Diseases and pests on raspberries: signs of damage, treatment and prevention
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Sweet and fragrant raspberries are loved by children and adults. But growing this shrub, gardeners often encounter diseases and pests, due to which a considerable part of the crop is lost, and in some cases the entire plant dies. What exactly threatens raspberries in our areas and how to properly protect them?
Raspberries often suffer from various diseases. The reason for their appearance may be:
- viruses and related mycoplasmas.
Fungal infections are the real scourge of raspberry planting. They easily enter its tissues through the stomata, cuttings and epidermis, as well as through wounds and injuries. Fungal spores are very volatile and can be carried over long distances by wind, precipitation, insects, animals and even humans. In addition, many of them are able to persist for a long time in the soil, plant debris and in garden tools.
Before pruning raspberries, it is necessary to disinfect the gardening tool so as not to transfer diseases.
Anthracnose is one of the most common raspberry diseases. Its causative agent is the Gloeosporium venetum Speg fungus, which infects all terrestrial parts of the plant.
Leaves are the first to suffer from anthracnose. Rounded specks appear along their veins with a gray center and purple edging. With the development of the disease, the spots merge, the leaves curl and dry out.
Anthracnose develops especially quickly at high air humidity.
On the shoots of raspberries, gray sores with purple edging also appear. Their bark turns gray, cracks and becomes cork-like. Anthracnose spots ring the fruit clusters, which subsequently dry out. The berries of the affected bushes are deformed, turn brown and mummified... A large number of conidia (asexual spores) of the fungus form on spots and ulcers.
Conidia and mycelium of the anthracnose fungus tolerate low temperatures well. They overwinter on the affected parts of the plant and begin active sporulation immediately after the onset of warmth.
Didymella, or purple spot
The causative agent of the purple spot is the fungus Didymella applanata. It enters healthy plants through damage to the bark, which can occur both as a result of unfavorable weather conditions (severe frosts, sudden changes in temperature in winter), and under the influence of insect pests (for example, stem gall midge).
The first signs of didimella appear in early summer. Small light purple spots are formed on young shoots, localized at the points of attachment of the petioles. Gradually, they spread upward, merging into areas up to 30 cm long, ringing the stem. The color of the spots changes to reddish-brown. In the center, they discolor and become covered with dark dots - fungal pycnidia, which secrete spores.
Didimella is easily recognizable by purple spots on raspberry stems
The leaves, cuttings and fruit twigs of raspberry bushes infected with didimella become covered with necrotic spots. The berries dry out yet unripe... The kidneys die off.
Purple spotting does not stop its activity even after the end of summer. In autumn and relatively warm winter, the fungus continues its development, causing the death of the stems.
In the spring of the second year of the development of the disease on the affected raspberry bushes, the wood almost completely dries out. Their leaves acquire a chlorous color and are significantly reduced in size, and the buds remain underdeveloped. On the surface of the lilac-brown bark with large areas of light gray color, many cracks form. And also on it you can see with the naked eye the black dots of the spore-bearing organs of the fungus.
The rapid spread of purple spotting is facilitated by:
- warm and humid weather;
- thickening of raspberry plantings;
- high nitrogen content in the soil;
- heavy soil with a high level of groundwater.
Verticillary wilt (wilt)
The fungus causing verticillary wilting hibernates in the soil layer up to 30 cm deep in the form of mycelium or chlamydospores and enters the plant through the roots. It then spreads through the vascular system throughout the bush.
Although wilt infestation usually occurs in early spring, its first symptoms do not appear until hot and dry weather sets in. The leaves of a diseased plant suddenly turn yellow and dry out. The lowest ones fall off, while the top ones remain on the bush. Shoots turn dark blue or purple and stop growing... Their tops wither and gradually die off. Damaged shoots can survive until next year and produce a small crop of small, dry berries.
Spores of the fungus that causes verticillary wilting can persist in the soil for 14 years.
The root system of infected plants retains its viability for some time, but the number of new shoots is constantly decreasing. In most cases, bushes suffering from verticillary wilting die within one or two seasons.
