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Is grapes really impossible in Siberia?

 Is grapes really impossible in Siberia?


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How to grow grapes in Siberia, because the local conditions seem unsuitable for the cultivation of this culture? Short short summers with unstable weather, long winters with severe frosts, strong winds - it would seem that there is no worse place for southern culture. But grapes in Siberia ripen very well, you just need to know the correct agricultural technology for the local conditions.

Features of the Siberian climate

Grapes are thermophilic, hygrophilous, but most of all they do not like sudden daily temperature changes. Many southern varieties, faced with the harsh realities of the Siberian climate, lag behind in development, are susceptible to disease, mature poorly, and grow little timber. This is even despite the fact that the sum of summer temperatures in the south of the Altai Territory may slightly differ from the Krasnodar Territory, where they come from.

But at the same time, Siberian conditions are more favorable for viticulture in terms of diseases and pests of grapes. The dangerous phylloxera aphid is not here. Downy mildew - mildew is also not very common in the Siberian region.

Video about growing grapes in Siberia

Variety selection plays a key role in Siberian viticulture.

With a short summer and a long winter, only early varieties, partially mid-ripening, are capable of yielding here, in the presence of a spring film shelter. It is also highly advisable to buy grafted seedlings. The stock is best served by hardy North American varieties or Far Eastern wild grapes. Of course, you can graft yourself, but for beginners it is better to get by with the purchase of already grafted plants.

The best grape varieties for Siberia

Among the varieties suitable for Siberian conditions there are many local ones, bred by breeders or simply amateur gardeners. Many European, as well as some southern varieties are suitable for growing in Siberia.

In the photo, the grape variety "Tukai"

Hybrids of early maturation of Siberian selection: Siberian cheromushka, Tomich, Sharov's selection - Zagadka, Muscat, Buratino. Mid-season varieties: Katyr, Srostinsky, Seyanets Sharova. Mid-season varieties: Obskoy, Dubinushka, Biysk-2. Of the non-Siberian varieties, Vostorg, Aleshenkin, Tukai are worthy of attention. Pamyat Dombkovskaya is very popular among the early varieties among Siberians; it is a small berry seedless variety of early ripening, with increased winter hardiness. Of the southern, very tasty grape varieties, Cardinal and Husayne ripen here. However, it is advisable to grow these varieties together with an additional film cover in spring / autumn, due to the late maturity.

The most hardy, and therefore suitable for the Siberian climate, are varieties of American selection: Isabella and Lydia. They winter excellently with minimal shelter, in some places they can not even be removed under the snow, leaving them on trellises, gazebos. They are very fruitful, but the taste of the berries is noticeably inferior in comparison with other cultivated varieties. Best suited for winemaking.

Planting and leaving

Growing grapes in Siberia requires deep pits or trenches, about a meter deep. Gravel or other drainage is poured down, a layer of compost or fresh humus is laid. The excavated earth is mixed with sand, humus, after which it is poured back. You need to remove some of the soil so that the plant grows in a small ditch. So later it will be more convenient to cover the plants. Not completely filling the hole, we leave a mound of soil, placing a seedling on top of it, spreading the roots along the mound. Gently sprinkle the roots of the seedling from all sides. After which it is necessary to water well.

Photo of a pit for planting grapes

As a more labor-intensive, but effective technique, pipe cuttings can be digged vertically into trenches or pits to provide water and air access to the roots. A piece of slate is placed on the bottom of the pit, the lower end of the pipe is installed, the hole is sprinkled with drainage, and filled with soil mixture from the pit. The grapes are planted as described above. Place the pipe on the north side and a little further from the seedling. Do not cut the pipe too high that sticks out. This will allow more cold air to reach the roots. Greater soil freezing. The upper end of the pipe should be under winter shelter, that is, rise above the level of the grape trench no more than twenty centimeters.

Pruning

Siberian autumn is shorter than European autumn, so pruning here is different from southern pruning. First, we cut the vine not in one, but in two times. The first pruning should be done between mid-August and late September, when the crop is harvested, but there are still green leaves. The fruiting vine, all thin, weak shoots, old branches, areas of the bush damaged by diseases or frosts are removed. The shoots, vines, and branches participating in the replacement remain.

