The device of a clay castle and a head - How to build a well on your own - 3

The device of a clay castle and a head - How to build a well on your own - 3

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Arrangement of a new well and not only

My post is about how to build a well on your own, aroused considerable interest among readers. There were especially many calls to the editorial office during the dry days of the past summer. So I decided to continue the well theme.

However, I must immediately warn you: I in no way pretend either to the comprehensiveness of the topic, or to the indisputability of my judgments. But I dare to hope that my rich personal experience gives me the right to offer this or that advice. And if someone uses my prompts, I will consider that I did another good deed ...

Figure 1 1. Visor
2. Ring
3. Clay castle
4. Clay, loam
5. Water level
6. Sand

So, the last ring has been established, the water level is high enough, and we will assume that you have become the owner of something vital in a summer cottage or garden plot in addition to a wonderful structure, namely the WELL! For complete happiness, as they say, it remains only to equip it. And you should start with a device around the rings of the "clay" castle. And although I have already talked about it when listing the stages of building a well, I still think it is useful to dwell on the construction of a clay castle again. Since a lot depends on its correct device.

A clay lock (Figure 1) is necessary so that atmospheric and surface water does not flow into the well. They are a real disaster, as they will continually pollute the water in the well, often making it non-potable and unsuitable for cooking. And getting rid of this misfortune is extremely difficult, and sometimes even impossible.

Figure 2

Therefore, I have to repeat: the structure of the clay castle must be treated extremely responsibly. The practical structure of the clay castle can be found in the magazine "Flora Price" No. 5, 2005. I will only clarify that in the special literature on the well business there are recommendations where it is proposed to lay roofing felt, roofing felt or plastic wrap on the surface of a clay castle first. And already on them - concrete or reinforced concrete slabs. I believe that this is not the best option, but simply an overkill. Therefore, I strongly advise you to do it much easier: lay a layer of sod 10-15 centimeters thick on top of the clay castle. Gradually, the turf will damp down and will not stain your shoes. If there is such an opportunity, then any rubber rugs or linoleum strips can be laid on the sod.

After the clay castle, you should take up the head. The head is the above-ground part of the well. First of all, it is necessary to build, figuratively speaking, a "roof over the head" of the well. Namely - to build a house, booth or tent (Figure 2). And if all this seems too complicated and time-consuming to you, then make at least a canopy, a gazebo (Figure 3) or, at worst, a simple visor (Figure 1, position 1). Any of these structures, first of all, is necessary in order to protect the well from foreign objects and, again, from atmospheric precipitation.

Figure 3

And yet, in my deepest conviction, in addition to a purely utilitarian purpose, the appearance of a well should also bring aesthetic pleasure. After all, how pleasing to the eye is its beautiful original design, made with cunning and invention.

The most common of these structures is by far the lodge. From my point of view (exclusively personal), a well crane looks very romantic, although not very practical (readers will forgive me for the involuntary rhyme in purely business-like material) (Figure 4). I even read such lyrical lines in some literary work: "The well crane looked forlornly into the gloomy autumn sky." Very poetic, you can't say anything.

By design, the crane is perhaps the simplest, most economical, durable and long-lasting device. It consists of a thick log with a fork or hole and a thinner log or pole - a balance bar. The logs are fastened together so that the thicker end of the balancer is lowered down, and the other with a long pole is raised up. Instead of a pole, you can use a rope or cable. A bucket is attached to the lower end of the long pole.

Figure 4 1. Pole (log) - balancer
2. Cargo
3. Log rack
4. Ground
5. Ring
6. Pole with a bucket

An obvious and significant drawback of a well with a crane is the difficulty in closing and opening the shaft cover. In villages, the well is usually either completely open, or only a flat cover covers the shaft. And this is a direct way to get into the well of anything. It is clear that such a well is clearly at odds with hygienic safety ...

So, of course, we need to build a house. For its device, two stands will be needed, on which, in fact, the whole structure will be held. The height of the house from the ground to the ridge is a meter and a half. For racks, it is best to use logs, bars at least 10 centimeters thick. They must be well dried, sanded, free of cracks and rotten places. We cut out bevels on both sides. For a tighter fit of the racks to the ring, we cut out part of the racks to the height of the part of the ring protruding from the ground, taking into account the part that will be dug into the ground (Figure 5). However, you can not dig in, but at ground level with the help of bolts fasten the racks to the walls of the ring. The undoubted advantage of this method is that the ends of the posts are not in the ground. This means they will last longer. Alas, hammering holes for bolts in a reinforced concrete ring is a rather laborious task. But here, as usual, "master-master". Everyone is free to choose what they like.

Figure 5
1. Crossbar
2. Fastening the cross member
3. Stand
4. Ring

After installing the racks, we proceed to the manufacture of the gate. And we start, naturally, with its main part - the drum. In order to make it, you need a piece of log at least 20 centimeters thick. Desirable without large knots at the ends and not from hard woods. Otherwise, there will be difficulties when hammering the handle and tail into the drum.

Alexander Nosov

How to build a house for a well with your own hands

The presence of a well in a suburban or personal plot makes it possible to enjoy cool and clean water, use it for your needs. In order for well water to always retain its purity and freshness, it must be protected from all kinds of external influences.

[blockquote_gray "] See also: Swing on the site with your own hands [/ blockquote_gray]

To do this, a shelter house is arranged over the well, which can be built with your own hands or ordered ready-made. If you decide to make a house for a well yourself with your own hands, the step-by-step instructions will provide you with all possible assistance in this matter.

Why do you need a house above the well?

The main purpose of the well house is to protect drinking water from dust, debris, foliage, branches, insects, and summer heat. The garden and vegetable garden are often sprayed with chemicals in the spring and summer, which can enter an open well. This is also taken into account when creating his protection. The water in a closed well will not freeze even in very severe frosts.

