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Layers or cuttings - what is the best way to propagate gooseberries?

 Layers or cuttings - what is the best way to propagate gooseberries?


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A gooseberry bush growing on your site has already been bringing a rich harvest for many years, delighting you with delicious berries? So why not grow a few more bushes of the same variety, because you can't harvest a lot of fruits from one gooseberry! It is not at all necessary to spend money on the purchase of seedlings, since the propagation of gooseberries does not cause much trouble, and you can easily propagate your favorite variety in the way that you like best.

How to propagate gooseberries by layering, and what you need to take into account

Gooseberry propagation can be done in different ways:

  • seeds;
  • dividing the mother bush;
  • perennial branches;
  • vaccination;
  • micropropagation;
  • green, lignified or combined cuttings;
  • arcuate, vertical or horizontal layering.

Pinch the tops of young shoots by three centimeters and leave in the ground

Amateur gardeners most often prefer propagation of gooseberries by layering, less often cuttings are used.

Reproduction horizontal layering suitable for three to four year old shrubs. This option is good because more than ten good layering can be obtained from one bush. It is best to prepare the planting material in March, while the buds have not yet blossomed. Select several annual basal shoots on both sides of the bush and place them in pre-dug grooves about ten centimeters deep so that the branches are completely in contact with the ground, including the base of the shoots (where they leave the bush).

Pinch the tops of young shoots by three centimeters and leave them in the ground, and fix the branches themselves in the furrow with wooden pins. It is not necessary to sprinkle it on top with soil, the first sprinkling with earth is done only when green shoots up to 5 cm tall sprout from the buds on layers.

Gooseberry breeding video

When young shoots reach 15 cm in height, they should be earthed to the very top, preferably with damp earth, immediately after the rain. During the summer, from time to time, scoop up more earth to the layers when loosening the row spacing and add potassium salt, ammonium nitrate and superphosphate to the soil as top dressing. Water the shoots in dry weather.

If the layers grow too quickly, it is recommended to pinch them in June so that the plant's forces go into branching. Ready-made layers with their own root system and shoots can be cut from the gooseberry in the fall and planted in a prepared place. On one horizontal layer, as a rule, from four to six young shoots grow from the buds, which by the next season will become full-fledged annual seedlings.

Reproduction by arcuate layering takes place in a similar way, they only fix the shoot in the furrow with one hairpin in the middle, and sprinkle it with soil immediately. Another difference is that you will need to bring the slightly shortened tops of the shoots to the surface of the earth, bending upward and tying them to a peg. The prikopku should be covered with humus, and also spud.

In the summer, provide watering to the layers as needed and apply fertilizing twice. By the fall, the arcuate layers will have time to take root, you just have to cut them off from the mother bush and dig up the finished seedlings with a shovel. With this method, planting material is obtained five times less than with horizontal layering, but the arcuate layering turns out to be more powerful and enter fruiting faster.

The prikopok should be covered with humus, and also spud

Vertical layering older gooseberry bushes are propagated. At the beginning of spring, all old branches are completely cut off, the remaining young branches are shortened by two-thirds. This pruning causes intensive new shoot formation on the gooseberry. When fresh shoots reach a height of more than 15 cm, the surface of the bush is spud, covering the shoots with fertile soil up to half their length.

It is necessary to carefully cover all the voids between the young shoots with earth. During the summer months, hilling with moist soil can be carried out three more times as the vertical shoots grow. And in mid-July, you will need to pinch the tops of the shoots for branching.

With good watering throughout the season and top dressing with liquid fertilizers (two are enough per summer), vertical layers will take root remarkably and will be ready for transplantation. In the fall, scrape off the ground from the gooseberry, separate the rooted layers from the bush and plant in the place designated for them.

How gooseberry propagation by cuttings occurs

When breeding green cuttings it is important to choose the right time for propagation by cuttings, when the growth of shoots stops (from the beginning to mid-July). If you start grafting sooner or later, then the cuttings will root much worse. Also, the survival rate of cuttings directly depends on the gooseberry variety, and to a lesser extent - on the air temperature, substrate, as well as on the concentration of nutrients in the soil.

Rooting of basal cuttings is worse than first-order cuttings

Gooseberry cuttings are cut early in the morning. For rooting, cuttings up to twenty centimeters long with 8-10 nodes are suitable. For hard-rooted gooseberry varieties (Consul, Cooperator, Polonez), it is better to take the tops of the shoots or short branches of the first order, and all parts of the shoot are suitable for reproduction of easily rooted varieties. The rooting of basal cuttings is worse than the first order cuttings.

The cut cuttings are planted in a substrate with a depth of two centimeters; it is recommended to first immerse the lower part for eight hours in a heteroauxin solution to improve root formation. The substrate for cuttings is mixed from sand and peat (in equal proportions), due to which good drainage and aeration of the soil is ensured.

