When and how to properly collect plums from a tree?
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In every garden, there is a culture called plum. The fruits of such trees are very tasty and juicy, but, unfortunately, they do not have a long shelf life.
therefore it is very important to know the ripening time and the rules for harvesting and storing the crop.
Also, significant damage can be caused by premature shedding of fruits, which can be prevented by knowing some tricks.
In what month can you harvest from a tree: in the Urals, Siberia and Central Russia
Plum varieties differ in different ripening periods. Harvesting can begin in July, and this process will end in September-October.
Early plum varieties - their ripening period falls at the end of July - beginning of August. Such trees give bountiful harvests. The brightest representatives are: Morning, Opal, Renkold, Record, Red ball and Zarechnaya early.
Mid-season plum varieties - such fruits have excellent taste and aroma. Their ripening period lasts from mid-August to mid-September.
Experienced gardeners distinguish the following varieties: Blue Gift, Zanyatnaya, Sukhanovskaya, Mashenka, Romain and Souvenir of the East.
Late plum varieties - such fruits are most often used for conservation, they begin to ripen at the end of August and the fruits can be harvested until mid-September.
The most popular varieties are: Renkold Tambovsky, Bogatyrskaya, Zhiguli, Svetlana and President.
Ural and Siberia differ significantly in climate from the central and southern regions of Russia. Plum ripening and harvesting in the Urals and Siberia falls at the end of August - beginning of September.
I would also like to note that very often, due to a lack of heat and light, plums do not ripen to full ripeness.
The harvest period does not depend on the color of the fruit... The ripening period is determined by the variety of the plum, not its color.
How to remove fruits correctly so that they are stored longer?
For, so that the harvest of plums is preserved as long as possible, you must adhere to the following rules while collecting fruits.
Plums are removed only in dry weather, excessive moisture can affect the storage time. Experienced gardeners do not recommend harvesting in the rain, immediately after watering, or in the morning, when the dew has not yet dried on the fruits and foliage.
Compliance with this rule will significantly save time and effort, as well as increase the shelf life of the plum. After all, it is much easier to pick the fruits already dry than to prepare them for maturation for a long time.
If plum is harvested as soon as the fruit begins to form, then such a process will prevent shedding and significantly increase the amount of the crop.
While picking fruits in the country, they shouldn't be soft, to the desired degree, this fruit can ripen in a dry and warm place.
The plum is protected from the influence of the external environment by a wax coating on the skin, so if it is not damaged, then the shelf life will be much longer.
What to do: do not touch the fruit once again during picking they should be torn off along with the stalk or use scissors.
Harvesting technology, although simple, but many ignore this sequence, which is why fruits that have not yet been removed from the branches will be unsuitable for storage or transportation. Start collecting plums from the lower branchesmoving from the edge of the branch to the trunk.
For picking fruits from the top of the tree, it is recommended to use a ladder or stepladder... In no case should you stand on a branch.
Such actions entail not only damage to the tree, but can also cause serious damage to health in the form of bruises, abrasions and even fractures.
Also you can't shake the tree, because the fallen fruits will be crumpled and will not be able to lie for a long time, such plums can either be eaten immediately or used to make compotes, jams or juices.
In order for the fruits to be preserved for up to 2 months, you need to create comfortable conditions for them. To begin with, they are carefully folded without causing mechanical damage and without erasing the wax coating.
The best containers are wooden boxes or plastic trays lined with paper. Then you need to provide a comfortable temperature from 0 to -2 degrees and a humidity of 85%.
Everything damaged plums cannot be stored, they will very quickly begin to deteriorate and rot.
The crop ripens unevenly, therefore it is best to remove the fruits in 2-3 doses.
Why does the plum fall ahead of time?
It often happens that the fruits, without waiting for full ripeness, begin to fall from the tree. Because of this, you can lose most of the harvest, so it is very important to know the reasons for the shedding of the plum. Why do fruits fall?
Lack of nutrients in the soil can lead to complete shedding of the fruit. Fertilize the plum tree according to a special scheme. Also, if you inspect trees in a timely manner, you can identify which component is missing.
In that case, when there is little potassium in the soil, the branches become weaker and cannot bear the weight of the ripe fruit.
When the soil is low in nitrogen, plums may not ripen at all, because due to the lack of this component, the tree begins to grow more slowly, the leaves turn yellow, the ovaries are too small and quickly crumble.
