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Hephaestus or Vulcan - Greek and Latin mythology

Hephaestus or Vulcan - Greek and Latin mythology


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EPHESTUS


Vulcan (Hephaestus) Forges the Thunderbolts of Jupiter (Zeus)
Prado Museum, Madrid

Hephaestus, in the Greek mythology, was the deity of earthly fire understood in a positive sense, fire as an element of civilization.

According to most scholars, he was the son of Zeus and Hera while for Hesiod he would have been born only by Hera who, at the sight of such an ugly son, hurled him down from the sky falling into the sea where he remained for nine years in a grottacured by Teti and Eurinome and it is in that cave that it is said that he made his first blacksmith's workshop. Once he grew up he built a splendid throne that he gave to his mother Erae after various events he became fond of her so much that he always took her defenses. One day Zeus, irritated because he always defended his mother, threw him too from Olympus and Hephaestus fell on the island of Lemnos. According to some, it was as a result of this fall that he became lame.


Hephaestus
Coustou, Louvre Museum, Paris


Drunk Hephaestus brought back to Olympus
Attic crater

Anyhow Hephaestus is remembered as a great blacksmith: his are the creation of the chariot of the sun, the lightning bolts and the scepter of Zeus, the golden breastplate of Heracles, the helmet of Ares, the armor of Achilles and Aeneas, the trident of Poseidon and many others.

Ironically, Hephaestus, the ugliest of the gods, had (according to most scholars) a wife of Aphrodite, the most beautiful of the goddesses.

In honor of Hephaestus, the Hephaestias, the Apaturia and theCalceia.

Hephaestus also created the first woman, Pandora, by order of Zeus (see myth The birth of the first man and the prima donna).

In Latin mythology was identified with Volcano.


Hephaestus

Hephaestus (Gr. ῞Ηϕαιστος, lat. Hephaestus) Greek deity of earthly fire. Son of Zeus and Hera according to the Homeric poems, having sided with his mother in a celestial dispute, Zeus threw him from Olympus down to the island of Lemnos another tradition said that Hera was angry because her son was born lame , had thrown him from Olympus into the sea, where he had been welcomed by the nymphs Eurinome and Tethys. According to the Iliad he had Charis as his wife, according to the Theogony Aglaia, but more widespread was the myth of his union with Aphrodite from the contamination with the myth that this goddess married to Ares, the episode sung by the aedo Demodocus originated. Odyssey: E., knowing that Aphrodite was deceiving him with Ares, surprised the adulterers and entangled them in a wonderful net. According to another story, E. to take revenge on her mother built her a golden throne with inextricable laces for those who had sat on it. Hera remained enthralled, but Dionysus managed to convince E., inebriating him, to ascend to Olympus to free It was from the bonds that he alone knew how to untie.

The main seat of the cult of E. was the island of Lemnos. The temple of E. stood where the god would have fallen. In Attica the cult of E. was related to that of Athena in the West flourished throughout the volcanic region between Campania and Sicily, especially in Lipari considered the seat of the god, where it was located, as well as in the Etna region the underground workshop where the Cyclops worked with the god. God of fire who produces and creates, E. is the divine blacksmith of admirable works according to the 18th book of the Iliad E., prayed by Tethys, prepares weapons for Achilles. Among the Romans E. was identified with Vulcan.

Ancient art depicted him bearded, dressed in a short work tunic, with pincers and a hammer, only partially hinting at the defect of the lame leg (statues of Alcamene and Eufranore, the François vase from the museum of Florence, wall paintings ).


Vulcan god

. It is located on the homonymous island, in the Aeolian archipelago. The word volcano, used for the. Mix - Francesca Michielin - Vulcano (Official Video) YouTube Francesca Michielin - I don't live by the sea - Duration: 3:15. Francesca Michielin 16,711,838.

Hephaestus was the Greek name of the god of fire and Vulcan was the name that the Romans attributed to him. So much explains why the mountain with fire was called a volcano. VOLCANO (Volcānus, Volchanus, Volkanus). - Ancient Roman god, later identified with the Greek god Hephaestus, whose character and attributes he nevertheless took his own. Vulcan (Latin Vulcanus, Volcanus or archaic Volkanus) is the Roman god of earthly fire and destroyer. It belongs to the most ancient phase of the Roman religion. Considered the blacksmith of the Gods, Hephaestus is the God of Fire, metallurgy, the protector of blacksmiths, sculptors and metal craftsmen, a three-day public cultural event during which meetings, presentations, dialogues are promoted, read aloud.

Vulcano (volcano) - Wikipedi

  • Volcano God According to the moral theologian Antonio Rungi, the volcanic cloud that envelops Europe is not a punishment from God: but certainly his proof.
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  • - Vulcane, impiger deus deumque faber, mea verba audi: magna dis deabusque domicilia in sacred Olympo extrue - - O Vulcan, indefatigable God, blacksmith of the gods, listen.
  • "From the Greeks called Hiera, since according to mythology on this island were located the forges of Hephaestus, god of fire and blacksmith who had the Cyclops as helpers
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  • The god of fire and volcanoes In Greece, Hephaestus is the god of metallurgy, husband of Aphrodite or one of the Charites (the Roman Graces), creator of weapons.
  • Hephaestus, whom the Latins called Vulcan, was the god of fire, skilled forger of metals and incomparable builder of the abodes of Olympus

Francesca Michielin - Vulcano (Official Video) - YouTub

Vulcano Island, holiday and tourism portal to book a holiday on the island and find where to sleep, what to do, what to see. Hotels Bed and breakfasts, pensions and. Volcanoes represent one of the most fascinating manifestations of the forces acting in the lithosphere. The volcano is a geological structure that is formed in. THE GREEK AND ROMAN GODS. CUPID OR EROS. CUPIDO (Rome) Latin cupid, from cupere, to crave, in Roman mythology, son of Venus, goddess of love, and of Vulcan, god. The Volcano dominates the island, the natural heat, due to the presence of sulphurous waters and the god Apollo who kisses and masters the beloved south. There are two opposing myths about the birth of Hephaestus. The one, of Homeric origin, makes the god of fire descend from the marriage between Zeus and Hera, the rulers of.