Raspberry rust is quite rare and causes relatively little damage to the bush. It is caused by the fungus Phragmidium rubi-idaei (Pers), whose spores overwinter on fallen leaves. When warm, they germinate and provide primary infection of raspberry bushes.
2-3 weeks after infection, bright orange spore pads appear on the underside of raspberry leaves. In humid weather during the summer, many generations of the fungus that causes this disease are formed. During a drought, its development stops.
With a strong infection of the raspberry bush with rust, orange spore pads cover the entire lower part of the leaf.
There is also a stem form of rust. Its main symptom is the appearance of isolated sores on the shoots, which gradually merge, forming deep longitudinal cracks.
Rust-affected stems and leaves die off prematurely. It also affects the number of berries. The yield of diseased raspberry bushes is reduced by about 30%.
Septoria, or white spot
Septoria rubi Sacc, the cause of white spot, is found in almost all raspberry growing regions. It develops most rapidly at high humidity combined with moderate temperatures. Spores of the fungus overwinter on diseased leaves and shoots.
Raspberry leaves and stems suffer from septoria. The first symptoms of the disease usually appear in mid-May, and it reaches its maximum development by the time the fruits ripen.
Numerous rounded brown spots appear on the leaves of the infected plant, which after a while become whitish in the center and brown at the edges. On their surface, actively spore-bearing organs of the fungus develop, which look like black dots. Gradually, the spots merge, the affected tissue is partially destroyed and the leaf dries up.
White spot symptoms are most intense on the leaves.
On the shoots, unobtrusive smooth spots are located near the buds and, much less often, in internodes. The bark of the affected bushes is covered with a large number of small cracks, and its upper part is peeling.
Raspberry bushes weakened by white spot do not tolerate winter well... With a high intensity of the disease, their kidneys most often die off. And also septoria can cause a decrease in yield and early leaf fall.
Bacterial root cancer
Among the bacterial infections of raspberries, the most common root cancer is the bacterium Pseudomonas tu-mefaciens (Smith et Towns.) Stev. Infection enters the root system of a plant through mechanical damage resulting from planting, loosening row spacings or as a result of pests.
With this disease, numerous lumpy growths are formed on the underground part of the plant and sometimes on its shoots, caused by improper cell division, inside which bacteria are located. Infected raspberry bush turns yellow and gives insignificant growth. Under unfavorable conditions, he may die, but usually the matter is limited to the oppression of the bush. After 2-3 years, the causative agents of root cancer are destroyed by soil microorganisms and the plant recovers... But in the future, this disease may return.
The process of destruction of causative agents of root cancer is significantly accelerated by an acidic soil reaction (pH below 5).
Despite the fact that root cancer primarily affects the underground part of the plant, the entire bush suffers from it.
Poor soils and unfavorable weather conditions greatly increase the negative impact of bacterial root cancer on the plant. The development of this disease is facilitated by the long-term cultivation of raspberries in one place.
Viral and mycoplasma diseases
The most dangerous diseases for raspberries are those caused by viruses and related mycoplasmas. These include:
- Bushy raspberry dwarfism. Infection occurs through the pollen of diseased plants, which is easily transported over long distances. In infected raspberry bushes, the leaves turn yellow first. The color change usually occurs between the veins, but sometimes you can see the formation of rings and lines or the defeat of the entire surface of the leaf blade. These symptoms completely disappear in the second half of summer, after which the diseased plant can be identified only after the berries ripen: they noticeably decrease in size and easily crumble into separate drupes. The yield of raspberries infected with the bushy dwarf virus is halved.
The yield on raspberry bushes, sick with bushy dwarfism, is reduced by 2 times
- Curliness. In bushes affected by this disease, the leaf blades bend downward, and also acquire a rigid wrinkled structure and a dark green color, which changes to bronze-brown by the beginning of autumn. Fruit twigs acquire an irregular shape, and the berries on them dry out... The growth of the affected bushes slows down. Their tops often die off.