Optimal conditions for rooting green cuttings in the first ten days: 90% air humidity, substrate temperature around +20 and air temperature around +27 degrees. Therefore, the cuttings should be kept in plastic greenhouses or in greenhouses. By spring, rooted gooseberry cuttings can be planted for growing, thereby increasing the feeding area.

For propagation of gooseberries, cuttings are cut from overgrown or basal shoots up to 20 cm in length

A more convenient way is propagation by combined cuttings, which are green cuttings with a piece of two-year-old wood.

The advantages of combined cuttings:

  • most of the gooseberry varieties can be propagated in this way;
  • the use of greenhouses is not necessary (rooting can also occur in greenhouses);
  • air humidity and substrate do not matter much;
  • rooting of cuttings is not affected by the length of the annual growth.

Video about pruning and breeding gooseberries

It is ineffective to propagate gooseberry woody cuttings, and this method can only be used on some American varieties and hybrids, most varieties of European origin are rooted poorly with woody cuttings.

For propagation of gooseberries, cuttings are cut from overgrown or basal shoots up to 20 cm in length. Cuttings cut from the tops of the branches root most effectively. Cuttings are made at the beginning of October, subsequently the cut lignified cuttings are stored on the glacier, and at the beginning of May they are planted in loose soil. Above the soil surface, when planting cuttings, one or two buds are left, the soil is sprinkled with sawdust, peat or covered with a film.

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Gooseberry propagation in spring

Gooseberry bushes in the garden can turn into wild thorny bushes if nothing is done. The berry is renewed with young seedlings every 5-7 years. A proven method among gardeners is considered gooseberry propagation by cuttings in spring... Although it is much easier to purchase ready-made seedlings or borrow rooted shoots from old shrubs from a neighbor.


Gooseberry propagation

There are many ways to propagate gooseberries, allowing you to customize the easiest and fastest way for you. Gooseberry breeding methods:

  • seeds
  • dividing the bush
  • perennial branches
  • cuttings
  • layering

Seeds

For propagation of gooseberry seeds, you need to select the seed of ripe fruits, place them in the sand in a box, water and leave until the end of autumn. In winter, the boxes need to be buried 1.5 meters and covered with soil (20 cm). When spring comes, you need to sow the seeds in the greenhouse and cover with peat. When the first shoots appear, it is necessary to distribute the seedlings in the garden. In the summer, plants need to be watered, as well as loosened and weeded the soil. When spring comes, the overgrown bushes need to be transplanted to a permanent place. This method is not practical and very long, most often it is used to breed other varieties, because the original characteristics of the gooseberry variety are not preserved.

Horizontal layering

This method is considered reliable and effective, but laborious; it is recommended to propagate gooseberries in October. This method works best for European varieties. You need:

  1. Choose a good, undamaged bush that is no more than 6 years old. Use a couple of branches that are close to the ground.
  2. Cut off the sprigs by 1/3. This will help the buds germinate better and form new shoots with developed roots.
  3. Tilt the branches to the ground, making grooves for them, attach them with a crochet made of wood or metal.
  4. Fill the grooves with fertile soil, water and mulch.
  5. From time to time you need to weed, fertilize and water the soil.
  6. When the shoots sprout up to 10 cm, spud them twice at intervals of half a month.
  7. In mid-autumn, separate the twig from the plant, dig it up and cut it open. The branch should have shoots that are well-rooted.
  8. Shorten the roots, cut the shoots by 1/4. Plant the shoots in the ground in the crate to grow. When the seedlings (year) have about four shoots and the root is more than 30 cm, you can start planting.

Arcuate layering

This method is quite easy, and it can pass even without your participation. But still, they recommend helping the gooseberry so that the process goes faster. You need:

  1. Where the twig touches the ground, make a hole, place a branch in it, attach and sprinkle with humus, making a small hill.
  2. In the fall, separate the layers that have taken root from the bush and dig it up. It is necessary to inspect the seedling, whether it is necessary to grow it. If not, you can plant it in a permanent place.

The disadvantage of this method is that you get only 1 seedling, but this fact is more important for gardeners who grow entire plantations.

Vertical layering

This method is quite simple, it is recommended to use it in order to rejuvenate the fit. To do this, you need to cover the bush with earth in the spring, having previously moistened it with fertilizer, by 15 cm. In parallel with the growth, it is necessary to spud the plant. In the fall, if you have regularly tended the plant, you can detach the plants that are rooted.