In addition, a house on a well can simply decorate a site with itself, if you approach it creatively, creating some kind of artistic creation. Many craftsmen decorate such structures with carved figures, decorate them with natural stone, tiles and other materials. The structure, made in the form of some figures, wooden log cabins, teremki and other exotic buildings, will give the entire site an originality and mystery.

Required tools and materials

Wood is considered a traditional material for the manufacture of any well shelter. It is easy to process, can last for a long time, looks beautiful.

For construction, you will need the following building materials:

  1. wooden beam with a section of 5 x 5 and 10 x 5 cm
  2. edged board, block house, wooden lining. One of these materials is chosen, with which the house above the well will be sewn up.
  3. roofing material (siding, corrugated board, roofing felt, metal, polycarbonate, euro-slate and other types of roofing). The material should not be too heavy to be easily supported by the supports
  4. a log and a metal rod for making a gate
  5. antiseptics, varnishes, paints. Required for processing wooden structures
  6. door hinges, handle, bolt screws and nails
  7. small metal corners (for fastening wooden elements together)
  8. 2 metal bushings (pipe sections)
  9. chain with a bucket door or materials for its manufacture.

To build a house for a well with your own hands, step-by-step instructions assume the presence of such tools:

  • circular saw or woodworking machine
  • building level
  • electric jigsaw or plane
  • hacksaw
  • roulette
  • screwdriver
  • a hammer.

General construction of the house

Before you make a house for a well, the drawings of which have already been prepared, you should imagine the general sequence of work. First, a power frame is made, which can be different in shape. The finished frame is attached to the well, after which the gate is installed.

Next, the door is made, hung and adjusted. All wooden elements are treated with antiseptics, and then opened with varnish or varnish impregnation. The next step is finishing the house, arranging its roof. In conclusion, some decorative elements are added (if desired).

Assembling the frame

The wood frame is made in the following sequence:

    1. The diameter or width of the well head is measured. You need to know this size in order to calculate the distance between the parallel bars of the frame.
    2. A wooden frame is assembled from a 5 x 10 cm bar. It is better to do this on a flat horizontal surface, controlling the assembly process using a building level. To fasten the bars, nails or screws are used.
    3. On the frame are fixed 2 vertical posts 5 x 10 cm. Their length will correspond to the height of the house. The racks are connected to each other in the upper part by another bar. This bar acts as a ridge.
    4. The vertical posts are connected to the corners of the frame with rafters. Bars 5 x 5 cm are used as rafter elements. For the convenience of their fastening, it is advisable to cut the ends of the racks and the frame at an angle of 45 degrees.

Tip: For reliability, all bars and posts at the joints with the frame are additionally reinforced with metal corners. For this, self-tapping screws for wood with a length of 25-30 mm are used.

  1. From the side of the future door, a wide board is horizontally stuffed onto the frame, on which the bucket will be placed. A width of 30 cm is enough for a stable position of the bucket. The board should be of sufficient thickness to avoid sagging under the weight of the bucket of water.
  2. On the 3 remaining sides of the frame, narrower boards are packed. Their width should be sufficient so that the well house is firmly held on the well ring.

The assembly of the frame is considered complete. It must have the correct geometry, since possible distortions will adversely affect the operation of the structure. The finished frame is attached to the well.

Gate installation

When we figure out how to make a house for a well with our own hands, the question of making and installing a gate must come up. This device is necessary for lowering an empty bucket into the well, and then raising the bucket with water from the well. To make a gate, you need a piece of a round log. Its diameter is selected more than 20 cm.

The thicker the log is, the easier it will be to lift the bucket. Its length is selected so that the log is 4-5 cm shorter than the distance measured between two vertical posts. This distance will be enough for the gate to rotate freely.

The gate itself is made in this order:

  • The log is cleaned of bark, leveled and polished.
  • It is trimmed to the desired length.
  • The edges of the log are wrapped with several turns of steel wire. This is necessary for the log to maintain its geometry.
  • At the ends of the log, in the center, holes are drilled with a depth of about 5 cm.The diameter of the drilled holes should be 2 cm.
  • Metal plates with cutouts of the same diameter are fixed on top of the holes. Plates are needed to protect wood from damage.
  • Exactly the same holes are drilled in the posts, at the location of the gate. From above, they are also covered with cut-out plates.
  • Metal bushings are inserted into the holes on the posts.
  • Metal rods are driven into the prepared holes at the ends of the log. On the left side, a short (about 20 cm) rod is driven in, and on the right side, a long rod curved with the letter "G".
  • The metal rods are aligned with the holes on the racks. In other words, the gate is hung on its permanent place.

Finishing the well house

When a house is made over a well with your own hands, it is important to pay maximum attention to this process so that the structure does not fall apart under its own weight or under the influence of external factors. The final stage of construction is the sheathing of the house with wood. For this, the material that you like best is used.

[blockquote_gray "] See also: What materials are better for building a house [/ blockquote_gray]

If you want to create an imitation of a log well, then a block house is used, the surface of which simulates a rounded log. Some people prefer wooden lining. But you can simply sew up the house with an edged board, having previously processed it to remove burrs.

[attention type = red] If the area of ​​the slopes is large enough, then build a wooden crate, fixing the boards in increments of 15-20 cm. Then fill the base material on the crate. This is how the slopes and gables are formed. With a small surface area, the boards can be stuffed directly onto the frame. [/ attention]

The extreme boards of the slopes should extend beyond the walls of the house by 10 cm to ensure the walls are protected from moisture. Ready-made wooden house for a well Wind boards are packed to fully protect the structure from wind and precipitation. Tip: It is recommended to treat all wooden surfaces with an antiseptic impregnation to protect the wood from decay and prevent damage from pests. A layer of varnish can be applied over the impregnation. Wooden ramps are covered with any kind of roofing material that you have in stock.