Curly is caused by a virus carried by aphids and nematodes
- Mosaic. Its pathogens are viruses carried by sucking insects. A characteristic feature of this disease is the mosaic color of the leaves, consisting of randomly located, blurry green and yellow spots of different sizes. Symptoms improve during heatwaves, but return with cooler weather. The shoots of infected bushes become thinner, the berries become small and tasteless... Over time, the plant acquires dwarfism and dies.
Viral Mosaic Symptoms Ease During Heat But Return With Coolness
- Infectious chlorosis, or jaundice. It is expressed in the yellowing of the leaf plates, first between the veins, and then over the entire surface. But also the leaves can curl and shrivel. The shoots of diseased plants stretch and become thinner, and the berries acquire an irregular shape, become smaller and dry out.
Infectious chlorosis, or raspberry jaundice, like many other viral diseases of this culture, is spread by aphids
- Mycoplasma growth, or witch's broom. Mycoplasma disease, manifested in the appearance of many thin and short shoots in the raspberry bush. They are chlorous in color and have deformed flowers from which fruits rarely develop. A plant affected by mycoplasma growth can remain viable for 10 years, all this time being a source of infection... Sometimes there can be a short-term remission with the return of fruiting, but in the end the disease takes over and the plant dies.
Mycoplasma overgrowth is a deadly disease of raspberries
Video: raspberry bushes affected by a viral mosaic
Insect pests also cause great damage to raspberry plantings. One of the most dangerous of them is the stem gall midge. This insect is a small mosquito. In spring, its females lay eggs in lesions or natural cracks in annual raspberry shoots. Orange larvae hatch from them, which, when fed, secrete various substances and pheromones, provoking the formation of growths on raspberry stems - galls.
3-4 generations of stem gall midge can develop in one season.
Shoots damaged by gall midge weaken, crack and often dry out. They do not tolerate frost well and suffer from winter desiccation. The quantity and quality of ripening fruits in bushes suffering from stem gall midge is significantly reduced.
Video: stem gall midge on raspberries
Raspberries and other pests are affected. Among them:
- Raspberry-strawberry weevil. It looks like a grayish-black beetle. In early spring, it feeds on the leaves and anthers of the buds. Weevil females eat out the holes in the buds and lay eggs, after which they gnaw on the pedicel. As a result, the future flower falls off or dries up. After a week, larvae hatch from the eggs, which feed on the inner part of the bud for 25 days before pupation. For the winter, the raspberry-strawberry weevil hides under fallen leaves, lumps of soil or in its cracks.
For the winter, the raspberry-strawberry weevil hides under fallen leaves or in lumps of soil
- Leaf and shoot aphids. Sucking insects are green. Their size does not exceed 2 mm. They feed on cell sap, as a result of which the green parts of the bush curl and deform. In addition, aphids often act as carriers of viral diseases. Black eggs of these insects overwinter on annual shoots.
Aphid colonies usually appear on the stems and undersides of raspberry leaves before flowering.
- Raspberry beetle. This insect appears on raspberry bushes in early summer. Adults feed on the pulp of young leaves, stamens and pistils. The larvae damage the berries by eating the drupes and gnawing the passages in the stalks. Wormy fruits lose up to 50% in weight, often rot and become unfit for human consumption. Beetles and their larvae overwinter in the soil near raspberry bushes at a depth of 10 cm.
Raspberry beetle larvae damage berries, making them unusable
- Raspberry mite. Microscopic pest that settles on the lower part of the leaves and feeds on cell sap. The main sign of its appearance is the yellowing of the leaf blades and their acquisition of irregular shapes. Females of the raspberry mite hibernate under soil flakes.
Raspberry mite feeds on cell sap
- Spider mite. Another sucking raspberry pest. It also settles on the lower part of the leaf blade and feeds on cell sap. You can distinguish it by the cobweb, which, with a large number of ticks, entangles all parts of the plant. In addition, in the affected bush, discoloration of the damaged parts of the leaf is observed, gradually turning into marbling of the entire plate, their drying and falling off. Spider mites are especially active on dry and hot days.