The root system of the plum is very close to the surface of the ground, and because of this, the tree needs to be watered more often. Lack of moisture can lead to crushing of fruits and to their shedding in an unripe form.
Another reason for plum shedding can be attack of various insect pests... They can harm both the tree as a whole and its fruits:
- Plum moth - she lays her eggs in plum fruits in spring, and young caterpillars actively begin to feed on ovaries. Because of this, there is a significant loss of yield or shedding of it in an unripe form in early summer.
- Puffy leg - these butterflies begin to fly over the tree about a week after flowering, laying their eggs in the fruit bone. The caterpillars of the fatfoot devour the plum from the inside, so their actions are often difficult to determine, they go unnoticed until the fruit shedding in early June.
- Plum sawfly - the larvae of these insects enter the ovary and begin to feed on the pulp and bones that have not yet matured. Because of them, shedding of still green fruits occurs.
What to do to prevent shedding?
In order not to lose a significant part of the plum crop, it is necessary to properly care for the tree and perform all the necessary procedures on time.
Timely and abundant feeding will replenish the supply of nutrients and the tree will have more strength to form and ripen fruits. In addition, the fertile soil will help ripe plums stay on the branches for as long as possible.
In early summer, it is recommended to fertilize the soil with humus, manure or bird droppings.
You also need to carefully monitor the state of the tree, and if you find signs of a shortage of one or another component, you will need to immediately add it.
The aridity of the soil is one of the reasons why the fruits begin to crumble. Therefore, very it is important not to miss watering time, do not allow the soil to dry out, correctly build a schedule for this procedure.
On average, the plum is watered 3-5 times during the entire flowering and fruiting season.
But this indicator may decrease or increase depending on the following indicators:
- the amount of precipitation;
- air humidity level;
- groundwater level;
- also, the abundance of watering can be affected by the presence of other plantings in adjacent territories.
Experienced gardeners recommend watering the plum using special trenches., which are dug out at the level of the crown. Its depth should be 40-60 centimeters.
To keep moisture longer, it is necessary to mulch the soil around the tree trunk, preventing it from drying out.
Also, in order to prevent shedding of plum fruits, you need to know the measures to combat insect pests.
Plum moth - in order to prevent fertilization of larvae, it is recommended to hang pheromone traps on a tree in late May - early June, which have a detrimental effect on males.
You can also use various chemicals such as Fitoverm or Karbofos.
When working with chemicals, it will be mandatory to use personal protective equipment (gloves, respirator, etc.).
Puffy leg - in order to get rid of insects, you need to treat the affected trees with "Confidor" or "Dantop".
This procedure is carried out immediately after the end of flowering and is repeated after 10-15 days. For a more effective fight, you need to collect and burn all the carrion.
As a preventive measure, experienced gardeners recommend sprinkling the tree with water during the summer of butterflies.
Plum Sawyer - you can get rid of pests by spraying the tree with insecticides during the formation of rose buds.
Plum trees produce a rich and tasty harvest that can be harvested in mid-July and finished in late September.
To keep plums as long as possible and prevent shedding, you need to follow all the above tips.
Pruning and rules for forming a plum tree
Pruning plums for novice gardeners can seem like a daunting task. Indeed, carrying out this procedure requires a specialist in certain theoretical knowledge and skills. The first thing that every domestic gardener needs to pay attention to is that pruning home plums should be systematic and carried out at least once a year.
Thus, you will take care of the health of the plant and make every effort to ensure that it bears fruit every year and at the same time is generous enough. Interestingly, pruning and shaping the tree is ideally necessary in the spring, summer and even fall. The thing is that each of the pruning stages is of great importance for the plum and is distinguished by its individual characteristics.
Pruning plums in spring is the best solution for a novice gardener. This time is considered the most favorable for the formation of the plant, and you will cause less harm to it. It is advisable to start this procedure in late March - early April. One of the key benefits of pruning plums in spring is the ability to spot branches that are growing in the wrong direction. You will need to remove them first of all, since the intensity of fruiting of the tree depends on this.
As for the summer crown formation, it is necessary in order to thin out the most thickened places. You can find them by the accumulation of foliage, which in many ways prevents the full ripening of the fruits. Do not forget that cutting off old or damaged branches is also recommended in the fall. This kind of procedure is carried out exclusively for sanitary purposes.
Caring for a one-year-old tree
The next spring, the young tree is fed with nitrogen fertilizer. We prepare it as follows: dissolve 20 grams of urea in 5 liters of water. We spray the crown with this solution. In late May - early June, after the flowers have fallen off, fertilizing is carried out in the second round. Use a nitrophoska solution (30 grams per bucket of water).