It can be corrugated board, euroruberoid, bituminous tiles, siding, metal tiles, etc. Roofing material does not fit on the gables. It is enough just to ensure their protection by means of impregnation.

We looked at how to make a house for a well ourselves, providing the water source with the necessary protection. Show your imagination to give it a unique look.

How to dig a well with your own hands video

If there are no centralized water supply networks near your summer cottage or the territory of a country house, and ordering well drilling is too expensive, then the only way out in such a situation is to dig a water intake with your own hands. Such a structure will provide you with water for drinking and household needs. At first glance, it may seem that digging a well is a rather complicated and time-consuming process. But if you know its nuances, methods of execution and sequence of actions, then there is nothing complicated.To make it easier for you to understand the sequence of actions and the features of the work, we bring to your attention a detailed video of the process of self-construction of a well.

Where and when to dig?

At the initial stage, the most important task will be to determine the place and time of digging. It is better to dig a well in the place where the water horizons are closest to the surface of the earth. However, this should not be the top water, which is usually polluted by drains, precipitation. To choose a place for digging, you can use folk signs and methods, a willow twig, a frame, or contact a specialist.

It is important to know: the optimal depth of the well is 15-20 m. Above this mark, there is a high probability of hitting the top, and it is impractical to dig deeper, since then it is more profitable to arrange a well.

Also, when choosing a place for a pit for water intake, it is worth adhering to the following recommendations:

  • Avoid digging a well near dung piles, septic tanks, gutters, or other potential contaminants.
  • Above the well, there should not be any sewage hydraulic structures, for example, cesspools. It is worth retreating from them at least 50 m.
  • Digging a foundation pit is no closer than 5 meters from the house.
  • Digging a well from trees and buildings for pets is carried out at a distance of at least 4 m.
  • It is better to dig a pit from sheds and bushes at a distance of at least 1 m.

As for the time for digging the water intake, it is better to do this in late autumn or winter. The fact is that at this time the groundwater level is the lowest, so you can dig a well of maximum depth, which will insure you against drying out in hot summer and will give the maximum volume of water. In addition, if you dig a hydraulic structure in the spring or early summer, there is a high probability that it will fall into the water.

Choosing the type of building

When building a well with your own hands, it is important to correctly determine the size of the pit. Its volume and dimensions depend on the choice of the type of structure and materials for its construction. So, tubular and shaft wells are distinguished. The first type is also called a needle well or Abyssinian well. However, such a well cannot be dug manually, since it is drilled with the help of special equipment. The dimensions and depth of such wells are minimal, but the volume of water is sufficient to meet the needs of residents.

The easiest way is to dig a mine well with your own hands. In this case, the dimensions of the pit are larger than those of tubular structures. At the same time, the volume of water extracted per day (the debit of the structure) is sufficient to cover the daily needs for drinking and household water supply of a private house. Digging can be done with your own hands using a shovel. However, you will not be able to cope on your own, you need helpers to manually raise the soil to the surface.

In addition, you can make a mine well with your own hands using the following materials:

  • plastic rings allow you to get a sealed and durable structure, such structures can be easily manually (without using a crane) lowered into the pit
  • brick and stone: a large amount of work, their duration and low tightness of the structure led to the fact that this option is now almost never used
  • reinforced concrete rings are no less durable structures than plastic ones, they are most often built with their own hands in suburban and suburban areas
  • wooden well: such structures are also almost never used due to the large amount of work, low durability and tightness of the water intake.

Features of the construction of a mine well

Unlike a well, a well consists of the following structural parts:

  1. The lowest part of the structure is called the intake. Its main purpose is to collect and filter water.
  2. The underground part of the structure, located above the water intake, is called the trunk. This part must be reliably reinforced and insulated to protect the walls of the pit from collapse, and the water intake from the ingress of water.
  3. The head of a well is a part of the structure protruding above the surface of the earth. It is usually made from a concrete ring of brick or plastic. This design protects the well from the ingress of debris, dust, precipitation, and also protects the spring from freezing in the cold season. The head is necessarily equipped with a roof with a door.

Attention: the head of the intake structure must rise above the surface by at least 50 cm.

We make a well ourselves

Since the most popular are mine wells made of reinforced concrete rings, we will consider the sequence of making this structure with our own hands. Digging a well begins with digging a foundation pit. At the same time, like a well, it is worth digging a hole for a well with a slightly larger diameter than the size of a reinforced concrete ring. This will make it easier to lower the elements into the shaft. And the expansion of the pit in the upper part (to a height of 1.5-2 m) will make it possible to arrange a protective castle from a mixture of sand and gravel around the structure. It will reliably protect the barrel from surface water ingress.

It is better to use rings with a diameter of 1 m and a height of 1-1.2 m. Such dimensions of the elements will allow you to independently lower them into the pit using a manual or electric winch. It will be difficult to lift structures with a larger volume and weight on your own; you will need to attract lifting equipment.

Before proceeding with the digging, a tripod made of logs or steel structures is installed above the location of the pit. A manual or electric winch can be attached to it, which will allow you to quickly raise the soil to the surface and lower the rings into the shaft.

Well shaft construction

The scope of work depends on the depth and dimensions of the mine. The sequence of actions is as follows:

  1. Having dug a hole with a depth equal to the height of the reinforced concrete ring, it is installed in a recess. For lifting, use an electric or manual winch.
  2. Then they continue to dig the ground under the ring down. In this case, the entire volume of the excavated earth, as needed, is raised to the surface in a bucket.
  3. As it deepens, the first concrete ring will gradually sink deeper. After it is buried one meter, the second ring is installed. For this, an electric or manual winch is also used. The rings are fastened together with steel brackets.
  4. Further work is carried out in a similar way. The size (depth) of the mine depends on the elevation of the aquifer. If the work is carried out correctly, then within 5-7 days it will be possible to reach the desired horizon. In this case, the bottom of the pit will begin to fill with muddy water.