Spider mites are especially active on dry and hot days
Disease and pest control
If sick and pest-damaged raspberry bushes are found, it is necessary to take measures to combat them as soon as possible.
How to beat fungal diseases
Most fungal diseases of raspberries are easy to treat. Most often, Bordeaux liquid is used to treat affected bushes. It is a mixture of copper sulfate and slaked lime.The mechanism of action of Bordeaux liquid is based on the destructive effect of negatively charged copper ions on fungal spores. Slaked lime prevents them from washing off and the appearance of chemical burns on plants.
Bordeaux liquid mix is easy to find in any specialty store
Preparation of Bordeaux liquid
Prepare Bordeaux liquid immediately before use. This procedure includes several stages:
- 100 g of copper sulfate (for the preparation of 1% Bordeaux liquid) is mixed with a small amount of warm water.
- In a separate container, 150-200 g of lime is diluted with hot water to the consistency of sour cream (usually this requires about 1 liter of water).
- Each of the resulting solutions is brought to a volume of 5 liters by adding cold water.
- A solution of lime (milk of lime) is filtered through cheesecloth.
- Slowly, constantly stirring, pour a solution of copper sulfate into the milk of lime.
When preparing Bordeaux liquid, you must not use metal dishes and disrupt the procedure, for example, pour lime milk into a solution of copper sulfate. If it is necessary to prepare a fungicide with a different concentration, then the amount of substances is proportionally increased. So, for a 3% Bordeaux liquid, you need 300 g of copper sulfate and 500-600 g of lime.
The result should be a blue liquid with a slightly alkaline or neutral reaction.... You can check it by dipping litmus paper into the mixture, which is usually included in a set for making Bordeaux liquid. When cooked correctly, it should turn blue. If the litmus paper has acquired a red color, then the acidity of the liquid must be reduced by increasing the amount of milk of lime.
Video: the subtleties of making Bordeaux liquid
Treatment of bushes with fungicides
An obligatory measure in the fight against fungal diseases of raspberries is early spring spraying on dormant buds and autumn, after shedding the leaves, treatment with 3% Bordeaux liquid. This fungicide can be replaced with other ready-to-use copper preparations:
- HOM (active ingredient copper oxychloride);
- Cuproxate (copper sulfate);
- Cuprozan (copper oxychloride and cineb).
Many gardeners also practice late autumn treatment of bushes with fungicides. It is carried out immediately after the leaves fall.
On industrial plantations of raspberries, to combat fungal diseases, potent drugs are often used that combine fungicidal, insecticidal and herbicidal properties.... These include:
- Nitrafen (2.2-3% solution);
- DNOC (1% solution).
When using these drugs, you need to remember about their danger to humans, as well as beneficial insects and microorganisms. They cannot be sprayed on bushes with blossoming leaves, and plantings can be treated with DNOC only outside the settlements and no more than once every 3 years.
If necessary, the treatment of raspberries with fungicides is continued during the growing season, until the ovaries appear. For this, the following drugs are used:
- 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or other copper-containing preparations;
- 0.5% Phthalan solution;
- 0.5% Kaptan solution;
- 0.7% solution of Tsineb.
It is not recommended to carry out more than 3 treatments of raspberry bushes per season.
Video: how to deal with purple raspberry spot
What to do in case of detection of bacterial cancer and viral diseases
Raspberry bushes affected by bacterial root cancer, due to its low risk, do not require special treatments with chemicals... The introduction of superphosphate or a mixture of ammonium sulfate with potassium salt into the ground can significantly increase the rate of destruction of pathogens of this disease by soil microorganisms. Contribute to the cleansing of the soil from harmful bacteria and organic fertilizers.
Raspberry viral diseases are virtually untreatable... The only way to deal with them is to dig up the entire affected bush and then burn it. Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting raspberries in an area where infected plants have been found for several years.
