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Liana Tunbergia (Thunbergia) belongs to the genus of ornamental flowering plants that belong to the Acanthus family. The plant got its distribution in hot tropical countries located in the south of Asia and Africa. There are about 200 varieties of this genus.
The origin of the name is associated with the name of the famous naturalist and scientist Peter Thunberg, who conducted deep research among the flora and fauna. The flower has another name - black-eyed Suzanne. In Europe, you can often find such a definition, since the middle of the buds is painted in a dark color. Tunbergia cultivars are grown outdoors or indoors.
Description of the tunbergia plant
Tunbergia looks like a liana or shrub, which has heart-shaped opposite serrated leaves with a pubescent surface. They can grow up to 2.5-10 cm long. The flowers are funnel-shaped buds up to 4 cm in diameter, formed on elongated peduncles. They are collected in inflorescences, the color of which depends on the variety, or are located on the stems separately. Certain plant species have a pleasant, persistent scent during flowering, which can be observed from July to September.
Thunbergia has the properties of a perennial, but our climatic conditions do not allow growing a flower in flower beds every year in a row. This is hampered by the plant's instability to the effects of low temperatures, therefore, as a rule, it does not survive the winter. Serves as a decoration of the garden plot only as an annual and is used to create compositions of vertical gardening. If you provide reliable support to the plant, it can reach a height of about 2 meters.
The plant is successfully grown as an evergreen decoration in apartments or greenhouses.
Growing tunbergia from seeds
Tunbergia is grown from seeds in early spring. Before this, the planting material is processed with epin or fumar. Sowing is carried out in a prepared substrate, which will consist of the same ratio of peat, earth, sand. From above, the seeds are covered with a small layer of earth and watered with water.
To create a greenhouse effect, containers with crops are covered with foil or glass. They are placed on window sills located on the illuminated side of the building. Do not allow the top surface of the soil to dry out. The optimum temperature for growing is 22-24 ºC. If you strictly follow the rules of care, then after 7 days the first shoots will appear. After that, the film or glass is removed.
Thunbergia. From sowing to germination!
Seedling of tunbergia
If the seedlings seem thick enough, it is necessary to cut them out and leave only the best specimens. For seedlings that have reached a height of about 12 cm, pinching the tops is done. To get thick and lush greenery, you need to apply nitrogen fertilization to the site after the pick every week. However, top dressing can interfere with long-lasting and vibrant flowering.
If you don't want to waste time picking seedlings, then you can plant tunbergia immediately in cups filled with peat. It will be enough to pour 3 seeds into each of them.
Planting tunbergia in open ground
The site for planting tunbergia should be in the shade. Drafts should be avoided. As a substrate, choose a fertile soil with good drainage properties and a neutral environment. Before planting, the site is dug up, while a small amount of lime is added to the soil.
After the spring frosts recede, you can send the seedlings to the flower bed.
Wonderful Tunbergia flower. Planting care cultivation sowing tunbergia seedlings.
It is necessary to plant individual bushes at a distance of at least 30 cm from each other. So that in the future the shoots can cling and stretch upward, support gratings or wire are installed on the site. The flowering of seed-grown tunbergia occurs three months after the pinching of the tops.
Caring for tunbergia in the garden
Caring for tunbergia in the open field is not difficult, even an inexperienced amateur gardener can handle it. The plant only needs timely watering, which needs to be increased during flowering, so that the bushes do not lose their foliage or the forming bud ovaries. If there is a prolonged drought in the summer, then it is better to spray the leaves of the plant in the evenings.
At the beginning of the budding process in a moderate amount, the soil is fertilized with complex mineral compositions. Sluggish, damaged stems and wilted inflorescences should also be removed.
Thunbergia after flowering
After the completion of flowering, seed pods are formed in place of wilted buds, which must be collected in a timely manner in order to prevent self-seeding. Then the content is extracted from them. The seeds are thoroughly dried, poured into paper boxes or bags and left in a dry room until spring. They retain germination properties for several years.
Preparing for winter
Vines grown in flower beds will have to be dug up after the end of the season, because the plant almost always dies in winter. However, if the tunbergia grew in a flowerpot, then in the fall it will be enough to cut off its shoots and leave only a few healthy buds on them. Places of cuts are processed with potassium permanganate. The flowerpots are kept in a cool room, where the flower will wait for the arrival of spring. The irrigation regime is reduced, but one should not forget that drying out the soil will not lead to anything good.