Lignified cuttings

  1. In the spring, prepare the cuttings of the beginning of bud growth. In the fall, you need to cut them before you plant them in the ground.
  2. If you cut the cuttings at the top of the shoot, they will root better and develop more intensively.
  3. Cuttings should be planted in the ground during spring only when the soil has completely thawed. Until the moment of disembarkation, it is recommended to keep them in a cool place, wrapped in a damp cloth and plastic.
  4. Cuttings (20 cm), when autumn comes, need to be planted in a place where the land is fertile. It is recommended to plant cuttings so that a distance of about 15 cm remains between them, and the angle of their planting is 45 degrees.
  5. Compact the soil around the seedlings, water, and carefully mulch 5 cm using peat or humus.
  6. In the spring, after the soil has thawed, loosen and level. If the cuttings have risen slightly to the top of the soil, deepen them and press lightly.
  7. Throughout the summer, you need to water, loosen and feed the soil, remove weeds.

Green cuttings

This method is considered one of the most effective. Cuttings are recommended at the end of June, but the term for cuttings depends on the climatic conditions of your region, which affects the intensity of shoot growth. You need:

  1. Cut the cuttings of young growths, preparing them in the morning or evening, when there is no sun.
  2. You need to cut it with a sharp object so that the length of the cutting is about 10 cm.
  3. Treat the cuttings with the drug during the day, which regulates their growth and promotes better rooting.
  4. Rinse the slices with water, plant the cuttings in the soil to a depth of 2 cm, leaving the honey with a distance of about 7 cm to water.
  5. Soil: drainage from below, then 10 cm fertile soil (manure), above - mixed peat and sand.
  6. Rooting should take place in conditions: warm (18-23 ° C) and high air humidity. Watering is necessary with water at room temperature.
  7. Do not overheat, if the weather is very sunny, you need to open the seedlings, having previously shaded with a cloth.
  8. When the roots are formed, you need to weed the soil, dig up, getting rid of the weeds. In the summer, feed the plants twice with a manure-based solution or urea.
  9. After the plants take root, the humidity should be reduced to 70%. Further adhere to this moisture already in the open field.

Combined cuttings

The stalk is taken from the tree growth of the last year, its length is no more than 4 cm.To reproduce in this way, you need to take a stalk with a heel (break off a branch) with a crutch (cut off a young branch with a tree shoot, with a growth cut) with a stand (prepare from a lateral branches, so that part of the tree shoot is perpendicular to the young branch). It is recommended to propagate in May, when the growths will be about 7 cm high. The finished cuttings must be planted in the soil, having previously loosened and moistened it, and deepened by 4 cm. Watering must be abundant and mulching the soil. The roots will form in half a month.

Perennial branches

To carry out propagation in this way, use the old branches of the bush. For this you need:

  1. Dig a small hole, lay a branch in it, sprinkle with fertile soil.
  2. From above it is necessary to leave the crown of the twig and new growths.
  3. Pinch the growths to stimulate lateral bud growth.
  4. Moisten the soil regularly.
  5. Feed the shoots as soon as they start to grow.
  6. In the fall, dig out a twig, divide into seedlings. If they have not yet had time to fully develop, grow, if you have time, you can plant.

By dividing the bush

This method is used when it is necessary to move a variety to another area while maintaining its characteristics. For this you need:

  1. A year before you are going to transplant the bush, cut out old branches at the root so that the shoots start to grow.
  2. When a year has passed, dig up, divide the bush and immediately transplant them into the prepared pits.
  3. Propagation by dividing the bush is recommended in the warm season, but not in the summer.


How to propagate and plant gooseberries by cuttings

Vegetative propagation by cuttings allows you to get a large number of young seedlings. In spring, for this, green shoots should be used, combined in summer, and lignified in autumn. Cuttings should be taken from bushes no older than 10 years. It is best to give preference to plants that have yielded large berries in the past few years.

How to propagate gooseberries with green cuttings in summer

The most suitable breeding season for green cuttings is June.By this time, the growth of the shoots is already decreasing, as the shrub prepares for fruiting. For cutting planting material, you need to choose not too young, but not old green branches.

It is necessary to harvest planting material in the morning from 10 to 11 o'clock, or in the afternoon from 15 to 16 o'clock. At this time, the maximum amount of dry matter is concentrated in the green shoots. The length of the pieces should be between 7-12 cm.

Instructions for propagating gooseberries with green cuttings in summer:

  1. Remove leaves except the top two.
  2. Tie the green cuttings in a bundle and put them in a growth stimulant solution for a day.
  3. Rinse the bottom cut with running water.
  4. Plant green cuttings in a prepared bed at a 45-degree slope to a depth of 1-1.5 cm.
  5. Above them, make a greenhouse, which will improve rooting.

The step-by-step process of gooseberry propagation by cuttings in summer is shown in the video:

Throughout the season, planted specimens should be watered with settled water, and periodically ventilated. After the seedlings grow, which usually happens after 30-40 days, the greenhouse must be removed and fed with nitroammophos at the rate of 30 g per 10 liters of water. Plants should be transplanted to a permanent place in the spring.