Means for the destruction of pests of raspberries
To combat pests, raspberries use insecticides (kill insects) and acaricides (kill ticks). When processing raspberry bushes with them, you must remember about safety measures. All work must be done with rubber gloves and a respiratory protective mask made of 5–6 layers of gauze.
Spraying raspberries is carried out only in dry and calm weather
Table: preparations for the destruction of raspberry pests
In the fight against diseases and pests of raspberries, the prevention of their appearance is of great importance. The most important role in this matter is the selection of healthy seedlings that are resistant to common infections and do not suffer from insect attacks. In addition, the following events show good results:
- timely removal of fruiting shoots and underdeveloped or diseased and pest-affected stems;
- thinning plantings;
- burning of fallen leaves;
- autumn digging of a raspberry tree;
- mulching plantings with manure in early spring;
- regular watering and feeding of raspberry bushes.
Table: Disease and Pest Resistant Raspberry Varieties
Photo Gallery: Disease and Pest Resistant Raspberry Varieties
Noticing symptoms of diseases and damage by insect pests on raspberry bushes, do not despair. Most of them can be defeated by special means. It is even easier to prevent them from appearing. To do this, it is enough to follow the rules of agricultural technology and choose varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests common in the region.
Since childhood, I have been fond of growing various plants and have achieved considerable success in this matter. I would be very happy to share my experience.
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Description of the main diseases of raspberries with photographs and methods of their treatment
There are raspberries in almost every garden plot. The shrub produces fruits that have many beneficial properties. Unfortunately, most gardeners face the same problem year after year - raspberry disease. The reasons are different, ranging from improper care and ending with pests. Let's consider the main problems.
The most unfavorable ailments of the remontant raspberry include cancer, gall midge, nutcracker, rust, anthracnose and didimela. Deliver no less trouble pincers, aphid and raspberry beetles.
Its full name is raspberry stem gall midge. This problem is very common. in Russia, especially in the Middle lane. The cause of the disease is a black mosquito with transparent wings and a brown back. Its length reaches only about two millimeters. The gall midge can be detected by the swellings in the lower base of the plant trunk. In these swellings, mosquitoes lay orange larvae. The larvae winter well and survive even severe frosts. In the spring, they form dolls while continuing to feed on the plant. Having reached a size of four millimeters, insects appear from the dolls at the end of May, which, in turn, lay the larvae already on young shoots.
New bulges or otherwise - galls sometimes reach three centimeters wide. Shoots gradually dry out, and cracks form on the leaves. This disease can harm most of the shrub. To combat it, the following methods are used:
- In autumn and spring, damaged parts of the plant should be cut off without regret and must be burned.
- Cut off below the bulge by two centimeters. This is a prerequisite for fighting galls, otherwise the larvae may remain.
- In order to destroy mosquitoes and their larvae, the following drugs are used: Iskra, Actellik, Alator and Fufanol.
- Chemical processing of raspberries is carried out during the period of oviposition.
- The lower shoots should be processed only when the first flowers appear on last year's shoots.
- If there are dense growths, they are thinned out. Only 9-11 of the strongest shoots should be left.
- To make the treatment of raspberries the maximum result, alternate the preparations.
In the event that the Gauls are more than half a meter above the ground, the harvest can be saved.
Raspberry nutcracker and aphids
The cause of the disease is insect larvae, which feed on the tissues of the raspberry trunk. Outwardly, the disease looks similar to a gall midge, the same swelling on the trunk, stems and cracked leaves. The sizes of the galls are larger and sometimes reach up to ten centimeters in width. Nutcracker control agents are also analogous to gall midge.
An extremely common raspberry disease. In the event that raspberry bushes grow in the shade, the likelihood of damage to them by aphids increases. You can find aphids on raspberries by their characteristic features:
- Twisted leaves.
- Crooked young shoots of raspberries.
- The internodes are shortened.
- Shrub growth slows down sharply.
- The flowers stop developing and dry out.