Diseases and pests
Often, tunbergia bushes or vines are affected by spider mites, scale insects or aphids. Treatment of the plant with chemical preparations, for example, actellik or phytoverm, helps to get rid of these insects. A break should be observed between procedures. No more than 4 treatments are allowed. There are cases of infection with fungal diseases. Fungicides will cope with this problem. As soon as the first signs of infection become noticeable, diseased leaves and inflorescences are destroyed.
Sometimes a mold plaque forms on the stems, which indicates excessive waterlogging of the soil. If there is little foliage on the shoots, then the area where the tunbergia is grown is lacking lighting.
Types and varieties of tunbergia with a photo
The main cultural representatives of tunbergia can be divided into shrubs and vines. There are several popular types of lianas:
Winged thunbergia (Thunbergia alata)
It has flowers with a dark speck in the middle. Flowering begins in August. Breeders bred this variety back in 1823. The following varieties belong to winged tunbergia:
- Susie - flowers of which come in different colors: white, orange or yellow;
- Terracotta - can delight with flowering almost the entire season;
- Tunbergia Gregora is a variety with 15 different orange color variations. Although there is no black eye in the middle of the buds, the flower looks very impressive.
It is a tall climbing plant, the birthplace of which is considered to be India. The leaves are deep green in color and jagged edges. Their inner surface is slightly pubescent. The inflorescences are colored blue or purple and are formed from buds that are up to 8 cm in diameter.
This vine grows in Australia and Southeast Asia and can reach a height of about 6 m. It has an opposite arrangement and an oblong pointed leaf shape. From above, the leaf blades look dark green, and from below - a tone lighter. A vein is visible in the middle. The largest flowers are called inflorescences, which are located separately. They grow to a diameter of about 5 cm, contain 2 bracts and have a strong aroma.
A species that is distinguished by wide leaves, blue flowers. The petals are covered with a transparent mesh.
In addition to the above varieties, there are others in garden cultivation: laurel, related, Mizorenskaya. They all belong to vines. Tunbergia erect, Natal and Vogel belong to the shrub species.
Tell us about growing tunbergia.
Winged Thunbergia is a climbing annual thermophilic plant native to the tropics. Its long stems (2-2.5 meters) with heart-shaped leaves cover rather large (up to 5 cm in diameter) single funnel-shaped flowers from July to September (in warm regions - from June to October). The color of the flowers is white, cream, yellow, pale brown and bright orange, and their mauve throat resembles a black eye from a distance (therefore, Tunbergia is also called "Black-eyed Susanna"), but not all varieties of Tunbergia are "big-eyed". Bright tunbergia flowers look very elegant against the background of a continuous cascade of lush green foliage.
Thunbergia can grow upwards on a support, and also in the absence of support, its shoots can fall beautifully down (an excellent option for growing in a hanging basket) It is very convenient to sow tunbergia seeds in a spacious hanging planter with good drainage and grow it in the summer with abundant watering on a light balcony protected from the wind and hot midday sun as an ampelous plant. When the earthen coma dries out, the tunbergia in the heat quickly loses its leaves and becomes vulnerable to spider mites. You cannot fertilize the plant strongly and often during growth, otherwise it will develop many beautiful leaves, but it will bloom sparsely. Tunbergia growing on the balcony has few seeds, therefore, for the purpose of seed reproduction, it is advisable to plant at least one plant in the garden.
In the fall, with the threat of frost, you need to bring the pots with tunbergia to a cool place (12-14 degrees) for overwintering, cut the shoots quite low for the winter. The tunbergia preserved in this way grows quickly and then blooms much earlier than grown from seeds. The grown winter shoots of Tunbergia can also be cuttings, and summer cuttings taken from young shoots are quite successfully rooted in water in 2-3 weeks.
