruits, resulting in a small, fluffy, ash-gray mold. It gradually grows and covers the surface of the fruit completely. Infected plums dry out but do not fall off.
- Moniliosis. The infection is caused by the Monilia fungus, which infects the plum when it begins to bloom. It penetrates into blossoming buds and young leaves, which gradually dry out and curl, as if burned by hot air.
To prevent the development of these diseases, fallen leaves should be burned in the fall, before and after flowering, trees should be treated with chemicals (Horus, Skor, Fufanon, Actellik), decaying fruits should be removed from the branches, without waiting until they completely deteriorate.
Insect pests can also be the reason for the lack of a crop of plums. Among them:
- Weevils-flower beetles. Adult bugs penetrate the swollen buds and eat out flowers that have not yet blossomed from the inside, destroying future plums in the bud.
- Plum sawflies. The larvae of these insects bite into green fruits with still soft bones and feed on their pulp. Outwardly, this can be noticed by punctures, from which droplets of transparent gum stand out, which quickly solidify in air.
- Plum moth. Adult butterflies do not harm the fruit, their larvae do it. They gnaw holes in young fruit and eat away at the flesh around the flesh. Damaged fruits ripen prematurely and fall off.
You can cope with pests if you dig up a near-trunk circle in early spring, put on trapping belts with an adhesive composition on the trees and treat the plums with insecticides, and in the fall, collect and burn all plant residues.
The plum is planted in a draft or in the shade
A plum can be capricious and not bloom if it does not like the area you have assigned it to. Lack of sunlight or constant cold winds can dramatically reduce the number of flower buds and lead to the absence of ovaries. If your tree is planted between a house and a fence or in a windy open area, then you will have to transplant it.
There is no way to change your plum "residence"? Then change the conditions - enclose your garden with a high (at least 2 m) translucent fence or install protective screens next to the tree that will close it from the wind.
What to do if the plum does not bloom and does not bear fruit - reasons and solution
All problems with the lack of fruit on the plum tree can be roughly divided into three parts:
- there are no flowers periodically
- the tree that entered the season of fruiting did not bloom even once
- there are flowers, but no fruit.
HozGround's editors have plunged into the problem, and invites you to familiarize yourself with its main causes and solutions.
Why the plum does not bloom
There are four main reasons for the lack of color - winter frosts, summer drought, disease and fertilization problems.
Freezing of flower buds in winter
Plum is a rather thermophilic culture, therefore, there are always certain difficulties when growing it in areas with cold climatic conditions.
Of course, there are many frost-resistant varieties that can withstand a drop in temperature to 35 - 40. However, for them, spring frosts, which are not distinguished by severity, pose a much greater threat. If a cold snap occurs after the tree enters the awakening phase, then even a drop in temperature to -10-15 degrees is quite enough for all flower buds to die.
For frost-resistant varieties, it is not low temperatures that are terrible, but the alternation of thaws and frosts. Periodic warming in winter leads to the premature awakening of the tree, and subsequent frosts mercilessly destroy all the color.
The solution in this case - when choosing a variety, pay attention not only to the ability of plums to resist negative temperatures, but also to their resistance to waking up during warming. Preference should be given to zoned varieties grown in the area.
Winter rains with snow and subsequent cold snaps are no less dangerous. If the ice crust, like a shell, covers the branches, then even slight frosts destroy flower buds. The icing of the branches poses a much greater threat to plums than the most severe frosts.
Dry summer last year
On fruit trees, flower buds are laid during the summer period of the current year. For each variety, these terms fluctuate within a month or a month and a half, and in early-maturing varieties, the formation of the future harvest occurs much earlier than in late-ripening ones.
It is possible to determine the period so important for the yield by the method of external examination - as soon as the tree stops active growth of shoots, it begins to form flower buds.
At this time, the plum needs an abundance of moisture and nutrients. If the tree is experiencing a water shortage, then next year's harvest may be at risk. In dry summers, it is necessary to water the plum abundantly for 2-3 weeks after the beginning of the flower buds. At the same time, summer fertilizing is carried out with complex fertilizers.
After the specified time, irrigation is stopped, the tree enters the second phase of the formation of flower buds. These activities can make even lazy plums bear fruit.
Damage to buds by pests
One-time treatments do not have a significant effect on the garden. insects are able to cross huge distances, and in a few days new hordes of pests will migrate to the sprayed trees. Nevertheless, it is necessary to fight them, and if not completely exterminate, then at least prevent the population from growing to a critical scale.
One of them is the apple blossom beetle. There is an erroneous statement that the apple blossom beetle settles exclusively on pome crops. However, it does just fine on the drain.
If the population of the bug has reached a critical mass, then he will gladly move to plum gardens and destroy the blossoming flower buds. In order to prevent it from spreading in your area, you should regularly inspect the plantings - the flower beetle larva can easily be found in underdeveloped flowers. However, at this time, the processing of the garden will no longer give the desired result. It is necessary to fight pests as soon as the air temperature warms up to + 10 degrees, and he crawls out of his hiding places.