The Myth of Hephaestus - Vulcan. Hephaestus, Vulcan for the Latins, god of fire and divine blacksmith, was born of Hera and Zeus. In the Iliad, Homer tells us about how Hephaestus. The location. The island of Vulcano is the most fascinating of the Aeolian islands for its seabed and for its volcanic activity. According to Greek mythology it is up. Vulcano Island Tourist Guide: tourist and historical information on the island, hospitality and entertainment

Hephaestus (Vulcan), the god of fire - Mythology - tanogaboblog

  1. Vulcano, among the Aeolian islands is the closest to Sicily, is just 12 miles from Capo Milazzo and is made up of 4 volcanoes: Lentia, Piano, Vulcanello and Fossa. With.
  2. Find out all about this impressive phenomenon of nature! What is a volcano like? Because in some places on Earth there are many and in others none
  3. How are volcanoes formed? The volcano is formed by an invisible structure, inside the crust, and which includes the magma chamber and the magma ducts, e.

The attempted replacement from Elohim / Baalim / Adonai to Yahweh coincided with the arrival of the Levitical priesthood on the main theater, since Moses, to whom it is supported. Experience the nature and culture of the Aeolian Islands. Visit Lipari and Vulcano and see the incredible rock formations on the coasts. See the black sand beaches of. What is a volcano? A volcano is a particular mountain from whose top lava comes out. Which ones are they.

VOLCANO in the Italian Encyclopedia - treccani

Fire and blood, extermination and devastation: the terrifying god of Jewish priests, inherited from Christian popes (apart from human sacrifices. Teide Volcano. Teide is the third highest and most voluminous volcanic structure on the planet, after their supreme god, that manages to defeat Guayota ,. The complete list of shops at the Vulcano shopping center in Sesto San Giovann Search hotels in: Vulcano, it Good availability and affordable rates Read guest reviews and choose the right hotel for you , the high tower of the Aldobrandesco Castle that dominates the town, the graceful setting of an intact historic center and a fusion of tastes with the flavor of.

The Vulcano fireplace stove is a modern, efficient, functional, pleasant from an aesthetic point of view, with a management suited to today's needs and capable. The History of Vulcano Therasia, which literally translates as warm earth, is the ancient name of the island sacred to the god Vulcan. Vulcano Island is. The state of activity of a volcano is monitored through the observation of geophysical and geochemical parameters

Hephaestus, Vulcan, God of Fire History, Mythology and Legend

  1. Vulcan is the Roman god corresponding to the Greek god Hefèsto, god of fire and metals. There is more than one version of his birth, the most acceptable one.
  2. Discover the Aeolian Islands: Lipari, Panarea, Salina, Stromboli, Vulcano, Alicudi and Flicudi. All you need to know for your trip to the Aeolian Islands
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  4. Aeolian Islands: Stromboli, the eruption and the volcano between history, myths and legends. Aeolian Islands: Stromboli, on the other hand, the god of fire was Vulcan.
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Contribute to the site! Entering the Associate Words and Phrases Example: SUBSCRIBE Other definitions for Hephaestus: Greek Vulcan, Greek God of fire and of. With 21 square kilometers of extension Vulcano is the third of the Aeolian Islands and reserves unexpected surprises but it is to the Roman god Vulcano who owes the. According to the latest scientific studies, a hypothetical eruption of the Yellowstone volcano could have a devastating impact on the terrestrial ecosystem Here are some of the most famous myths: The legend of Vulcan The god Vulcan (also called Hephaestus) one day quarreled with the supreme Jupiter . Holiday homes on the island of Vulcano, selected by the volcano consul tourist real estate agency

A Volcano of Libir

The eruptions of the volcano of Santorini have given the island its present appearance. Visit the volcano with an excursion that takes you into the history of Santorini Volcano - Ixcanul (Ixcanul) - A film by Jayro Bustamante. Bustamante managed to infuse his first feature film with the power of realism without. In this article I will tell you about the things you need to know if you want to visit Teide, the volcano of Tenerife. The Guanches invoked his God supreme,.

Vulcan was the god of fire and metallurgy, he had excellent skills in forging metal objects and weapons, and was the protector of craftsmen. A quiescent volcano is in a resting phase and therefore is not extinct. It has erupted for the past 10 thousand years and could return to do so at any moment Volcano and Vulcanism. Greek mythology had created around this Tierra del Fuego, a legend made of eruptions and solid gases that it had like. Its frequent activity in the classical era inspired the Greeks to suppose that the God of Fire, (Fossa Grande) of Vulcan, November 6, 1990,. In ancient times it was called Therasia (Θηρασία), then Hiera (Ἱερά), because it was sacred to the god Vulcan, hence its current name. Index

Dozens are missing. The eruption of the volcano, 3,763 meters high and 35 kilometers from Guatemala City, forced the evacuation of thousands of people and the closure. The Teide: general information, how to reach the Pico, what characterizes it, flora and fauna present, information links on the Teleferic GROUP TRIP A journey through rice fields, forests and volcanoes and a fabulous sea. A great adventure that will cross the entire island of Bali and then move on to. Ol Doinyo Lengai is a volcano revered by the Masai, in fact in the Maa language it means Mountain of God, the Masai believe that the god Lengai has his home.