How to propagate gooseberries by cuttings in the fall

Harvesting of planting material in the fall should be carried out after leaf fall. For reproduction, it is necessary to cut the tops of lignified shoots up to 20 cm long. Each part should have four to five vegetative buds.

  1. Cut woody cuttings.
  2. Make a moat 20 cm deep.
  3. Place the blanks in it.
  4. Dig in gooseberry cuttings for propagation, compact the surface.

In the spring, plant the planting material in the ground. Throughout, you need to regularly water, loosen the soil and fertilize. It is only necessary to replant rooted seedlings to a permanent place for the next year.

How to propagate gooseberries by cuttings in spring

Gooseberry cultivation in spring is carried out with combined cuttings. In this case, the green shoots must be cut with some of last year's wood. The junction of the new and old growth contains many active meristematic tissues, which accelerates rooting.

The lignified "heel" in this case performs a protective function and prevents the green shoot from rotting. It is recommended to start cutting gooseberries in spring in mid-May and continue throughout the first summer month.

Instructions for propagating gooseberries in spring by layering:

  1. Cut green heel cuttings 12-15 cm long.
  2. Put them in a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate for 12 hours.
  3. Then rinse the cut with plain water.
  4. Plant green cuttings in the ground, compact the soil at their base.
  5. Water the seedlings.

To quickly root gooseberry cuttings in the spring, you should make a mini-greenhouse on top and shade it a little. Seedlings should be watered and ventilated as needed. After they get stronger and grow, the greenhouse can be removed.

Gooseberry propagation by green cuttings in spring can also be carried out in water. This method is often used by novice gardeners. To do this, cut green cuttings and put them in a jar filled with melt water. However, in order for them to have roots, certain rules must be followed.

  • water can only be added to the container, but not changed
  • the volume of liquid should be no more than 2/3 of the container
  • the dishes should be opaque
  • periodically add activated carbon to the water.

As soon as the green stalk takes root in the water, the length of which is at least 2 cm, it must be transplanted into the soil. If all recommendations are followed, then this happens in two to three weeks.


Features of culture reproduction

Summer residents love gooseberries for easy care, quick survival after transplantation, and high productivity. There are many ways to propagate gooseberries in spring, summer or fall and get your favorite variety or hybrid without much hassle.

Planting material at their summer cottage:

  • layering
  • cuttings (green and already lignified)
  • seeds.

Dividing the bush is popular, especially when it is necessary to rejuvenate an old plant. In any case, the following characteristics are taken into account:

  • bush age
  • absence of diseases
  • high yield rates.

It is believed that European varieties of culture propagate better by layering, and by cuttings - hybrids. The seed method is laborious, it is usually used to obtain new varieties at breeding stations and nurseries. If desired, and at home, summer residents can experiment by growing a bush from seeds.

It is important to correctly identify suitable plants from which cuttings or shoots will be taken. Only strong, healthy and productive bushes are suitable, without deformations, not affected by pests and diseases. If a gooseberry of an unknown variety is grown on the site, then it is better and more reliable to propagate it by layering.


Reproduction by perennial branches

The obsolete dug gooseberry does not need to be thrown away. Its branches can be reanimated and a new crop can be obtained. First, you need to dig a small groove, put a branch there and cover it with earth, leaving the upper part on the surface, where young growths are visible. Pinch the green ends of the branch to activate the vitality of the lateral buds.

Several shoots should take root on the branch. When seedlings appear, they need to be fertilized. In autumn, dig up and divide into separate seedlings.


Transplanting a bush to a permanent place

The best time to plant gooseberry seedlings in a permanent place is autumn. The plant is best grafted and rooted at positively low temperatures.

You can plant gooseberries in the spring. In this case, they are engaged in planting seedlings as soon as the snow melts.

It is recommended to plant shrubs in a sunny and ventilated area of ​​the garden. Groundwater should not be too close to the surface.

Planting instructions:

  1. For planting, prepare holes with a diameter of 40-50 cm and a depth of 60 cm.The distance between the holes for the gooseberry should be at least 1.5 m.
  2. The soil taken out of the holes is mixed with 1 bucket of horse manure, 200 g of superphosphate, 60 g of potassium sulfate and 50 g of lime. A mound is formed from part of the mixture at the bottom of the hole.
  3. The seedling is placed in the hole, placing the roots evenly over the fertile mound. The remaining soil is poured into a depression, compacting the soil around the plant.
  4. The soil around the gooseberry is mulched and watered with plenty of warm water. The branches are cut so that each of them has 3 to 6 buds.

Gooseberries are transplanted according to the same principle. It is important to spread its roots evenly around the fertile mound.


Watch the video: Plants for Free: Propagate Cape Gooseberry Plants from Cuttings