Outwardly, aphids are very small, green in color with a waxy coating. It is not difficult to find it, sometimes it forms rather large clusters. Especially a lot of them appear during budding... If the weather is dry, the aphids also become a carrier of viral diseases.
To combat aphids, drugs are used: Alator, Funfanor and Attelik.
This viral disease can be recognized by yellowed leaves. Yellowing and dropping of raspberry leaves are the main signs of this intractable disease. The chlorosis virus penetrates through cuts on the raspberry trunk or broken branches. Most often it is carried over ticks and aphid... Raspberry disease goes through the following stages:
- The first yellowing appears between the veins of the leaves.
- After a while, the entire leaf turns yellow.
- Leaves wither and shrivel.
- Young shoots become thin, elongated.
- Raspberries dry and shrink.
One of the causes of viral chlorosis is the increased acidity of the soil on which the bushes grow. In the case of high humidity, the likelihood of illness increases. In order to prevent the occurrence of chlorosis, add gypsum to the soil. Unfortunately, the infected plant is dug up and burned and this should be done urgently in order to avoid contamination of neighboring bushes.
Just like chlorosis, it is a viral disease. Raspberry bush dies slowly over three years... During this period, the berries become sour and small. A diseased plant can be identified by its appearance: the leaves become brown and tough. Unfortunately, biologists have not been able to find a cure for this disease, so the bushes affected by the virus are dug up and burned.
Otherwise, this disease is called "witch's broom" because of its appearance. On the affected bush, many small sterile shoots about thirty centimeters long are formed. This raspberry disease is also incurable.
This disease is of fungal origin. You can identify it by the dark spots on the bottom of the sheet. Already in mid-May, the first signs of the disease appear, and after three weeks the leaves fall off. The trunk of the bush is covered with ulcers. Rust is not currently being treated, so the diseased plant should simply be disposed of.
A viral infectious disease in which the leaves of the bush are affected first, and only then the rest of the plant. The leaf itself darkens, from the lower side, and becomes smaller. And also raspberries spoil. They become indefinite and lose their taste. The plant dies within three years and, unfortunately, it is impossible to stop this process. During this period, raspberries are terribly sour, sometimes it is impossible to even eat them, which is not at all suitable for human health.
To prevent infection of the rest of the raspberry bushes, the diseased plant should be immediately removed from the berry.
Otherwise, this disease is called didimella. The disease itself goes through the following stages:
- Purple spots appear on young shoots.
- After a short time, the stain noticeably grows and spreads.
- The leaves get a brown frame, and black spots form on the leaves themselves.
- The buds interrupt their development, and new shoots become brittle.
One of the causes of raspberry disease is called high humidity. For prevention, it is advised to use boric alcohol to spray the plant.
Anthracnose is the most common fungal disease. Whitish spots on the leaves and stems of the shrub are signs of anthracnose. It spreads very quickly both in all parts of the plant and affecting neighboring bushes.
After the leaves are covered with spots, the bark of the raspberry trunk begins to turn black. The fox crumbles and the berries disappear.
In the form of anthracnose prophylaxis, spraying with Bordeaux liquid is recommended, and the treatment is carried out before the buds bloom on the bush. After a while, spraying is done again - before budding. And the last processing takes place in the fall after the last harvest. If the treatment of anthracnose does not lead to recovery, the bush is dug up and burned.
Otherwise it is called - Wilt. This fungal disease spreads very quickly and affects the entire bush. You can define it by the following criteria:
- Lilac spots form on the stem of the plant.
- On young shoots there are stripes towards the raspberries.
- The bark begins to crack.
- All young shoots, leaves and root processes die.
Treatment should be carried out immediately at the first sign of fungus. The drugs used as medicines are: Trichodermin, Vitarox, Topsin and Previkur. It should be remembered that treatment is carried out exclusively at the onset of the disease. In case of complete defeat of the bush, it is dug up and destroyed by burning.