Volcano God? Yahoo Answer

  1. The volcano Etna is collapsing and slowly sliding into the Ionian Sea, experts confirm, and a study states that this has already happened in the past
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  6. In Mapuche Llaima language - this is the name of the volcano you see According to an ancient Chilean legend, in fact, when God created the world.
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Vulcano Shopping Center - Page 4 - 160 shops, one of the centers

  1. On May 15th, from 2.30pm to 6.30pm, the Petrolini Theater in Castel Gandolfo will host the conference on the Volcano of Biodiversity. 'God, come back.
  2. Vulcano extends for about 21 square kilometers and is the third of the Aeolian Islands. The island is characterized by a plateau consisting of lava and tuff banks.
  3. Vulcano (Sicilian: Vurcanu) or Vulcan is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km (16 mi) north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of.
  4. Vulcano (Messina): steals the backpack of a student on an educational visit to the island. 57-year-old reported for aggravated theft
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The island of volcano with its attractions including: the thermal muds, the black sands, has always been one of the places where you can take a holiday of well-being and tranquility The Marsili volcano, an underwater monster in the lower Tyrrhenian Sea: all the images and le info util The Vulcano Shopping Center, built in this first phase, is a real modern monument, on which an imposing square of.

CULT OF VULCANO - Roman Empire EPHESTUS

• Etna is the largest volcano in Europe and is one of the most active in the world. It is 3300 meters high and is located in Sicily, near Catania. A volcano can be schematically defined as a fracture in the earth's crust from which magma emerges. The outer part (the only one normally.

Vulcano Island - Wikipeds

Francesca Michielin, Vulcano: audio, text and video of the new single available from 21 July 2017 Vulcano Buono - Loc. Boscofangone, 80035 Nola, Italy - Rated 4.3 based on 23,402 Reviews Exceptional place 20, 21 and 22 July are the dates of Vulcano di Beer 2018 which will take place at the 'Parco del Tennis', in the heart of the Amiata town, and from this year it will host four. Restaurants in Isola Vulcano, Aeolian Islands: TripAdvisor has 11,426 reviews of 45 restaurants in Isola Vulcano, grouped by cuisine, price, location and.

Good Volcano of Nola (na)? Yahoo Answer

Hydrofoil Ship Ferry to Vulcano. Click on the link to see the details of the structure, a new page will open on the site. Volcano Vacanze Volcanoes are one of the most striking and spectacular manifestations of the geodynamic processes that operate within the earth and volcanology is science. Hephaestus or Vulcan. Hephaestus. since he was soon identified with the Greek god Hephaestus and therefore is presented to us with the same connections as the latter. The pupils of the secondary school of Vulcano, stretched out with all its terraces towards the Stromboli that our great Rossellini and the good Lord have made.

Etna. Etna is the highest active volcano in Europe, has a base diameter of well over 40 km and a height of 3350 meters. Etna with its frequent. Hephaestus, god of fire and volcanoes, forged weapons for the gods under the Mediterranean. Typhon became Encelade and Hephaestus was Vulcan, the Roman god of fire Are you looking for a distributor of typical Sicilian products? Vulcano Group is the company specialized in the distribution of typical Sicilian products on this island. of 21 square km, Greek mythology located the forges of Hephaestus, god of fire and blacksmith who had for.

Volcano in the Encyclopedia of Boys - braids

Mount Etna. Etna seen from the town of Santa Venerina, on the south-eastern side of the volcano, during an episode of Strombolian and effusive activity at the Nuovo. (split of the crust) from the Latin name of the god Vulcano (lava cone) from the name of a volcanic island of the Aeolian

Vulcano (Hephaestus) - School

THE COUNTERFFENSIVE The Libyan government army launches Operation Vulcan of anger against the troops loyal to General Khalifa Haftar who threaten. Stromboli Volcano in Stromboli Island, tourist information and practical advice on itineraries and excursions to Stromboli Island, routes, guided tours and. Great expectations for tonight's appointment of the festive Trento Film starring Reinhold Messner, the king of the 8000ers: the public

Vulcano Island, 3 days in paradise! - Duration: 3:00. Francesca Enchanting Land 2,555 views. 3:00. Milan-Sanremo 1984 Francesco Moser - Duration. Eruptions in Japan. In Japan there are some very frightening explosions. Bandai, a volcano located in the northeast of Honshu near Fukushima. volcano - Translation of the word and its compounds, and forum discussions Marsili Volcano: the risk of eruption and tsunami is real. Here's what would happen in the event of an explosion. Word to the experts Vulcano Marsili: the risk. But it is the name that the Romans gave to the god, Vulcan, which was given to the island. And this is where the terms volcano and volcanism come from

How to build a volcano in papier mache. Building a papier mache volcano is a fun and interactive project. The process consists of two stages. Title of the work: Apollo in the forge of Vulcan. Author: Velázquez. Dating: 1630. The light brings out the god's face and touches the figures. We read different things about the volcano: we looked at the images of its stratification we talked about the magma chamber, eruption, lava, ash and lapilli.

Hephaestus (Vulcan), the god of fire - Tanogabo

ROME - The volcano's lava has reached the ocean. Plumes of white smoke are covering the sky and the authorities have advised to hold on. VULCANO IV: Fantastic stories, legends and myths of Etna (II) despising the loving advances of the lame Vulcan, the god of fire. The devastating eruption of Vulcan, the remedies of love and the power of the mind: the most mysterious manuscript of antiquity deciphered (Di Wednesday 15.

Canvas Print Red Volcano will be a fantastic wall decoration, See a collection of 3D canvas paintings - original and cheap decorations in the gallery. Vulcano, profile of Jayro Bustamante's film, read the plot and the review, watch the trailer, find the program of the film The island has always been sacred to the god Vulcan: it is here that Greek mythology places the famous forges of Hephaestus , the god of fire.