Pruning of grapes for the next growing season is carried out immediately before the winter shelter. The later you trim the bush, the better. The vineyard will store the maximum possible amount of nutrients.

In the photo, pruning grapes

Leaving the second stage of autumn pruning until spring is not recommended, since due to the abundant spring sap flow, budding, flowering, fruiting are delayed for two to three weeks, which is extremely undesirable for the conditions of a short Siberian summer.

The pruning technique for Siberian grapes is practically the same as for other climatic conditions. The main operation should be the creation of a fruit link, otherwise referred to as a knot of replacement. Two strong vines growing side by side, ripe from green shoots, are selected. Closer to the roots, the vine is cut short into two or three buds, the top one is longer, leaving from ten to twenty buds.

The next year, one of them bears powerful green shoots, the other bears the harvest. In autumn, when the bunches are collected, the long vine, along with all the shoots, is cut to the very base. From the grown shoots of the vines cut short last fall, we leave only two. We also cut one of them short, the other long. Next fall we repeat the same operation. This allows you not to thicken the bush and not to load with old wood that does not bear crops.

In Siberian agricultural technology, it is very important to calculate the load of the bush. The unit for calculating the load is the eye - the bud, which will carry the inflorescence and bunch next summer. Overload the bush - the quality of the berries will decrease, in addition, the bunches will slowly ripen, not allowing the plant to send all its strength to ripening summer wood. To underload a powerful plant with berries - it will immediately start up tens of meters of powerful green lashes. Such an accelerator will also not have time to ripen by winter. All strength went into growth. Thus, the plant approaches wintering weakened, not prepared. This is fraught with freezing of some of the roots, possibly the entire plant.

Photo of pruning grapes

Grape bush load

  • The first year or two, the grape bush grows freely, developing a powerful root system, creating a supply of nutrients.
  • Entering the fruiting season, the plant for the first summer is left with no more than twenty eyes - future bunches.
  • For the second year, we double the load on the bush (20-40 eyes).
  • The third year, one and a half to two times (40-60 bunches)
  • The fourth year of fruiting - we increase the load to 60-80.
  • An adult plant is loaded, depending on the strength of growth and variety, in the range of 80-150 eyes.
  • We leave a larger number of eyes for small-berry varieties, large-fruited ones can do with fewer. But in general, the load is determined by the condition of the bush, its health, winter hardiness, as well as the climatic conditions of your area.
  • Of two troubles - overloading or underloading the bush, the lesser evil is underloading.

Hardening

The main feature of Siberian agricultural technology is the hardening of plants, their acclimatization to daily, annual temperature drops, short summers and long winters. Hardening is manifested by the fact that southern grape varieties are not recommended to be kept in greenhouse conditions - a greenhouse shelter for the entire growing season will be of little use. So you can prevent the bush and the crop from frosts, which are frequent in spring and occurring in summer, but this way you will pamper the bush.

It will be difficult for him to endure wintering - which is more important than surviving the frost. The only expedient measure is to cover the overwintered vines, which have not yet been raised to the trellises, with a film in the spring, during the most severe frosts, capable of beating all the flowers and depriving them of the harvest until next summer.

In the photo is a bush of grapes

The plant gradually develops resistance to daily temperature extremes, shortens the growing season, ripening better for winter. The consequence of this is less wood growth, lower yield per bush, lower sugar content of the juice, but increased resistance and winter hardiness.

Shelter for the winter

Preparing for wintering will be the most important part of Siberian viticulture for you. Although the main task will be to protect the grapes from frost penetration, which can reach minus 50, and sometimes even lower, it is also important to protect the vines from damping, wetting, decay, and the development of fungal diseases.

We lay protective materials on plants, when daily temperatures close to zero are established, solar activity does not allow the vine to warm up much, provoking a greenhouse effect, damping, which can greatly weaken the bush. The optimal shelter period for grapes before wintering is from mid-October to early November.