Tip: sometimes they first dig a hole, and then put rings in it. But this is possible when digging in dense, non-free-flowing soils and with the appropriate experience. For self-execution, the closed method described above is more suitable.

We make a filter and a water intake

The quality of the water in the source depends on how correctly you make this part of the structure. To make a bottom filter yourself, perform the following sequence of actions:

  1. All the muddy water is pumped out from the bottom of the pit.
  2. The bottom is deepened by 15 cm. The surface is carefully leveled and cleaned of dirt.
  3. Then the bottom is covered with a layer of washed river sand 25 cm high.
  4. After that, a layer of gravel is laid on the sand. It is pre-washed in a bleach solution. The layer height is 20 cm.
  5. Then a layer of large crushed stone washed in the same solution is laid. The thickness of the last backfill is 20 cm.

Attention: if water collects very quickly on the bottom of the pit, the bottom is covered with boards before backfilling. They fit with a small gap. After that, work can be carried out on the construction of the filter.

Waterproofing works

To properly build a well, it is necessary to make external and internal waterproofing. To seal the seams between the rings, repair compounds, liquid glass or special waterproofing cords are used, which are laid between the elements during installation.

It is important to know: bituminous mastics cannot be used for internal insulation. They can spoil the taste of the water.

To perform external insulation, you can use one of the proposed methods:

  • A high degree of protection is given by compositions for penetrating waterproofing. They are applied in two layers.
  • You can make a coating with bitumen, followed by winding the upper part of the trunk with 3-4 layers of roofing material.
  • Sometimes plastic wrap is used for these purposes.

After that, the gap between the rings and the walls of the pit is filled with a gravel-sand mixture or a clay castle is made. In addition to everything around the structure, a concrete blind area is made with a slope from the walls of the well.

Video instruction for self-construction of a well:

How to install a well from reinforced concrete rings with your own hands

For a high-quality installation of a well made of reinforced concrete rings, it is necessary to know all the characteristics of this building material. Not everyone has centralized water supply at the dacha, so creating a well on the site is a problem that needs to be paid attention to. Reinforced concrete rings have certain advantages and disadvantages. The construction of wells from them greatly facilitates the process of performing the work.

Preparation for the installation of the well

The project for the production of works (PPR) for the arrangement of wells from reinforced concrete rings involves not only digging out the earth and the initial preparation of the structure for operation. PPR should include the cost of installing the pumping system. So, a dug well with a sufficient debit is a starting condition for the further arrangement of the water supply system.

So that you do not have to carry water in buckets into the house, the PPR involves the following main types of work on the installation of a well:

  • waterproofing of the structure (if necessary, using a "glass")
  • well insulation
  • pipeline installation
  • pumping system device
  • execution of concrete platforms and trays
  • installation of a filtration and water purification system.

A shovel is the main tool required when performing work on the arrangement of a well. You will also need a hose and bucket. The construction of a well may require a special device to lift soil out of the shaft. The use of a fire hydrant in a well is suitable if the structure is thermally insulated. At the same time, you will need the following types of tools:

  • a hammer
  • rope-ladder
  • hacksaw
  • cable
  • chain
  • submersible pump.

A building level will be required to check the horizontal alignment of the reinforced concrete rings. To backfill the bottom of the well, you should prepare crushed stone of fine and coarse fractions. To obtain a durable structure, it is necessary to select high-quality reinforced concrete products.

Characteristics of reinforced concrete rings

Reinforced concrete rings, from which the installation of water wells is carried out, are made in accordance with GOST 8020-90. It contains a list of technical characteristics of precast rings made of reinforced concrete for wells. These types of blanks have a number of differences from each other, for example, in diameter, which can be 750-2000 mm in increments of 250 mm. If we take into account the height of the rings, then the parameter standard is 800-900 mm. Reinforced concrete products, namely rings, are divided into 2 subgroups:

  • with a lock in the end part
  • without a lock.

The lock provides for the creation of a more tight connection of reinforced concrete rings with each other. The structure is durable and tight. Products without a lock are secured with metal staples. In general, reinforced concrete rings have the following advantages:

  • strength and reliability of elements
  • short duration and ease of installation.

The service life of prefabricated reinforced concrete rings for arranging wells is calculated for decades in any climatic conditions, if they are made according to GOST. This characteristic depends on the properties of the reinforced concrete used. The disadvantage of the products is their significant weight, although this characteristic is not considered critical. The estimator, determining the number of blocks required for construction, first calculates the volume of reinforced concrete rings for wells. To do this, you can use the following formula:

V = Lх3.14хR (where V is the volume of the well, L is the height of the structure, R is the radius).

The exact price for reinforced concrete rings is set depending on their volume. Usually the norm is 0.16-0.54 m. And the volume of the future structure depends on the size of the rings.

Selection of reinforced concrete rings

The question related to the choice of reinforced concrete rings should be resolved responsibly. It is recommended to purchase the material after a thorough study of all the characteristics of these products and the necessary calculations. It is important that their surface is free of any damage, including cracks or pits. Otherwise, the rings will be subject to rapid destruction during operation.

Rust on mounting hinges sticking out on the surface of concrete products is unacceptable. If present, it is evidence of a corrosion process. As a result, lifting the product without breaking the loop will be impossible. When purchasing a high-quality workpiece, it is necessary to check the presence of a passport containing information on composite materials.