Your assistants

Hephaestus had an apprentice named Cedalion on the island of Lemnos, but he was helped by different beings in each of his forges:

The Cabiros Alcón and Eurimedonte in Lemnos.
The Palici in Sicily.
THE immortal cyclops of the island of Vulcano.

Family and children

While he was really married to Aphrodite, they never had descendants, since the goddess deceived him with the god of war Ares. Who he then captured in the midst of infidelity. Other stories say that he had a son with Athena, whom he wanted to rape but could not. His seed fell to the ground, Athena he wiped it with his handkerchief and he was born Erictonium.

Although, like many other Greek gods, he had many lovers and with them many children, his wife was Caris, one of the 3 and youngest of the Caritas. His sons were: Eukleia, Eupheme, Euthenia and Filophrosyne.


Hephaestus

Also known by the name of Vulcan in Roman mythology, Hephaestus (in ancient Greek α φαιστος) was an important god of Greek mythology. According to tradition, Hephaestus is the god of fire, of engineering, but also of arts such as sculpture and metallurgy. Revered in every Hellenic city where there were artisans, and especially in its capital Athens, this character takes its name from the root 'A-pa-i-ti-jo' found in a palace in Knossos.

According to the legend, Hephaestus was conceived by Hera, the mother, because she intended to take revenge on Zeus, her husband, since he regularly cheated on her with other lovers. But as soon as Hera saw Hephaestus, his son, he found it so ugly that he had already thrown him from Olympus. According to some legends, precisely for this reason he was lame, according to others, he was already deformed and lame by birth. In any case, in the iconography Hephaestus is represented as an ugly, big and stocky man, quite the opposite of other gods. However, he was extraordinarily strong, and very good in the art of working metals and handling fire no one could match him, for this reason he is often portrayed with a hammer and anvil and near the fire.

According to legend, the forge of Hephaestus was located on the slopes of Etna, for this reason the volcano grumbled and threw lapilli. Hephaestus is represented with anvil, hammer, pincers, sometimes with part of an ax. Hephaestus is a character of the Iliad he was raised by the Nereids after his mother Hera had repudiated him. Hephaestus took revenge on his mother by building a magical golden throne, so that once the goddess sat on it she would remain imprisoned. Hephaestus agreed to free her only if her mother recognized her as God. He married Aphrodite who, however, was not in love with him and secretly betrayed him with Ares.


Hephaestus or Vulcan - Greek and Latin mythology

THE GREEK GODS
AND ROMANS

CUPIDO (Rome) Latin cupid, from cupere, "to crave", in Roman mythology, son of Venus, goddess of love, and of Vulcan, god of fire. Known above all as the young and beautiful god who fell in love with Psyche, a beautiful girl. In other stories he appears as a spiteful boy who indiscriminately hits men and gods with his arrows, making them fall madly in love. In artistic representations Cupid usually appears as a naked and winged child, often blindfolded, with a bow and arrow.

EROS (Greece) God of love. In the most ancient mythology he was represented as one of the first forces of nature, son of Chaos and personification of harmony and the creative power of the universe, however, he was soon identified with a handsome and charming young man, accompanied by Photo ("greed" ) and Imero ("desire"). In later mythology he appears inseparable from his mother, Aphrodite, the goddess of love. In Greek art Eros was described as a winged young man, small but beautiful, with frequently blindfolded eyes to symbolize the blindness of love. Sometimes he had a flower in his hand, but more often a silver bow and arrows, with which he shot arrows of desire into the chests of gods and men. In Roman art and legend, Eros degenerated into a mischievous little boy and was often depicted as a plump winged child armed with a bow and quiver.

APOLLO (Greece) Son of the god Zeus and Leto, daughter of a titan. In Homeric legends Apollo was first of all a prophet god with an important oracle at Delphi, who sometimes granted the prophetic gift to the mortals he loved, such as the Trojan princess Cassandra. He was also the god of music and medicine, as well as a very skilled archer and a great athlete he was also the god of agriculture and livestock, of poetic light and philosophical truth. Apollo is sometimes described as ruthless and cruel, as in Homer's Iliad where it is said that he answered the prayers of the priest Chryses, who begged for the release of his daughter by the Greek general Agamemnon, throwing fiery arrows bearing plague on the killed Greek army. out of jealousy Coronides, who had given him his son Asclepius, kidnapped and raped the young Athenian princess Creusa and abandoned her together with the son conceived with her. In ancient art Apollo was represented more than other divinities, perhaps because of his physical beauty. Same for the Romans

Dionysus (Greece) God of wine and vegetation who taught mortals about viticulture and winemaking. Son of Zeus and the mortal Semele, daughter of the king of Thebes, Cadmus, Dionysus was often depicted on Attic vases as a god of vegetation, with a drinking horn and vine shoots later became popular as a god of wine, and in some festivals "miracles of wine" were attributed to him in his honor. According to tradition, Dionysus died every winter to be reborn in spring, symbolizing, with the cyclical rebirth and the reappearance of the fruits on earth.
From the 5th century BC Dionysus was also known by the Greeks as Bacchus, and bacchantes were called his followers who invoked him during the mysteries, probably born from the spring festivals and become an opportunity to indulge in wine and licentiousness. It was in this form that the cult of Dionysus spread among the Romans, where his mysteries were called, in the second century BC, Bacchanalia, and became so unbridled as to incur the prohibition of the Roman senate in 186 BC. In the first century AD, however, the mysteries of Dionysus were still popular, as the depictions visible on Greek sarcophagi attest.

DEMETRA (Greece) Goddess of wheat and crops, daughter of the titan Cronus and Rhea. When her daughter Persephone was kidnapped by Hades, god of the Underworld, Demeter was so grieved that she neglected the lands, on which no more plants grew, and famine struck the world. Bewildered by the situation, Zeus asked his brother Hades to return Persephone to her mother. He agreed, but before freeing her he made her eat the grains of a pomegranate that would have forced her to return to him four months a year (six months in another version of the myth). Happy to have found her daughter, in spring Demeter gave birth to flowers, fruits and wheat in abundance from the earth, but in autumn, when Persephone returned to the underworld, her pain caused the death of the vegetation and opened the doors to winter.