Tunbergia seeds are usually sown by flower growers in peat pots or pots from February to April - the earlier they are sown, the earlier and more abundantly the plants will bloom and the more powerful shoots will have time to develop over the summer, the more seeds will be tied on the plants. Quite large tunbergia seeds (2-3 mm in diameter) are planted in pots or pots with a moist substrate (a mixture of leafy earth, humus and sand), slightly moisten the substrate (seeds rot from excessive watering) and cover the crops with film or glass. If heat is provided (about 20-25 degrees), tunbergia shoots appear in two weeks. Pinching the growing shoots of tunbergia stimulates their branching and gives the plant a splendor.
At the end of the spring frost, the tunbergia seedlings are taken out in pots on the balcony or planted together with peat pots in open ground. In the garden, the plant will show itself in all its glory on the south and west side, with abundant watering and protection from the wind. In place of the pollinated tunbergia flowers, boxes with seeds soon form. If the ripe bolls are not collected from the plant in time, they will open and "drop" the seeds to the ground. The collected boxes of tunbergia are dried at home, large dark brown seeds with a miniature depression are extracted from them, the cleaned seeds are placed in storage until planting (their germination is maintained for two years).
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How to make a flower bed that blooms all summer
Even a novice gardener is capable of creating such a flower garden. But even specialists do not always succeed in their plans, if we do not take into account some of the nuances:
- an ever-flowering flower bed requires a large area
- visualization from certain sides is initially thought out for the selection of plants in height, and a round flowerbed of continuous flowering assumes a central location on the site
- decide on the type of plants: perennials, biennials or annuals, as well as choose hybrid or varietal varieties
- create a list by flowering period to form a composition for the entire warm season
- the formation of groups of plants, single plantings are unacceptable, since they will create an inaccurate appearance, as if a set of plants accidentally hit the site
- the style of the site itself should correspond to the general idea - a free layout, without specifically designated design solutions for the exterior.
The principle for grouping should be:
- flowering period
- the length and width of the landing (from the highest view as a background to miniature and curb in the front).
An excellent way to form a flower bed of continuous flowering so that it pleases more than one season is to use perennials. But you shouldn't give up biennials and annuals either - they will become a practical and effective addition to the entire composition.
A well-thought-out and changeable, seasonally changing flower bed with well-grouped plants is the main goal of the gardener. However, in the presence of a specific style of the site, it is better to abandon this idea, since the uncertainty of the type of design creates a sloppy look and will only harm.
Pest control and disease prevention
- Drops at the ends of leaves (leaves "cry") speak of overmoistening of the air in the room. There is no need to reduce humidity.
- Leaves turn yellow and wither... The reason is waterlogging. Reduced watering is required.
- Leaves turn yellow but DO NOT wither. Feeding is required.
- Small, pale, insufficiently cut leaves -Excess lighting. Reduce lighting.
- Leaves are falling brown spots on the leaves. Air is too dry. It is required to increase the air humidity.
- Brown dots on the underside of the leaves. The plant is infested with spider mites. Insecticide treatment required.
- Aphids and thrips love delicious monstera leaves - be careful ./>
The name of the genus comes from the Greek words trachys - rough, hard, rough and karpos - fruit and is associated with the property of the fruit. There are 6 known species, common in the Himalayas, China, Japan. Trachikarpus Forchuna is a palm tree with a straight trunk up to 2 m high, which is densely covered with remnants of dead leaves - petioles and brownish-brownish fibers. A dioecious plant. The leaves are fan-shaped, dark green, shiny, deeply dissected with numerous segments. The plant forms yellow fragrant flowers, collected in large axillary inflorescences. Homeland - Burma, China, Japan, grows in humid subtropical forests. In culture since the end of the 19th century.
Size: 100-200 cm.
Flowers: small yellow, fragrant. Form a fruit in the form of a blue-black berry with a bluish bloom
Leaves: large, on both sides dissected up to half the length, segments at the end are two-toothed, dark green above, grayish below, petioles along the edge fine-toothed or smooth
Lighting: bright, periodic exposure to the sun is recommended.
Watering: regular, moderate in winter.
Top dressing: once every 2 weeks in the summer, during the growth period.
Reproduction: by seeds, at a temperature of 24 C in early spring.
Soil: a mixture of deciduous land, sod land, peat, sand.
Potential Problems: Red spider mite, mealybug
In ASTROLOGY, it is considered a Capricorn plant.
Thunbergia - gardening
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