Lining of reinforced concrete rings is a reliable protection of products from rust. It allows for a high-quality reconstruction of reinforced concrete wells from the inside. If the sewage system begins to collapse, starting from the tank, then this process can be prevented only with the help of lining. It is a state-of-the-art polymer protection that ensures the long life of the concrete rings.

The use of polyethylene sheets for lining prevents the formation of all kinds of build-ups on the walls of the well from the inside. The sealed surface can be easily cleaned if required. This contributes to the improvement of the operational characteristics of the structures.

Requirements for the installation of a stationary summer cottage well

Before installing a well from reinforced concrete rings, the owner of a summer cottage needs to decide in what period the structure will be used. It is possible that the water supply is carried out only in the summer, and the owner plans to live permanently in the country. In this case, the installation of the sewer well will be different, taking into account the operation of the structure throughout the year.

The scheme that allows you to install the water supply system assumes the presence of a source of electricity on the territory of the site. This is due to the fact that it will be necessary to install a pump in a well for water supply. The installation of an electric pumping station to supply water to the well requires the development of all the necessary drawings. Using this traditional method, you can carry out the installation of sewer wells with water supply yourself.

The summer source of drinking water is a temporary structure, so its design can be stationary or collapsible. Usually it is used for 2-3 months. In order not to spend too much physical effort and material resources on the installation of such a structure, you must follow the recommendations below:

  • pre-select submersible or surface pump
  • take into account the pipeline laying depth (0.5-0.8 m)
  • allocate a special area where the device will be placed
  • provide a drain system for the stationary version.

You can mount a permanent water supply using a manifold connection. The system should function due to such structural elements as:

  • pumping station
  • storage tank
  • water heater.

Before the installation of the rings is carried out, taking into account the requirements of the PPR, it is necessary to figure out the place where the water source is located. First, you will need to investigate the level of groundwater table. To make your search successful, you can use different methods.

For example, it can be glass jars that are the same size. They should be placed throughout the entire territory of the infield. In this case, the bottom of each of them should be at the top. After a while, you need to check all the jars: whether condensation has formed in them or not. The more it is, the closer the location of the aquifer is considered.

Do-it-yourself earthworks

After choosing the most suitable site, you can start digging out the earth, taking into account the size of the rings. It is better to perform this type of work with an assistant, so that the partner insures the other person from above. First, you need to prepare a hole 1 m deep, which will allow you to roll a ring of reinforced concrete onto it. It should be lowered down only after checking the verticality of the draft using a plumb line.

Once you find a deviation, you can use a shovel to correct it. When performing earthwork, the rule should be taken into account: the greater the depth of the dug hole, the slower the installation will be. It takes time to dig each subsequent meter. Typically, this will take half a day. Then you need to make sure that each ring in the pit sags down, as described in the video below.

When installing each next product, you need to use a sledgehammer, which allows you to drive the ring into the hole. If it is not located exactly on the previous product, you can correct the resulting deviation using a crowbar. Some of the partners will need to tie themselves with a rope to their belt, securing its other end to the surface in order to go down into the well when it is dug to a depth of 3 m.

After the completion of the earthwork to the end, it is required to carry out the arrangement of the bottom in the wells. A crushed stone "pillow" is made in a layer of 10 cm. This will eliminate the ingress of turbid water into the bucket being filled. If you do not follow the rules for installing the rings, then large gaps may appear between them. In this case, it will be almost impossible to repair the structure. Clay is suitable for sealing between the rings of small gaps in sewer wells.

On the surface of the ground around the well at a distance of 50 cm, it is necessary to free the area from excess soil. Then it is coated with clay and rammed. This allows you to retain excess water on the surface.

Construction of a log house over a well

Having made a well gate from logs, you can make through holes in it to insert a metal pin for the handle. For arranging wells, a chain is usually used, fixed in the middle of the gate. To protect the structure from rain, you need to take care of the preparation of the roof by choosing a suitable design.

The above-ground part of a well made of reinforced concrete rings is usually a log house. For the construction of a roof or a house, beams, sand-cement blocks are used. They carry out construction in the same style as the residential building.

To cover a wooden blockhouse, you can use a canopy, the design of which is selected depending on the functions of the structure. It must provide protection from precipitation. In order to properly arrange a well in the country, you will need to present an overall picture of the finished house decorating the site.

If the price of a log house is not satisfactory, then it can be replaced with a cheaper material, for example, an artificial stone. Natural building material is mainly used in the creation of decorative wells that perform an aesthetic function. To make the upper part of the well, wood is often used - a beautiful and reliable material.

For pillars, logs with a smooth or carved surface are used. For the blind area around the structure, you can use concrete or paving slabs. The roof can be of open and closed type.

The well, made in accordance with the requirements of SNiP, involves the use of modern construction technologies. This ensures the arrangement of a functional water supply system. This is the only way to carry out the installation of cold and hot water supply to the house.

How to dig a well yourself: manual digging technology

After acquiring a suburban area, the primary task of the new owners is to organize a permanent water supply. If a natural reservoir is located nearby, then the solution to the problem is greatly simplified. In the absence of a natural source, water will have to be extracted from the bowels of the earth.

In this case, the question arises: which is better - a well or a well? Much depends on the level of groundwater in a given area. If the aquifer is at a depth of up to 15 meters, then it is more expedient to dig a well, especially since this process can be implemented on our own.

Where and when to dig a well ↑

To determine the exact place where you can dig a well, you should use one of the following methods:

  • consult with specialists who are well familiar with the geology of the area
  • get information from the nearest neighbors about the parameters and location of their well (if any)
  • use the dowsing method - finding water on the site using a vine or two brass frames
  • order geological exploration (the most accurate, but not the cheapest method for determining the depth of groundwater).