CECERE (Rome) Goddess of agriculture, whose daughter Proserpina was identified with Persephone. The Greek belief that the rebirth of nature and the abundance of fruit and crops on earth was due to his joy of reuniting with his daughter every spring was introduced in Rome in the 5th century BC, and his cult became very popular. especially among the plebeians. The word "cereals" derives from its name and its main festival, called Cerialia, was celebrated around mid-April.

ARTEMIS (Greece) One of the main goddesses. Daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin sister of Apollo, she was the most important of the divinities of hunting and wild animals, especially bears, as well as protector of births, nature and crops. As a personification of the Moon, she was sometimes identified with Selene and Hecate. Although traditionally the protector of young girls, during the Trojan War Artemis prevented the Greeks from sailing to Troy until they sacrificed a virgin to her. According to some versions of the legend, at the last moment he saved the victim, Iphigenia. Like Apollo, Artemis was armed with a bow and arrow, with which she often punished the mortals who annoyed her. According to other legends, it assured women who died in childbirth a quick and painless death.

DIANA (Rome) Goddess of the Moon and hunting. She guarded the springs and streams and was the protector of wild animals. It was also particularly dear to women, as it ensured an easy childbirth for her loved ones. In artistic depictions she usually appears as a young huntress, often with a bow and arrow.

HERACLES (Greece) Hero known for strength and courage and for his numerous exploits Hercules is his Roman name. He was the son of the god Zeus and Alcmena, wife of the Theban general Amphitryon. Hera, Zeus's jealous wife, wanted to kill the son of the infidel god shortly after the birth of Heracles sent two large snakes to his crib, but the newborn strangled them. As a boy, Heracles killed a lion with the sole force of his hands, later he won the inhabitants of Orcomeno, a city that collected tributes from Thebes: as a reward, he was granted the hand of the Theban princess Megara, with whom he had three children. Hera, still relentless in his hatred of Heracles, caused him a fit of insanity during which he killed his wife and children. For the horror and remorse of what he had done, Heracles wanted to take his own life, but the oracle of Delphi told him that he would purify himself by becoming the servant of Eurystheus, king of Mycenae. Eurystheus, pushed by Hera, indicated to him the accomplishment of twelve difficult undertakings as an expiation.

ASCLEPIUS (Greece) God of medicine, whose symbol was a staff around which a snake was wrapped. He was the son of the god Apollo and Coronis, a beautiful Thessalian girl. Enraged because Coronides had been unfaithful to him, Apollo killed her and took the unborn Asclepius from her womb, and then entrusted him to the centaur Chiron. Asclepius learned everything Chiron knew about medicine and became very skilled in healing, but since he threatened the natural order by tearing men from death, the god Zeus killed him with a thunderbolt. For the Romans it was called Aesculapius.

ZEUS (Greece) God of the sky and the lord of the gods of Mount Olympus. Secondo Omero, Zeus era il creatore, il protettore e il signore tanto degli dei olimpici quanto del genere umano, nonché il re del cielo, il dio della pioggia, il raccoglitore delle nubi e il dispensatore dei fulmini il dio si proteggeva il petto con l'egida e veniva simboleggiato dall'aquila e dall'albero di quercia
Zeus era il figlio più giovane del titano Crono e della titanide Rea e fratello degli dei Poseidone, Ade, Estia, Demetra ed Era. Secondo un antico mito riguardante la nascita di Zeus, Crono, temendo di perdere il trono per mano di uno dei figli, li ingoiava appena nati. Quando nacque Zeus, Rea avvolse in fasce una pietra che fece ingoiare a Crono e nascose a Creta il neonato, che venne accudito dalle ninfe. Divenuto adulto, Zeus obbligò Crono a restituire gli altri figli, assetati di vendetta. Nella guerra che ne seguì, i titani combatterono al fianco di Crono, ma vinse Zeus con gli altri dei, mentre i titani furono gettati nel Tartaro. Zeus da quel momento dominò il Cielo, i suoi fratelli Poseidone e Ade ebbero il potere rispettivamente sul mare e sugli inferi, mentre la Terra fu governata in comune da tutti e tre.
Nei poemi omerici Zeus viene rappresentato come il dio della giustizia e della pietà, sposo della sorella Era, con la quale ebbe Ares, dio della guerra, Ebe, dea della giovinezza, Efesto, dio del fuoco, e Ilizia, dea del parto.

GIOVE (Roma) Il padre degli dei, figlio del dio Saturno, che spodestò. In origine dio e re del cielo, Giove era venerato come dio della pioggia, del tuono e del fulmine. Come protettore di Roma veniva chiamato Iuppiter Optimus Maximus ("il migliore e il più grande") ed era venerato in un tempio sul Campidoglio. In quanto Iuppiter Fidius era il custode della legge, il difensore della verità e il protettore di giustizia e virtù i romani identificavano Giove con Zeus, il dio supremo dei greci, e assegnavano al dio latino gli attributi e i miti della divinità greca. Nella letteratura latina, perciò, Giove ha molte caratteristiche greche, mentre nel culto religioso romano era sostanzialmente immune dagli influssi greci.

ERA (Grecia) La regina degli dei figlia del titano Crono e della titanide Rea, era sorella e sposa di Zeus. Dea del matrimonio e protettrice delle donne sposate, Era generò Ares, dio della guerra Efesto, dio del fuoco Ebe, dea della giovinezza, e Ilizia, dea del parto. Moglie gelosa, Era perseguitò spesso le amanti e i figli di Zeus non dimenticava mai un'offesa ed era nota per la sua natura vendicativa. Adirata con il principe troiano Paride che le aveva preferito Afrodite, dea dell'amore, in una gara di bellezza, Era aiutò i greci nella guerra di Troia e fu soddisfatta soltanto quando la città venne finalmente distrutta.