Photography sheltering grapes for the winter

The technique of sheltering grapes for the winter:

  • The cut vines are removed from the trellises and placed along the trench where the grapes grow.
  • You can only cover dry bushes. So it is best to carry out this operation on a windy sunny day, in order to exclude the possibility of moisture getting inside the winter shelter of the grapes. Otherwise, fungal diseases will develop in winter, which can reduce the frost resistance of the bush.
  • A covering material (strong cloth or film, preferably black) is placed on top of the vines, dug into the ground from both sides, or pressed against the soil.
  • A winter protective layer is applied over the shelter. Coniferous spruce branches, such as pine, are best suited for these purposes.
  • When the snow cover is established, make sure that there is enough snow over the vineyard. If necessary, install plywood or polycarbonate snow cordons.
  • In the spring, after the snow melts, remove the top layer of protection. If the film is black, you can open the winter house later. If transparent, depressurize the shelter for air access from the ends.
  • In April, with the beginning of an active growing season, remove all shelters from the grapes by installing the arches of a foil greenhouse over the vine. When the threat of frost passes (late May - early June), the greenhouse is removed. And the vines climb the trellises.

Top dressing and summer care

Agrotechnics, designed for hardening and acclimatization of grapes, excludes a large amount of fertilizing, especially nitrogen-containing ones. In the first half of the summer, it is enough to do only with regular watering.

Video about the correct planting of grapes in Siberia

An exception can be made for fertilization with humic acids and other organic fertilizing, which rather affect the quality of the soil, the degree of assimilation of nutrients by the bush and stimulate the immunity of plants. In the second half of the summer, it is recommended to apply potassium-phosphorus fertilizers.

Grapes in Siberia for beginners - a quick guide.

  1. You can grow early, mid-season varieties. Desirable Siberian selection.
  2. Temper plants, cover with foil only in case of frost in spring, fertilize sparingly.
  3. Regulate the load in bunches. From 20 eyes per bush in the first year and more in the future.
  4. Prune twice in the fall, after harvest, before hiding for the winter.
  5. Cover for the winter, carry out snow retention.
  6. After the spring opening, build film shelters over the bushes. Tie up the vines after the threat of spring frosts has passed.

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How to grow petunia from seeds at home for seedlings

Petunia can be called the undisputed favorite among the annual plants that adorn the garden. On sale you can find a wide selection of all kinds of varieties with simple and double, small and large flowers. Every year, breeders offer summer residents new items with improved varietal characteristics. Ready-made petunia seedlings are expensive, so many gardeners prefer to sow at home. This event will definitely be successful if you follow all stages of growing seedlings.


Design features

For grapes, you can adapt a ready-made vegetable greenhouse made of cellular polycarbonate, if you build additional vents to blow the greenhouse space in the summer heat.

You can make a greenhouse with your own hands - there is plenty of room for imagination for skillful hands. In this case, it is necessary that the greenhouse provides:

  • sufficient space for both the plant for full development and for the winegrower for ease of maintenance
  • good thermal insulation of the inner space from frost
  • good ventilation to prevent air stagnation and reduce heat so that the vines do not burn
  • high resistance of the frame and coating to snow load.


Growing grapes in a greenhouse compared to a vineyard in an open area has the following advantages:

  • getting a high-quality harvest in a larger amount of early terms than from an open field vineyard
  • comfortable conditions for planting and working in the vineyard (protection from adverse climatic conditions: hail, waterlogging from a rainy summer, early autumn and late spring frosts, severe frost, hurricane winds)
  • protection against fungal diseases, wasp invasions
  • if necessary, fight against diseases and pests - reducing the number of chemical treatment of plants.


Outdoor rhododendron care

In order for the rhododendron to grow well and bloom profusely in your summer cottage, it needs proper and timely care.

Rhododendron, like all heathers, does not tolerate drying out of the soil. And the peat mixture in which this shrub grows dries up very quickly, especially in summer when the weather is hot. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to the plant regularly and on time to water.

At the end of summer (in August), experienced flower growers recommend stopping watering.

Advice! In the first 2 years, it is highly recommended to do surface spraying in dry weather, in other words, watering directly over the crown.

Weeds must not be allowed to grow in the near-trunk circle of the shrub. To avoid this, it is necessary at the planting stage to mulch the hole and, if necessary, add additional mulch, as well as weed and loosen.

Top dressing

In early spring rhododendron good feed any nitrogen-containing fertilizer that contains a minimum amount of potassium. For example, you can use ammonium nitrate and prepare a solution by taking 1 tbsp. a spoonful of fertilizer and dissolving it in 10 liters of water.