Many experts are skeptical about the effectiveness of dowsing, since there is no scientific evidence of the dependence of the position of the locating instrument on the location of groundwater.

As for the time of the work, here you should be guided by the seasonality. The driest period is the end of summer or winter (before the snow melts).

It is at this time that the aquifer has a minimum water level. Of course, digging a mine in winter is not an easy task.

Nevertheless, for the soil with quicksands, this period is the only possible time when a well can be made.

Preparatory activities ↑

If you decide to dig a well with your own hands, then you should approach this process as responsibly as possible, initially preparing the necessary tools and material, as well as paying special attention to the safety of work.

The choice of design and material ↑

The well structure is a deep rectangular or round shaft. The material for strengthening the walls of the mine can be stone, brick, wood or concrete. For arranging wells, concrete rings are mainly used, due to the relative simplicity and speed of construction work.

The standard design includes:

  • head (ground part)
  • mine
  • water intake.

A bottom filter must be installed in the water intake, which usually consists of 3 layers of crushed stone or gravel: fine fraction (lower part), middle fraction and coarse fraction. The total filter thickness is 30-50 cm.

To dig a well manually, you will need the following materials and tools:

  • concrete rings and staples for fixing them
  • sand and cement
  • crushed stone or gravel
  • shovel
  • bucket
  • lifting device
  • rope-ladder.

Precautions ↑

Since the depth of the well shaft can reach 20 m, such works pose a danger to human health and life. Therefore, you should adhere to simple, but necessary rules.

  • The work must be performed by at least 2 people: one carries out the slaughter at the bottom of the mine, and the second raises a bucket with the ground and at the same time controls the safety of the event.
  • The person working underneath must have a safety helmet on his head.
  • It is necessary to periodically check the strength of the rope and the reliability of the fastening of the hoisting device.
  • You cannot stay in the mine for a long time, as dampness and cold have an adverse effect on human health.
  • During the digging process, the mine can be filled with gas. Therefore, at the slightest deterioration in health, it is necessary to rise to the surface.

Diy well digging technology

The complexity of the work largely depends on the characteristics of the soil. For example, digging a well in clay is much easier than digging in rocky ground, where the final result can be incredible effort.

In conditions of too hard rocks, it is more advisable to give preference to drilling a well, while digging a clay well with your own hands will not be difficult.

In this case, the construction process has the following algorithm.

  1. In the place where it is planned to dig a mine, markings are made. In this case, the diameter of the pit should be 10 cm larger than the diameter of the concrete ring.

When preparing the pit, it is important to observe the correct diameter.

  1. The first ring is delivered to the pit, which is set in place using levers. It is very important to adhere to the vertical level, since even a slight misalignment will negatively affect the entire structure.
  2. Further, the pit deepens, and the ring falls under its own weight.
  3. A second ring is installed on top. To prevent displacement of the column, the rings are connected with brackets. Particular attention should be paid to sealing the joints. To do this, you can use tarred hemp rope, after which the seam can be repaired with cement mortar.

Concrete ring well shaft

  1. It can take days or even weeks to dig a deep well. At the first appearance of water, the mine continues to deepen anyway. The process stops only after the intensity of the arrival of water becomes too great, and the aquifers are already visible. The shaft is then covered with a lid and left intact for 24 hours.
  2. The water accumulated during the day is pumped out and a bottom filter made of fine gravel and crushed stone is placed at the bottom of the well.

Clay well lock

  1. From the outside, the rings are covered with a gravel-sand mixture, and in the upper part they are tamped with clay. Thus, a clay lock is created, which prevents the ingress of melt and rainwater into the well shaft.

Video: the whole process from idea to tea party ↑

Adhering to this technology, you can correctly and quickly dig a well of shallow depth. In case of deep groundwater, it is worth using the services of professionals, since labor costs in this case are incommensurate with the economic benefit from self-excavation.

How to make a water column in the country?

An equipped well for water is an autonomous and reliable source of water supply for a summer cottage or a private house.

The organization of individual water supply is not always caused by the lack of a centralized water supply, the reason may be low quality of water in the main line, interruptions in supply, deterioration of the water utility network, high cost of water, its shortage, and other factors.

Almost all owners of summer cottages or country cottages have an autonomous source of water. Another thing is that their choice may differ. Someone prefers a well, someone likes a well.

By the way, it will be useful to get acquainted with the comparative characteristics - which is better, a well or a well for water supply of a private house.

This article is for those who have opted for a well.

It should be noted that wells are divided into two types depending on the drilling depth.

Types of water wells

  • Well on the sand. This type has become more widespread due to the low cost of work and the ability to perform work manually. From a design point of view, a sand well is a single column with a bottom filter (see diagram). The well debit ranges from 5 to 100 cubic meters. per day. The drilling depth is limited to 10 meters (for machine drilling, 30 m). A hand pump (hand column for a well) or a pumping device is used to pump out the water. The service life is 10-15 years.
  • Limestone well or artesian well. It is much less common. The reason for this may be: the high cost of work and the need for approval of the drilling project in local permitting organizations (such as KP Vodokanal). The well design solution is more complex. It consists of two strings - casing and working. The first is installed before limestone, the second - directly in the limestone. The artesian well has a larger debit from 7 to 40 cubic meters. per hour (depending on the diameter of the pipe) and lasts up to 50 years. Drilling is carried out with the involvement of equipment, and the depth can reach 320 meters.

Since it is supposed to do it yourself, consider in more detail the device of wells for sand, as the most affordable in the plan for independent implementation.