GIUNONE (Roma) Regina degli dei, sposa e sorella di Giove. Era la protettrice delle donne e fu venerata con nomi diversi. Come Iuno Pronuba presiedeva al matrimonio, come Iuno Lucina aiutava le donne nel parto, e come Iuno Regina era la particolare consigliera e protettrice dello stato romano. La festa a lei dedicata, i Matronalia , si celebrava il primo giorno di marzo. Il mese di giugno prese il nome da lei.

ARES (Grecia) Dio della guerra e figlio di Zeus e di Era. Aggressivo e feroce, impersonava la natura brutale della guerra. Tra le divinità a lui associate c'era Afrodite, dea dell'amore, da cui ebbe dei figli, e divinità minori come Deimo (Terrore) e Fobo (Paura), che lo accompagnavano in battaglia. Per quanto ardito e battagliero, Ares non era invincibile, neppure contro i mortali.

MARTE (Roma) Dio della guerra. Benché la sua natura originaria e le sue funzioni siano oscure, Marte, da cui prende nome il mese di marzo, era identificato dai romani con il dio greco della guerra, Ares. Tra le principali divinità di Roma, era considerato anche il padre del popolo romano, in quanto padre di Romolo, il leggendario fondatore della città il suo altare si trovava nel Campo Marzio. Nel 42 a.C., per commemorare la propria vittoria sugli assassini di Giulio Cesare, l'imperatore Augusto attribuì a Marte il titolo di Ultor ("vendicatore") e gli dedicò un nuovo tempio.

ERMES (Grecia) Messaggero degli dei, figlio del dio Zeus e di Maia, figlia del titano Atlante. Messaggero particolare di Zeus, Ermes portava sandali alati, un cappello a falda larga e una verga d'oro magica (il caduceo), con serpenti intrecciati e ali Ermes conduceva le anime dei morti nel mondo sotterraneo ( Ermes Psicopompo ), possedeva poteri magici sul sonno e i sogni, ed era il dio del commercio e dei mercanti, nonché il custode delle mandrie. Dio degli atleti, proteggeva i ginnasi e gli stadi e lo si riteneva responsabile sia della fortuna che della ricchezza. Malgrado le sue virtù, Ermes era anche un nemico pericoloso, un truffatore e un ladro. Il giorno della sua nascita rubò il bestiame del fratello Apollo, dio del Sole, facendo camminare all'indietro la mandria sulle proprie orme per cancellarne le tracce posto a confronto con Apollo, Ermes negò il furto, ma i due fratelli si riconciliarono quando Ermes donò ad Apollo la lira che aveva creato. Ermes veniva rappresentato nell'arte greca più antica come un uomo barbuto e maturo nel periodo classico divenne un giovane atletico, nudo e imberbe.

MERCURIO (Roma) Messaggero degli dei, figlio del dio Giove e di Maia, figlia del titano Atlante. Mercurio era anche il dio dei mercanti e del commercio e condivideva molti degli attributi del dio greco Ermes. Al culto di Mercurio venne dedicato un tempio vicino al Circo Massimo, a Roma, nel 495 a.C.

ATENA (Grecia) Figlia prediletta di Zeus, Atena nacque già adulta dalla testa del dio armata di uno scudo ornato con la spaventosa testa della gorgone Medusa, che pietrificava chiunque la guardasse, della sua lancia, dell'egida (una corazza di pelle caprina) e dell'elmo. Era chiamata anche Pallade o Parthénos ("la vergine"), e ad Atene si trovava il principale tempio a lei dedicato, il Partenone: secondo la leggenda, divenne suo come ricompensa del dono dell'ulivo che aveva fatto agli ateniesi.
Atena era prima di tutto la dea delle città greche, delle arti e dei mestieri e, nella mitologia più tarda, della saggezza. È anche la dea della guerra tra gli dei fu la più accanita sostenitrice dei greci durante la guerra di Troia. Dopo la caduta della città, tuttavia, questi non rispettarono la sacralità di un altare dedicato alla dea, presso il quale si era rifugiata la profetessa troiana Cassandra. Per punirli, Atena chiese quindi a Poseidone, dio del mare, di scatenare una tempesta che distrusse la maggior parte delle navi greche sulla via del ritorno da Troia. La dea era anche protettrice dell'agricoltura e dei mestieri femminili, soprattutto della filatura e della tessitura. All'uomo, invece, dedicò l'invenzione dell'aratro e del flauto e le arti di addomesticare gli animali, costruire navi e fabbricare calzature. Fu spesso associata agli uccelli, soprattutto alla civetta.

MINERVA (Roma) Dea dei lavori manuali. Identificata fin dai tempi antichissimi con Atena, Minerva era patrona delle arti e del commercio. Con Giove e Giunone, era venerata in un grande tempio sulla sommità del Campidoglio a Roma.

POSEIDONE (Grecia) Dio del mare, ma in origine anche dei terremoti, figlio del titano Crono e di Rea, e fratello di Zeus e di Ade.
Poseidone era lo sposo di Anfitrite, una delle nereidi, dalla quale aveva avuto un figlio, Tritone. Poseidone, tuttavia, ebbe numerose altre storie d'amore, specialmente con ninfe di sorgenti, con le quali generò numerosi figli famosi per la loro barbarie e crudeltà, tra cui il gigante Orione e il ciclope Polifemo con la gorgone Medusa concepì Pegaso, il celebre cavallo alato. Poseidone ha un ruolo di spicco in molti miti e leggende greci: lottò senza successo contro Atena, dea della saggezza, per il controllo di Atene quando, assieme ad Apollo, dio del Sole, si vide privato del compenso pattuito per avere aiutato Laomedonte, re di Troia, a costruire le mura della città, si vendicò furiosamente mandando un terribile mostro marino a devastare la regione, e durante la guerra di Troia si schierò con i greci.
In arte Poseidone compare come un personaggio maestoso, con la barba, che impugna un tridente, ed è spesso accompagnato da un delfino. Ogni due anni, a Corinto, si tenevano in suo onore i giochi istmici, corse di cavalli e carri.