If your rhododendron has bloomed profusely, then to replenish its strength, you need a mandatory summer top dressing.

As for such dressings, it is advisable to make 2-3 dressings with acid fertilizers during the summer. For this, store-bought azalea fertilizers are great.

Video: when and how to feed rhododendrons

The second feeding of rhododendrons in the summer should be done at the end of July. For this, potassium sulfate should be used. To prepare the solution, you will need 1 tbsp. a spoonful of fertilizer and 10 liters of water.

Video: second summer feeding

Important! At the end of flowering in the first 2-3 years, it is advisable to promptly and carefully remove the faded inflorescences, otherwise they form seed material that draws strength from the rhododendrons.

After the rhododendron has faded, if it feels good and you take proper care of it, then it will definitely give young shoots. If they do not appear, then this is a clear signal that the care is incorrect or insufficient (for example, watering).

Video: caring for rhododendrons

Note! You can read more about caring for rhododendrons in autumn and preparing them for winter. in this article.

Video: preparing rhododendrons for winter


Pruning and sheltering Isabella grapes in autumn

You need to carry out the procedure in the interval between the end of the leaf fall and the first frost. To do this, use a special grape pruner.

The rules for pruning grapes in the fall are quite simple:

  • all non-lignified and weak shoots are removed
  • lignified branches are cut 2/3 of the length
  • diseased and damaged branches are completely removed.

The cuts are made straight, not oblique, no burrs or cracks in the bark should remain on them. They are smoothed out with a sharp blade if necessary.


Tips from seasoned gardeners

Novice summer residents sometimes make mistakes when growing vegetables. To prevent this, it is recommended to listen to the advice of experienced gardeners:

  • before filling the seedling containers with soil, it must be disinfected with a manganese solution to avoid contamination of the seeds
  • if there is no special box or container, you can take other containers, but always with holes for moisture drainage
  • there should be no voids and lumps in the soil mixture, therefore, the ground is sifted first, and, having laid in a seedling box, lightly tamped
  • the day before sowing onion seeds, the soil is moistened
  • when 2 leaves are formed on the seedlings, it is recommended to cut them by 1-2 cm, this stimulates the development of the root system
  • when thinning, remote seedlings can be dived into another container, planting at a distance of 2 cm from each other
  • taking seedlings outside for hardening, put them exclusively in the shade, preventing direct sunlight from falling on the leaves
  • when planting seedlings in a permanent place, be sure to take into account the principles of crop rotation, it is better to plant onions after potatoes, cabbage, zucchini and cucumbers
  • before planting seedlings in the beds, you should slightly shorten the green feathers, and cut the "washcloth" of the roots by 1/3.

It is better to grow onions in higher elevations, and for varieties such as Esibishen it is recommended to form high ridges, placing the seedlings at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other.

Care for seedlings of onion Exibishen, leek, onion: video

In order not to depend on weather conditions and to be able to get an early harvest of onions, it is recommended to grow them in seedlings. Despite the fact that this method is troublesome, you should not be afraid of difficulties. Seedling cultivation will provide a good harvest in one season, will avoid shooting and will be a good prevention against onion diseases.


The most common mistakes

To grow healthy seedlings and get a good harvest, it is worth following agricultural techniques and providing optimal conditions. Therefore, it is better to immediately disassemble the errors in order to prevent them, most often the following problems arise:

  • Thickened planting. At the stage of growing seedlings, it stretches up and becomes thinner. Because of this, the stems become brittle, the risk of infection with black leg, as well as other fungal diseases, increases sharply. When planting on a garden bed, follow the scheme recommended on the package.
  • Insufficient lighting. Plants are demanding of the sun, if it is not enough, it is necessary to supplement it. And in the beds, do not place tall crops next to them so that they do not shade the cabbage.
  • Lack or excess of moisture. If there is a lot of water, the roots will begin to rot and the plant will die. With a shortage, development is inhibited, the heads of cabbage may not even form.
  • Overheating of the root part. The soil should not warm up to more than 20 degrees. It is best to mulch the surface to retain moisture and protect against overheating, and water in the morning to cool the topsoil as it evaporates.


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