1. Determination of depth

  • shallow (up to 3 m) well breaks through if the aquifer is close to the surface of the soil, and the water is supposed to be used only for technical needs or irrigation. To drill such a well, a drill, casing and a hand pump are enough.
  • medium-deep (up to 7 m) well will provide an opportunity to obtain water suitable for human consumption. To drill a well on your own, in addition to a drill, you will need a shovel and time to drill a hole. A pit (pit) with dimensions of 1.5x1.5x1.5 is designed to facilitate drilling to great depths. For ease of use, it can be reinforced with plywood or boards. After the completion of the work, the pit is filled up. Water supply is carried out using a pump
  • deep (more than 7 m) well, will completely cover the water demand of all residents of a private house or cottage. At the same time, there will be enough water not only for individual consumption, but also for technical needs, sanitary requirements, irrigation, maintenance of a pool or pond (reservoir).

In general, the choice of the type of water intake is determined by the post-geological survey of the well site. We propose to consider the last option - the device of a deep well with your own hands, as the most difficult of the presented ones.

A detailed description of the principles of organizing water supply to a private house from a well

2. Methods for drilling a well

The listed types of wells (this does not apply to artesian wells or wells "to the knowledge") can be drilled using the following methods (technologies):

Auger drilling of water wells Auger drilling using auger auger.

Core drilling of a well for water In this case, a drill bit is used, which is driven into the soil without excavation. The soil is simply compacted away from the bit axis. The chisel is hammered using a tripod with a slider.

Percussion-rotary drilling of a well for water The work of the drill is complemented by the washing out of the soil with water. The method is laborious for individual use. Rotary drilling of a well for waterRotary drilling (provided by a mobile drilling rig).

The photo shows a small-sized drilling rig MGB50P-02S with a movable hydraulic rotator, manufactured by the company Gorizontal.

In the event that the depth of occurrence of the aquifer is precisely known, you can drill directly with the size of the drill for the casing. If not, you will first need to find out at what depth the aquifer lies.

Thus, any well is an individual project, which is influenced by the following parameters:

  • geological structure of soil
  • selected drilling method
  • requirements for the quantity and quality of water
  • the requirement to maintain the required distances to places of pollution (arrangement of a "sanitary zone")
  • the depth of the aquifer.Moreover, this does not mean the first vein to which the drill got to, but the one that will meet the conditions of use in terms of ensuring the debit of the well.

4. Tools for drilling water wells

Since the description of the percussion-rope method of manual drilling, its advantages should be noted:

  • preservation of most of the useful soil layer in its original state. Those. heavy machinery will not damage the plantings on the site
  • no restrictions on the drilling site. A hand drill can be drilled in almost any part of the site
  • simplicity of equipment and minimum requirements for the qualification of the driller.

  • a drill with a reinforced cutting part. Tip: you can strengthen the drill by welding on the screw cutters, the role of which can be played by file elements or a metal bar. In addition, the incisors can be sharpened using a grinder
  • excavated soil removal trolley
  • baby pump with hose

For the arrangement will come in handy:

  • crushed stone or gravel for a pillow
  • steel wire for filter
  • pipes
  • wire for arranging the bottom filter.

5. Site selection and pit arrangement

With the help of hired specialists or folk methods (dowsing, barometric method, using silicogel, by the amount of weeds, exploratory drilling, etc.), we determine the place where the aquifer is closest to the surface.

Digging a hole under a well for water Next, we dig a hole. This is the development of soil of a certain depth, the purpose of which is to facilitate the process of drilling a well.

Arrangement of the pit is an important stage for two reasons.

First, the drilling depth is reduced.

Secondly, the possibility of soil collapse around the well is excluded.

The dimensions of the well are determined by the driller, but usually they are 1.5x1.5 and 1.5-2.5 m. in depth. To prevent the soil from sprinkling, the pit is strengthened with plywood, boards or metal.

6. The first method: tripod - drilling rig

Installation for drilling water wellsTripod - percussion rope mechanism for drilling water wells. The support structure will be needed in order to facilitate the drilling process through the use of a drill stem.

Diagram of a tripod for drilling A tripod can be made of wood (excluding knots) or a metal pipe (or profile). The length of the bar or pipe should be 4-5 m. How to make a tripod for drilling can be seen in the diagram. Drill bit for drilling Next, a mechanical winch with a cable is attached to the tripod, on which the drill bit is fixed.

Such a drilling rig is compact and has a significant margin of safety. The principle of operation of the installation is simple: the glass, falling into the ground, absorbs the soil. Depending on the composition of the soil for one blow, you can choose from 20 cm. up to 1 m. of soil. The work can be facilitated by flooding the drilling site with water.

From time to time, the drill bit needs to be cleaned of the soil stuffed into it.

Attention: The cable on which the drill is attached must be of the longest hole depth. Otherwise, it will break off, and the drill will remain at the bottom.

The casing can be installed at the same time by pushing to depth or after all work has been completed.

7. Second method - casing and drill

During the drilling process, you can immediately install the casing, then its diameter must be larger than the diameter of the drill, so that the drill can move freely in the pipe.

When carrying out work, you need to constantly monitor the moisture content of the soil to be removed so as not to miss the aquifer (otherwise it can be closed with a pipe). The main signs are below.

Material prepared for the website

Pumping dirty water After the aquifer is found, it is necessary to pump out dirty water in order to understand whether there is enough water in this vein. For this, a submersible or hand pump is used.

If after pumping out 2-3 buckets of muddy water, clean water still does not appear, you should continue drilling for a more capacious layer.

Important: the pump is not designed for such working conditions, therefore, after water purification, it may break. It is recommended to use only a high quality pump.

8. Well casing

For casing, steel or plastic pipes can be used (service life up to 50 years). But the use of galvanized pipes is not recommended, due to the risk of water contamination with zinc impurities.