NETTUNO (Roma) Dio del mare, figlio del dio Saturno e fratello di Giove, re degli dei, e di Plutone, dio dei morti. In origine dio delle fonti e dei corsi d'acqua, fu poi identificato con il dio greco del mare, Poseidone.

ADE (Grecia) Figlio del Titano Crono e di Rea, Ade era fratello di Zeus e Poseidone. Dopo la deposizione di Crono e la spartizione dell'universo, Ade ottenne il mondo sotterraneo, sul quale regnò insieme alla ninfa Persefone, rapita dal mondo terreno benché fosse un dio feroce e non si placasse né con sacrifici né con preghiere, non era malvagio. Era noto anche come Plutone, signore delle ricchezze, perché sia i raccolti che i metalli preziosi erano considerati appartenenti al regno degli Inferi. Il mondo sotterraneo su cui regnava, nelle lontane regioni dell'Occidente, era formato dall'Erebo, luogo dove approdavano le anime dei trapassati, e dalle profondità del Tartaro, in cui gli dèi avevano imprigionato i Titani. Era un luogo cupo, separato dal mondo da fiumi dall'aspetto triste e minaccioso veniva custodito da Cerbero, un cane con tre teste e la coda di drago, mentre a un vecchio barcaiolo, Caronte, toccava il compito di traghettare le anime dei morti attraverso le loro acque. Nell'oscurità degli Inferi aveva sede il palazzo di Ade, rappresentato come una dimora fatiscente con molti cancelli, affollata di anime e popolata di fantasmi. Nelle leggende più tarde il regno degli Inferi viene distinto in due luoghi separati: l'Elisio, luogo della ricompensa ultraterrena dei buoni, e il Tartaro, dove vengono puniti i malvagi.

PLUTONE (Roma) Dio dei morti, sposo di Proserpina, che corrisponde al dio greco Ade. Plutone aiutò i suoi due fratelli, Giove e Nettuno, a esautorare il padre, Saturno. Quando si divisero tra loro il mondo, Giove scelse la terra e i cieli come suo regno, Nettuno diventò il dio del mare e Plutone ebbe il mondo sotterraneo, in cui regnava sulle ombre dei morti. In origine era considerato un dio fiero e inflessibile, sordo alle preghiere e insensibile ai sacrifici. Nei culti posteriori e nelle credenze popolari vennero enfatizzati gli aspetti più miti e benefici di questo dio. Ritenuto il dispensatore dei beni nascosti nella terra, come i minerali preziosi e le messi, Plutone era noto anche come Orco o Dis, colui che dà la ricchezza.

PERSEFONE (Grecia) Figlia di Zeus, padre degli dei, e di Demetra, dea della Terra e dell'agricoltura. Ade, dio del mondo sotterraneo, si innamorò di Persefone e volle sposarla. Benché Zeus acconsentisse, Demetra rifiutò il matrimonio Ade allora la rapì mentre coglieva fiori, per portarla nel suo regno. Demetra cominciò a vagare alla ricerca della figlia perduta, e la terra cadde nella desolazione: tutte le piante morirono e la carestia devastò il territorio, finché Zeus mandò Ermes, il messaggero degli dei, a riportare Persefone da sua madre. Ma prima di lasciarla andare, Ade la indusse a rompere il digiuno facendole mangiare un chicco di melagrana e legandola così per sempre al regno dei morti. Si trovò comunque un compromesso: Persefone avrebbe passato quattro mesi (altre versioni dicono sei mesi) agli Inferi e il resto dell'anno sulla terra. Questo faceva sì che, in quanto dea dei morti e della fertilità della Terra, Persefone rappresentava la rinascita della natura in primavera. In onore di Persefone – identificata dai romani con Proserpina – e di sua madre, si tenevano i misteri di Eleusi.

CRONO (Grecia) Signore dell'universo durante l'Età dell'Oro, uno dei sei titani maschi, ultimo figlio di Urano e Gea. I primi figli dei suoi genitori furono gli ecatonchiri, mostri con cento mani e cinquanta teste, che Urano aveva rinchiuso in un luogo segreto. Per salvarli, Gea chiese aiuto ad altri suoi figli: soltanto Crono accettò la sfida, evirò Urano e ne prese il posto nei cieli. Crono sposò la propria sorella, Rea, e generò con lei sei delle dodici divinità dell'Olimpo. Essendogli stato profetizzato che uno dei suoi figli l'avrebbe spodestato, Crono divorò i primi cinque appena nati. Ma il sesto figlio, Zeus, venne sostituito da Rea con una pietra avvolta in fasce. Zeus fu nascosto a Creta, e quando diventò adulto con l'aiuto di Gea costrinse Crono a rigettare i cinque figli e la pietra, che fu poi portata a Delfi. Liberati gli ecatonchiri e i ciclopi dalla prigione in cui li aveva rinchiusi Crono, con il loro aiuto e con quello delle sue cinque sorelle e dei titani, Zeus intraprese una guerra contro il padre. Crono e i titani furono confinati nel Tartaro, una grotta nella parte più profonda del mondo sotterraneo.