Lack of micronutrients
Despite the fact that there are specially developed complex fertilizers for fruit trees, you should always pay attention to their composition. In each period of life, plants need completely different proportional ratios of nutrients, therefore, complex fertilizers for summer and spring dressings cannot be the same. In the spring, the tree needs more nitrogen and potassium for the development of green mass and the root system, but in the summer in phosphorus, for the ripening of fruits, shoots and the formation of fruit buds of the future harvest.
In addition to the well-known nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, the tree needs trace elements such as magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, etc. If complex fertilizers are represented exclusively by the formula N: K: P, then trace elements should be bought separately and additional feeding should be carried out. Moreover, if the tree is small, then it can be not only root, but also leaf.
An illiterate choice of fertilizers is one of the explanations why the plum does not bloom.
Plum does not bloom for many years in a row
It is quite possible to survive one lean year, especially if there are good reasons for it, but what if the plum or cherry plum does not bear fruit for many years in a row? Some have been waiting for the coveted harvest for years, and the plum is in no hurry to please them with abundant flowering.
Excess organic fertilizers
The desire to enrich the soil with nutrients, by introducing a large amount of compost, rotted manure or bird droppings into it, can play a bad joke. Once in a favorable environment for growth and development, the tree loses its desire for reproduction and begins to simply fatten, increasing the green mass, new shoots and root shoots.
Sometimes, in order to create stressful conditions for plums, it is necessary not only to remove all young shoots, but also deliberately violate the integrity of the root system and dry the soil. Very often stress makes the tree "remember" that it needs to bear fruit.
Organic fertilizers contain a large amount of nitrogen, which is responsible for the growth of green mass, but there is not enough phosphorus, which is necessary for fruiting, and potassium, which is involved in the development of the root system. This imbalance of nutrients can lead to a complete lack of flowering.
Lack of sunshine and runaways
The need for sunlight for the growth and development of plants is well known, but not everyone is aware that the plum needs an abundance of sunlight to set flower buds. Even a seemingly insignificant shading caused by a high blank fence or crowns of powerful trees can lead to a lack of harvest.
It is necessary to correctly approach the choice of a place for planting, taking away sunny areas without drafts under the drain. If it happens that the tree grows near buildings, between which the winds walk, you can create artificial barriers for them in the form of screens made of transparent polycarbonate sheets.
Neglecting the annual pruning of excess branches also negatively affects fruiting. In a thickened crown with an abundance of foliage, a deficiency of sunlight occurs, which is necessary for the formation of fruit buds.
Late flowering variety
Not all varieties of plums are capable of forming fruits for 3-4 years of life. Many trees enter the fruiting phase 6-8 years after planting.
If the tree is still quite young, and its variety is unknown, then it makes sense to just wait a few more seasons without resorting to any radical measures. Perhaps the reason for the lack of flowering is associated with the varietal characteristics of the plum.
Like most stone fruit crops, plums prefer nutritious, loose soils with neutral acidity. Unfortunately, few gardeners can boast of having land plots with such characteristics and plums can grow on "acidic" lands, but the quality and quantity of harvests from it will be poor.
In too acidic soils, there is a delayed absorption of nutrients and trace elements by the roots of plants. Even with the application of complex fertilizers, the tree may feel a deficiency of vitamins. Often this leads not only to shedding of the ovaries, but also to a complete absence of flowering for many years in a row.
To minimize the risks and create favorable conditions for the drain, the soil on the site should be periodically deoxidized. All you need to do is apply under the plant:
- bone meal
- slaked lime
- wood ash
- dolomite flour.
However, one should not zealously start deoxidizing the soil by adding an excessive amount of alkali to it - in this case, the likelihood of developing such a dangerous disease as chlorosis significantly increases, when plums completely lose their ability to absorb iron from the soil, which also negatively affects fruiting.
There is no single rate of application of deoxidizers to the soil for all, it all depends on the initial indicator of soil acidity.
Plum blossoms, but does not bear fruit
The typical reasons why a plum blooms, but does not bear fruit, are:
- self-fertile variety
- the tree was not pollinated
- return frosts.
Unlike apricot trees, most varieties of plums are self-infertile, that is, to set fruits, they need another representative of the species, with a flowering period that coincides in time. If a pollinator variety is present in the district, and it is located in the area of 10 meters from the tree, then this will be quite enough.
The tree is not pollinated
Sometimes bad weather conditions or lack of insects will result in the plant not being pollinated. This is facilitated by the abundance of rain or excessive heat, which significantly reduces the quality of pollen - as a result of ovaries, very little is formed and the yield of the plum is poor. With cross-pollination, it is important that the trees are in close proximity to each other and have a simultaneous flowering period.
If the plum is frost-resistant enough, then even despite the harsh winter, the tree can bloom in the spring. However, spring frosts during flowering, when the temperature drops by only 1-2 degrees below zero, can completely destroy the entire ovary.
If this happens year after year, then such a plum should be disposed of - most likely it is not frost-resistant enough for the area.