The last time you need to feed the plum is at the end of the season. Fertilize with a mixture of ash (70 grams), superphosphate (15 grams), sulfate (15 grams) and a bucket of water. One seedling requires 2 buckets of fertilizer. The mixture must be applied at the root.
Pruning a seedling in the second year
The second year of life is very important for the development of trees. At this time, the seedlings are gaining strength, they can resist diseases and pests.
We start work in March. To begin with, you should shorten the main trunk by 2/3 parts. Do not think that the tree will become too small. It is easier to harvest fruits from a low seedling, besides, the procedure will bring a positive result.
When pruning for the second year, we must not forget about the July procedure. At this time, it is necessary to cut off the growths up to 20 cm, and the side shoots up to 15 cm.
How to properly pick apples from a tree
It is advisable to harvest the crop on a dry and warm day, preferably in the second half. This is especially true for winter varieties. In late autumn, the air has time to warm up a little, and the fruits dry out. Usually, on the southern side of the tree, the fruits ripen a little earlier, so you need to start harvesting from it.
Sometimes summer or autumn varieties have to be removed after rain. In this case, you need to wait a while for the fruit to dry out a little on the branch.
You should start harvesting from the lower tier and gradually move to the top. Damaged or wormy fruits are not suitable for storage. It is not recommended to remove the apple without a stalk, as this negatively affects keeping quality.
How to store a fresh apple harvest, read here.
Recommendations for pruning a seedling
A plum with a compact, low crown is easier to care for and easier to harvest.
How to form a young plum so that the tree grows compact, bears fruit well and does not hurt? During the transplanting of the seedling to the main place, it is necessary to carry out the formation of the skeleton of the crown... The acquired material is examined; in case of severe damage to the roots, pruning of branches should be maximum.
If a plum sapling is grafted on a seed stock and does not have lateral branches, the cut is carried out at a height 60-65 cm from the soil above the kidney. The rest of the buds will give lateral shoots, from which skeletal branches will be formed in the future.
The crown of a seedling with lateral branches is formed as follows.
- For the first tier, leave 3 brancheslocated around the circumference of the barrel and departing from it at an angle 40–50°... It is not recommended to leave branches placed at an acute angle, because with abundant fruiting, they can break off the tree. Branches at an angle 60° and more should also not be used as skeletal, as they are usually stunted.
Blackberry seed propagation
With this method of reproduction, varietal characteristics are preserved in 90% of the planted specimens. Moreover, even I.V. Michurin found that seed reproduction makes it possible to obtain seedlings, the immunity of which is several times stronger than that of the mother plants.
Stratification is a mandatory procedure for seeds.
- duration - 1.5-2 months
- temperature 2-5C
- the seeds are dipped in light soil mixed with river sand.
The planting material should be lowered into the ground to a depth of no more than one centimeter and watered with warm water. Abundant watering in this case is extremely undesirable, and even dangerous. Once a week, the boxes with the sown seeds are inspected, if necessary, sprayed with a spray bottle. The seed-substrate mixture should not be allowed to dry out.
It will be good if, before sowing, you soak them in rainwater for 2-3 days. The depth to which you sow the seeds should be no more than 8 mm. The optimal distance is 3x3 cm, otherwise the seedlings will need to be thinned out. If you provide the crops with a temperature of about 20C, they will rise quickly and amicably. But this does not mean that having sowed the seeds, you can immediately forget about them. Sowing should be periodically inspected, watered with water at room temperature from a spray bottle.
When the seedlings have 4 leaves, the seedlings need to be transplanted into the ground (without violating the integrity of the earthen coma), the soil on the site should be well fertilized, fertile. The distance between the rows should be such that it was not difficult to care for the plants. In a row from one seedling to another, 10-15 cm are left.
The growing season is a crucial time for sowing, and the health of the plant, which means the quality and quantity of berries, depends on the conditions in which it will be kept.
Timely removal of weeds and good watering are perhaps the main points of care. With the onset of cold weather, the seedlings need to be sheltered from frost. For this, you can use the remains of plants, dry cut grass
In the spring, they are carefully dug up, and together with an earthen clod, they are planted in the place where they will grow constantly.
For 3-4 years, the bushes grown from seeds will begin to bear fruit.
We dwelled on this breeding method in more detail, since, according to experienced gardeners, it is considered the most difficult.