The casing value is as follows:

  • prevention of shattering of the borehole walls
  • well siltation anticipation
  • elimination of the possibility for top water to enter the well (water of the upper layers, melt or rain water)
  • elimination of the risk of well clogging.

The installation of the casing pipe is carried out immediately after the completion of the work or directly during the drilling process.

Advice: if the pipes go "with a creak" you need to attach a scoop to them.

9. Flushing the well for water after drilling

How to calculate the cost of digging a well?

The cost of digging a well manually depends on several factors.
More details:

  • The price for the construction of a well is based on the cost of materials and equipment for its construction.
  • Concrete rings. This is the main element of the construction of the structure, without which the well is impossible.

Advice. When buying rings, you should choose options with metal "ears" for gripping with a crane.

Concrete rings with steps and ears

  • Connecting brackets for slabs. If the slabs have smooth walls without grooves, they give strength and reliability to the structure.
  • Sand and cement. The gaps and cracks in the rings are covered with concrete mortar, and the seams are also closed.

Advice. Cement must be bought waterproof, which does not crack from moisture and dampness.

  • Granite, gravel and crushed stone. They are needed for good water filtration.
  • Work force. This aspect is calculated individually. Everyone decides for himself whether to dig for himself, or to hire a team of professional workers, since compliance with safety rules and regulations also plays an important role.

Note. Digging a well carries an increased risk to the life and health of the worker. Based on this, it is worth following a few simple and important rules.

  • Work in a hard hat. This will prevent stones and earth from falling on a person's head when they are removed from the well shaft.
  • Systematically check all excavation and ring machines and winches.
  • Stay in the mine for no more than an hour. Excessive moisture negatively affects the body. After that, you need to stay in the fresh air for at least half an hour so that the lungs resume their usual pace of work.
  • At the last stage of construction, you need to work exclusively in a rubber suit. Long-term presence of a worker in water has a detrimental effect on health and well-being.

Advice. For people prone to claustrophobia, staying in a well is categorically contraindicated.

Digging a well is not particularly difficult. For this there are a lot of recommendations and rules for the construction of a structure.

Digging a well with your own hands is a good challenge for a man. But you need to really calculate your strength, since not everyone's physical capabilities allow it to be done. I think that the ideal option would be to help experienced workers and at the same time learn all the intricacies of the process. When digging, you need to follow many rules so that later you can use the creation of your own hands.

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Clay well: how to dig it yourself

Well in the process of manufacturing Most drinking wells were dug in clay, due to the relatively homogeneous composition of soils in most of our country. And it is in such wells that the purest, tastiest and free from harmful impurities water is usually found. yandex_partner_id.

What to do if there is difficult soil at the bottom of the well

In this case, the bottom of the well is formed by clay rocks. The well is the most common source of drinking water where there is no centralized water supply. But the water in it is not always crystal clear and transparent, and often contains various inorganic impurities.

Dig a well: methods and equipment for this

Digging a well If you dig a well in a suburban area, this will make it possible to provide water to the buildings on it and water the garden or garden in time. All this refers to the improvement of the suburban area. (More ...) yandex_partne.

How much does it cost to dig a well in the country or how to do it yourself

Completed Well Mine Digging wells is a very difficult, dirty and long business. If there is confidence that the water is shallow, many summer residents try to do this work on their own, otherwise many problems arise. Having no idea how to properly dig a well in the country, it is better not to take it up, but leave it for specialists. But how much will it cost.

How to dig a well and when to drink water

You still need to get to the water, boulders interfere. When a vital question arises about water supply in a country house or how to dig a well in the country, memories of not only the well, but also the well emerge. Drilling a well with your own hands is problematic, you will definitely have to seek help from a specialized company with equipment. The well is in the floor.

Features of digging wells in the spring

Contrary to the widespread misconception that digging a well in the spring is difficult and impractical, the spring season is quite suitable for arranging an autonomous well-type water supply source. Truth, digging wells in spring has certain features, subtleties and nuances.

The main difficulties of digging wells in spring

One of the main difficulties that arise during the construction of a well in the spring is the problem of floods and, as a result, the instability of the groundwater level. This can lead to errors in determining the required depth of the shaft.

However, usually in the Moscow region, the season of active spring floods lasts no more than two to three weeks, at the turn of March and April.

But the construction of a well in a later spring is not only quite possible, but even provides a number of specific advantages.

The main advantages of spring digging of wells

Among the main advantages of the process of constructing an autonomous well-type tank are the following:

  • at the beginning of work in May, the well will be fully ready for operation at the most relevant time - in the summer
  • in late spring, the level of underground aquifers reaches its maximum value, which prevents the well from drying out at any time of the year
  • due to the lack of excitement observed in summer, the cost of research and work in the spring is significantly reduced
  • in spring, suburban areas are not so densely populated as in summer, which greatly facilitates and speeds up the delivery of equipment and work.

Thus, if you do not pay attention to the vagaries of the weather and do not carry out work in the midst of floods, then digging wells in the spring is not only quite possible, but also quite expedient.

Stages for the construction of wells in the spring

The first step in the construction of a new well is to determine its location and depth. For this, appropriate topographic, geological and hydrological surveys are carried out. They must be carried out by qualified specialists, since mistakes at this stage are unacceptable.

After that, the designated area is cleared, the necessary equipment, equipment and tools are brought to it.

Then proceed directly to earthworks. They can be done in one of two ways:

  • open, when a reinforced concrete well ring is installed on the ground, after which soil is removed from under it
  • closed, when a shaft of the required depth is initially dug, into which concrete rings are then lowered.

A competently dug well, built by specialists in compliance with all technological requirements, is able to provide a sufficient amount of water for a private household or an outbuilding at any time of the year and for a very long time!

Watch the video: Making a Dragon wall hanging from polymer clay


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