Annular and ulcerative spotting
This raspberry disease is caused by parasites called nematodes. They live in the ground and infect raspberry roots. It is very important to treat the land with special preparations - nematicides before planting the shrub. It is extremely difficult to define the disease. A symptom of this is yellowing of the leaves - typical of many other problems. The diseased plant should be removed and the soil treated.
It is also a fungal disease, one of the signs of which is blurred brown spots. Raspberry leaves become a source of fungus, from which spores of all other parts of the plant begin to become infected. The stems rot and become rotten. The danger of the disease is its extreme contagiousness. Neighboring plants also begin to become infected very quickly.
Shrubs are treated with copper preparations. Unfortunately, treatment often does not bring the desired result. In such cases, the plant is dug up and destroyed without regret.
It is caused by bacteria infecting plant roots. This raspberry disease is difficult to detect immediately, since the symptoms are virtually absent for a long time. The shrub slows down development, and the raspberries become tasteless and noticeably smaller. Only by digging the plant can you see the disease. Treatment will require the treatment of the root with copper sulfate. To do this, raspberry roots are soaked in a solution for ten minutes.
The signs of this disease are brown spots on the fruits of the plant. They usually focus on the cups or where the rest of the fruit is in contact with each other. The disease has a very rapid spread, after a short time the entire crop dies.
Favorable conditions for the appearance of gray rot are cold snap and precipitation. In the event of frequent summer rains and a noticeable decrease in air temperature, the likelihood of illness increases greatly.
Treatment should be carried out already at the first signs of the disease, using fungamicide, sumilex and foundationol for this. There are varieties of raspberries that are resistant to gray rot. These are: Lyulin, Samodiva and Ralitsa. In contrast, varieties that are prone to gray rot: Vilamed, Shopska Alena and Bulgarian Ruby.
Raspberry beetle and raspberry fly
It appears on raspberry bushes during the period of its budding, and before that, the raspberry beetle feels great on other plants. Its peculiarity is that it tolerates frost perfectly and begins its harmful activity in the spring.
During raspberry flowering, female raspberry beetles begin to lay their eggs. Beetle larvae continue to feed on and subsist on the plant.
For prevention, it is advised to dig up the ground, since the beetles hibernate at a depth of no more than eight centimeters. Well eliminates karbaphos beetles. During the treatment of the bush with carbaphos, the larvae that crawl out should be collected and destroyed.
These pests also winter well at shallow depths. The female flies lay their eggs at the base of the leaves. Thus, the larvae, having appeared, begin to feed on the juice of the stem, damaging it from the inside.
They fight these flies with the help of karbaphos, and it is advised to dig up the ground in autumn.
Prevention and general rules
In order to protect raspberry bushes from various parasites, you should start as soon as possible. Even when there are very few of them, the danger should not be ignored. Carry out the processing before the flowering of raspberries, since it is during this period that winged females begin to form. Try to plant disease resistant varieties. Check the health of the seedlings before purchasing. Likewise, use exceptionally strong and resilient bushes to propagate raspberries. Don't ignore digging in the spring and fall. Fertilize to keep your plants strong and able to resist viruses and fungi.
Bacterial diseases and the fight against them
This is another group of diseases, this time caused by bacteria of various types. They are ubiquitous.
It is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas tumefaciens. Up to half of the plants in the raspberry tree are affected. Affects roots, stem bases.
|Signs||Thin shoots, yellowing of foliage, crushing and dryness of berries. On the roots, brown growths appear the size of a pea and up to 3-5 cm|
|When appears||At any time of the growing season|
|The reasons||The disease spreads through the soil. The disease can appear in an area with contaminated planting material, flood waters. The bacterium of raspberry root cancer penetrates through wounds during tillage, or made by insects|
|Outcome||Weakening of plants, a decrease in the amount of root growth, a decrease in yield, drought resistance and frost resistance.|
|Control measures||Planting seedlings with healthy roots, processing the roots before planting with 1% copper sulfate. Sowing a raspberry tree with siderates, adding manure that acidifies the soil|
Stem bacterial cancer
Differs in high harmfulness. The causative agent is the bacterium Pseiidomonas rubi, which causes systemic bacteriosis.