SATURNO (Roma) Antico dio dell'agricoltura. Nelle leggende più tarde fu identificato con il dio greco Crono, che, spodestato dal figlio Zeus (per i romani, Giove), fuggì in Italia, dove regnò nell'Età dell'Oro, epoca di perfetta pace e felicità. Durante i Saturnali, una festa che iniziava il 17 dicembre di ogni anno e durava sette giorni, veniva ripristinata una sorta di Età dell'Oro, in cui tutte le attività erano sospese e le esecuzioni e le operazioni militari rinviate inoltre, era accordata la libertà agli schiavi, che sedevano a tavola al posto d'onore ed erano serviti dai loro padroni.
Saturno era lo sposo di Opi, dea dell'abbondanza. Tra i figli di Saturno c'erano, oltre a Giove, re degli dei, Giunone, dea del matrimonio Nettuno, dio del mare Plutone, dio dei morti Cerere, dea del grano. Nelle raffigurazioni artistiche, Saturno di solito compare con la barba, reggendo una falce o una spiga di grano.

GEA (Grecia) La personificazione della madre Terra, figlia di Caos. Era madre e moglie del padre Cielo, impersonato da Urano. Gea e Urano erano i genitori delle più antiche creature viventi, i titani, i ciclopi, i giganti e gli ecatonchiri, giganti provvisti di cento braccia e cinquanta teste. Temendo e detestando i giganti, benché fossero suoi figli, Urano li rinchiuse in un luogo segreto della Terra, lasciando in libertà i ciclopi e i titani. Gea, infuriata, convinse suo figlio, il titano Crono, a spodestare suo padre. Crono evirò Urano e dal suo sangue Gea generò i giganti e tre dee vendicatrici, le erinni. La sua ultima e terrificante creatura, concepita con Tartaro, fu Tifone, un mostro dalle cento teste, che, sebbene sconfitto dal dio Zeus, si riteneva eruttasse la lava incandescente del vulcano Etna. Per i romani Tellus.

AFRODITE (Grecia) La dea dell'amore e della bellezza. Nell' Iliade di Omero è presentata come la figlia di Zeus e Dione, una delle sue consorti, ma nella Teogonia di Esiodo si narra che nacque dalla schiuma del mare.
Secondo Omero, Afrodite è sposa del dio Efesto tra i suoi amanti ebbe Ares, dio della guerra, e rivaleggiò con Persefone, regina del mondo sotterraneo, per l'amore di Adone, bellissimo giovane greco ebbe anche un figlio, Enea, da Anchise, principe troiano. La leggenda più famosa riguardante Afrodite concerne la causa della guerra di Troia. Eris, dea della discordia, fu l'unica a non essere invitata alle nozze del re Peleo con la divinità marina Teti: risentita, la dea gettò nella sala del banchetto una mela d'oro, su cui erano scritte le parole: "Alla più bella". Quando Zeus rifiutò di scegliere tra Era, Atena e Afrodite, le tre dee che ambivano alla mela, esse si rivolsero a Paride, principe di Troia. Ciascuna gli promise un dono: Era l'avrebbe reso potente, Atena gli avrebbe procurato la gloria militare e Afrodite invece gli avrebbe concesso la donna più bella del mondo. Paride decretò che la mela spettava ad Afrodite, e chiese in premio Elena, moglie del re greco Menelao. Con il rapimento di Elena, Paride scatenò quindi la guerra di Troia. Ad Afrodite furono attribuiti svariati titoli di culto, tra cui quello di Urania, regina dei cieli, e Afrodite Pandemia, dea di tutte le genti.

VENERE (Roma) Era originariamente una dea dei giardini e degli orti, in seguito identificata con Afrodite, la dea greca dell'amore e della bellezza. In epoca imperiale era venerata sotto diverse sembianze: come Venus genitrix era madre dell'eroe Enea, capostipite del popolo romano e in particolare della gens Iulia , cui appartenne Giulio Cesare come Venus felix , apportatrice di fortuna come Venus victrix , colei che procura la vittoria come Venus verticordia , protettrice della castità femminile. Venere era moglie di Vulcano, dio della lavorazione dei metalli, ma gli era spesso infedele. Tra i suoi numerosi amanti vi furono Marte, dio della guerra, il bellissimo pastore Adone e Anchise, padre di Enea. Venere era anche la madre di Cupido, dio dell'amore.

ESTIA (Grecia) Dea vergine del focolare, figlia maggiore di Crono e Rea. Era preposta ai fuochi sacrificali e le si rivolgevano preghiere prima e dopo i pasti. Sebbene compaia in pochissimi miti, la maggior parte delle città aveva un focolare comune dove ardeva il fuoco sacro. A Roma, Estia era adorata come Vesta e la sua importanza era notevole: il suo fuoco era alimentato da sei sacerdotesse vergini note come le vestali.

EFESTO (Grecia) Dio del fuoco e della lavorazione dei metalli, figlio del dio Zeus e della dea Era o, in alcune versioni, generato dalla sola Era. Diversamente dagli altri dei, Efesto era brutto e zoppo. Poco tempo dopo la sua nascita fu cacciato dall'Olimpo: in alcune leggende da Era, disgustata dalla sua deformità, in altre da Zeus, perché Efesto si era schierato a fianco di Era contro di lui. Nella maggior parte dei racconti, però, assurge ben presto all'Olimpo e sposa Afrodite, dea dell'amore, o Aglaia, una delle tre grazie. In quanto artigiano degli dei, Efesto fabbricava per loro corazze, armature e gioielli.

VULCANO (Roma) Dio del fuoco, originariamente un'antica divinità italica che sembra essere stata associata al fuoco vulcanico in epoca imperiale Vulcano veniva identificato con il dio greco Efesto e la sua festa, i Volcanalia , veniva celebrata il 23 agosto. Era particolarmente venerato a Ostia, centro del suo culto.


Video: Roman Mythology Animated


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