|Signs||On the lower and middle parts of the stems, elongated crest-like tumors up to 10-20 cm long appear, sometimes covering the entire shoot in a circle. At first they are white, then they turn brown, harden, and collapse. Kidney enlargement and death|
|Time of appearance||During the growing season, the optimum temperature for its development is 25-26 °.|
|The reasons||It spreads with water, air, diseased seedlings, through injuries and wounds, since the pathogen remains in the soil for a long time. Appears more often at high humidity and temperature fluctuations|
|Result||Oppression of fruiting shoots, poor berry setting, crushing and loss of sweetness by them. Drying and death of shoots, a sharp decrease in the quality of seedlings|
|How to fight||Planting non-infected seedlings (culling offspring with signs of disease), cutting out diseased shoots and burning them|
Bacterial infections are ubiquitous, causing various neoplasms on raspberries.
Systemic bacteriosis is caused by Pseiidomonas rubi, a parasitic parasite on crop stems. In the lower part, whitish growths appear, outwardly similar to ugly ridges. Gradually they turn brown, then cork and fall apart. As a result of bacteriosis, the stems dry out, the berries become smaller, lose their rich color and sweetness. The quality of the seedlings is deteriorating.
When a disease is detected, the bushes are removed and burned.
The pathogen Pseudomonas tumefaciens causes damage to the base of the bushes and the root system. Growths appear on the underground parts of the plant, which leads to a decrease in yield, drying out and death of raspberry shoots, and loss of immunity.
Plants cannot be cured. Sometimes, in the early stages, it is possible to save the bush by cutting off the growths from the roots and disinfecting them in a solution of copper-containing preparations.
Viral diseases of raspberries and the fight against them (with photo and video)
Viral infections often affect not only the fruit, but also all other parts of the bush. The following are the most common types of viruses with a description of their symptoms and control measures.
The causative agents are a complex of raspberry mosaic viruses carried by aphids. A characteristic feature is a mosaic color in the form of scattered yellow and green blurred spots on the leaves.
With a strong manifestation, convex areas are formed, the leaf blades are slightly deformed. The disease is transmitted with planting material and aphids - raspberry leaf and raspberry-shoot. Plants affected by the mosaic lag behind in development, are often stunted, and freeze out in severe winters.
Look at the manifestations of this disease of raspberries in the photo, which shows the typical signs of damage:
Control measures. Use of healthy planting material, timely pruning and burning of affected shoots. Preventive spraying of bushes with regrowth of leaves against aphids with fufanon or kemyfos.
Yellow raspberry netting.
The causative agent is a virus Raspberryvellownet virus. On the leaves along small veins and adjacent tissues, reticular chlorosis appears in the form of separate spots. Yellow-green areas are formed around the main veins, expanding in a fan-like manner. Chlorosis of the entire bush is observed, the growth and development of shoots is abruptly stopped, the bushes bear little fruit. The virus is transmitted by the raspberry shoot aphid.
Control measures. Same as against raspberry mosaic.
Causative agent - raspberry ring spot virus (Raspberry ringspot virus). Symptoms of the disease appear on fruiting raspberry shoots. The shoots are noticeably shortened, the leaves become dark green, wrinkled, tough, with curly edges bent downwards. In autumn, the leaves acquire a bronze color, vitreousness and necrosis of the veins appear. The flowers are highly modified, deformed, do not form fruit. The tops of young shoots dry out, the affected plants lag behind in growth, and yield decreases. The berries are often small, dry, sour, and unusable. Depending on the cultivar, only sharp-edged chlorotic annular spots may appear on the leaves. In some cases, the virus causes the formation of leaf-like outgrowths - enations on young leaves. The infection is transmitted with planting material and nematodes.
Control measures. Same as against raspberry mosaic.
Watch a variety of raspberry diseases and the fight against them in the video, which shows both typical signs of diseases and how to treat them: