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Apple blossom beetle - a threat to the harvest

Apple blossom beetle - a threat to the harvest


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How to identify the flower beetle and deal with it

Admiring the flowering apple trees, the gardener is sometimes unpleasantly surprised when he discovers many unopened buds among the blossoming flowers. One gets the impression that they are, as it were, burned.

The reason for such a dysfunctional picture is the settling of the plant with an apple flower beetle. (Anthonomus pomorum L.), which experts classify as the most harmful fruit weevils... It is widespread in the European part of the country, especially dangerous in years with low fruiting. After all, the number of fruits developing in the inflorescence decreases with a decrease in the number of buds and with an increase in their damage by flower beetle larvae.


This weevil damages the generative organs mainly of apple trees, less often of pears and hawthorns during additional feeding and during oviposition. The greatest harm is caused in the growing zone of these wild-growing species.

The apple blossom beetle is a brownish or grayish-brown beetle with an elongated-oval body shape, with two oblique light stripes on the front wings and a long, arcuate curved proboscis (rostrum) up to 5 mm long, with rusty-red antennae and legs. It hibernates in the form of an immature imago (imago is the final stage of individual development of insects. Its characteristic features are the full development of wings and the presence of genital appendages at the end of the abdomen - ed.): Under the leaf litter, in cracks in the bark and hollows of fruit trees, in the surface layer of soil near their boles, in garden protection zones and in the forest under wild apple and pear trees.

In early spring, more often after the snow melts, at an average daily air temperature of + 6 ° C, the beetles come out of hibernation and crawl from their shelters along boles and trunks into tree crowns. This colonization, which usually coincides with swelling of the buds, is observed in mid-April in the conditions of the Northwest. At a temperature of + 8 ... + 10 ° C, the exit of beetles from wintering completely ends.

The presence of beetles in the crown of trees can be easily detected by shaking the branches of the apple tree at noon. At the first stage, in warm calm hours, the beetles feed on swollen, still unblown buds, in which narrow deep holes are made with their proboscis, gnawing out the rudiments of flowers. Externally, the places of penetration resemble needle pricks. With a return cooling for several days (sometimes up to -8 ... -10 ° C), the beetles hide in shelters and completely survive, and when warming, they return to the crown of trees to feed. With a slight (not lower than 0 ° C) decrease in temperature (even for several days), weevils, without leaving trees, sit in a daze near the buds or hide in cracks in the bark of branches.

A gardener can easily notice kidney damage by weevils by tiny transparent droplets that stand out from these wounds as a result of sap flow, brightly shining in the sun. Due to this characteristic feature, this phenomenon has received the name of “crying kidneys” among specialists. At the same time, experts note that with too early warming, the beetles first feed on early growing varieties of pears, later for laying they fly to the crowns of apple trees, while the mass colonization of apple trees by beetles is usually very amicable.

As soon as the covering scales of fruit buds move apart and the buds of early-flowering apple varieties barely move apart when the ambient temperature rises to + 8 ... + 9 ° С, the females start mating and egg-laying.

With their proboscis, they make a hole in a barely marked bud, dropping inward along the egg (to a depth of 1 mm) and covering the hole with a crust of excrement (with a high number of pests, they sometimes lay two eggs). If this is a damaged area on the bud, clearly visible by a dark point (often with a rusty smudge), slightly pry out with a needle, then you can find a white elliptical egg. True, sometimes an egg may not be found at the site of damage, since the female makes several test punctures before laying eggs.

Before the phenophase of loosening of the buds, the female manages to lay from 50 to 100 eggs in them, she soon dies. The female lays the maximum number of eggs in years with a protracted period of apple tree development in the early spring period due to the relatively low temperature. A cool spring with a prolonged flowering of apple trees, when the females of the apple flower beetle are able to lay the entire supply of eggs, should signal the owners of the backyard plots of the need to carry out protective preventive treatment against a possible outbreak of the harmfulness of this dangerous insect.

The development of the egg of the apple blossom beetle takes place within 7-10 days, and with a sharp warming - in 4-6 days. Pupa 5-6 mm in size, yellow, with two spines at the end of its abdomen. The hatched larvae feed for 1-2 days near the surface of the bud, and then go deep inside them, eating away the anthers, stamens and pistils, gluing the petals from the inside. The period from larva to pupa lasts, on average, 12-15 days. Damaged buds, as a rule, do not bloom, turn brown and dry: their appearance informs the gardener that the optimal time for fighting the pest has already been missed.

It should be noted that when such a brown “cap” is broken (with the help of a fingernail), a larva or pupa is clearly visible on the receptacle. After 9-11 days, beetles emerge from the pupae (end of flowering). Beetles of the new generation linger in the former bud for a short time. As soon as the chitinous integuments become stronger, young people gnaw holes in these "burnt" buds and come out. For some time, insects feed on leaves, gnawing windows in them, and then settle in the garden.

The development cycle of the apple blossom beetle takes about five weeks. By the end of June, the beetles go into the cracks in the bark for summer dormancy, and after the phenophase of the beginning of leaf fall (central and northern regions) they hide for the winter.

In dry hot weather, beetles make pricks on fruits with their proboscis, without causing significant harm to the latter, but reducing their commercial qualities. The apple blossom beetle develops in one generation.

In home gardens and nature conservation areas, where the use of insecticides is limited, regular protective measures are not taken, the flower beetle can cause serious losses to apple trees: damage 30% of the buds, 60-90% of the buds, which leads to significant or complete loss of yield.

Every gardener should understand that it is important to carry out pest control in a timely manner to reduce the likely damage. It is impossible to allow the apple blossom beetle in the early spring on the trees to the fruit buds, when it comes out of hibernation.



Ways to deal with the apple flower beetle

The most effective and environmentally friendly method of fighting (catching beetles) is to use trapping glue belts (from bud swelling to flowering). Fishing belts are made of thick paper in the form of ribbons 17-20 cm wide, with which they tie the lower part of the trunks, tightly pulling the ribbons with twine from above and below.

In order for the trapping belts to adhere more tightly to the trees, in the places of their intended attachment, the tree trunk is well cleaned from dead bark. A 3-5 cm wide strip of non-drying glue is applied to the middle of the belt (some gardeners, for example, take epoxy without hardener). Such glue is available commercially.

Individual gardeners prepare their own glue for trapping belts. For this purpose, some amateurs pour 100 g of turpentine and half a glass of solid oil into a heated mixture (200 g of vegetable oil and 150 g of crushed pine resin) with constant stirring; others boil it from 100 g of pine resin, 10 g of rosin, 20 g of var and 15 g of petroleum jelly (also add a little vegetable oil so that the composition does not dry out quickly); still others are melted in a metal bowl over low heat 200 g of pine resin, 40 g of boot varnish, 30 g of technical petroleum jelly, 25 g of rosin. It is necessary to prepare the glue with extreme caution in order to prevent the mixture from igniting.

When the belt is installed above it, a covering paper visor is arranged. Sometimes trapping belts are impregnated with fufanon. Experts recommend looking at the hunting belts every 2-3 days: the beetles are selected and destroyed. After the end of flowering, the belts are burned. Good results are obtained with an insecticidal pencil deltacid, with which strips 3-4 cm wide are applied around the trunk.

In a warm spring, which has recently been encountered quite often, the use of trapping belts may not be an effective enough method for dealing with apple weevil. The decrease in the effect of the belts is explained by the fact that at temperatures above + 10 ° C, beetles begin to fly from tree to tree. For this reason, it is recommended in the private sector periodically shaking off apple blossom beetles on a plastic wrap spread under the tree crown. In this case, one should focus on the beginning of "crying" - the period of "swelling of the kidneys - the advancement of inflorescences"

This event is held in the morning in calm, windless weather, when the beetles still sit quietly after, as a rule, still cool nights at this time. The end of the pole is wrapped in burlap and sharply tapped on the branches of the tree, trying not to damage its bark. Disturbed by several sharp blows, the beetles fall onto the film and, bending their legs under them, pretend to be dead. They are swept from a bucket with a small amount of any oil product, where they die. With a high number of weevils on apple trees, this procedure is carried out 2-3 times before budding.

If during the budding phase when shaking off under an apple tree you count more than 10 beetles, experts recommend spraying trees with drugs (based on 10 liters of water) - biological (Fitoverm-M) or chemical - fufanon (10 ml), fastak ( 1.5 ml), kinmix (2.5 ml), Iskra M (10 ml), sumi-alpha (5 ml). It is important to carry out the processing before the females start laying eggs. In this case, observe all the rules of personal safety, and also protect the green foliage of rhubarb, sorrel, perennial and onion, garlic and other vegetable perennials from being sprayed with the working solution of the drug with an expanded plastic wrap.

To reduce the number of wintering adults (adults) of the apple weevil, in late autumn, the tree trunks are cleaned with a wooden scraper from the old dead bark, which is collected on a spread tarpaulin and burned.

A large number of beetles die when loosening and digging the soil under the trees (it is advisable to choose the time of the first frost).

Some gardeners leave small heaps of foliage on the ground near the trunks of fruit crops to attract beetles that are going to winter crawling there, and then burn these "traps".

Alexander Lazarev,
candidate of biological sciences,
Senior Researcher, VIZR, Pushkin

Read also:
• Protection of apple, pear and quince from diseases and pests
• Where insect pests winter and how to deal with them
• Biological products for the control of pests and plant diseases
• How to ensure regular fruiting of apple trees
• The main reasons for the death of apple trees

Signs of the appearance of a flower beetle

The weevil (apple blossom beetle) does not appear on the bark or leaves. You can notice it by the characteristic appearance of the buds before they should bloom:

  • buds dry like dried flowers and turn brown
  • on the opened bud the leaves are brown, dry
  • a thin hole is visible on closed kidneys
  • observe mucous and sun-shining discharge.

You can see the parasite with the naked eye: a dark brown or gray beetle 3-5 mm in size. On the head is a tube-nose, with which he pierces the bud. In the cold season, it hibernates, wakes up at 6-9 ° C. Then it feeds on unripe buds.

Lays eggs inside, they turn into larvae. They destroy the bud from the inside, and it will no longer ovary.

Partially damaged flowers open, but the fruit will be characteristic keratinization or small in size.

Colonization of the flower beetle and its reproduction lasts 20-25 days. During the heat, they hide in the bark of apple trees, in the fall they look for a place for wintering.


10 earliest pests: how not to miss the first garden treatment

Spring! At this time, all living things awaken, regardless of a person's preferences. And if summer residents are happy with the blooming of greenery and the chirping of birds, then the appearance of awakened garden pests is definitely not. Unfortunately, rarely can anyone be calm about their fruit trees and shrubs. As a rule, a good harvest cannot be obtained without timely protection.


In the spring, it is necessary to protect the garden from pests

We decided to compile a shortlist of 10 pests that wake up on the first warm days and cause the most noticeable damage at the beginning of the season. Consider their effect on the most common crops in our summer cottages and talk about ways to protect plants.


Apple flower beetle - a threat to the harvest - garden and vegetable garden

It is difficult to imagine a modern garden without such elements of landscaping as ornamental shrubs, which bring bright touches to the variegated palette of shades of plant compositions. Ornamental shrubs for the garden act as spectacular tapeworms that decorate open areas, hedges along paths, or serve as a backdrop for colorful flower arrangements. Their presence transforms the appearance of any garden and makes it more elegant and festive It is difficult to imagine a modern garden without such elements of landscaping as ornamental shrubs, which bring bright touches to the variegated palette of shades of plant compositions. Ornamental shrubs for the garden act as spectacular tapeworms that decorate open areas, hedges along paths, or serve as a backdrop for colorful flower arrangements. Their presence transforms the appearance of any garden and makes it more elegant and festive.

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How to fight?

The damage caused by beetles to plantations can be especially great during the period of weak flowering of apple trees, therefore, when they appear on the site, a timely fight against it is simply necessary.

The main activities are carried out in the spring, at a time when parasites begin to leave their wintering places. Further, it is necessary to continue the systematic struggle until the end of the season.

The most effective measures to combat the flower beetle are as follows:

  1. Before the buds of the trees begin to bloom, it is necessary to apply trapping belts with an adhesive layer immediately at the bases of the boles. The pests that accumulate under them - caterpillars and beetles - must be destroyed in a timely manner, and the trapping belts must be burned after the trees have faded.
  2. During the period of bud swelling and at the time of their blooming, several procedures can be carried out to shake off parasites from the branches. Previously below, under the plantings, you need to lay a film or any other material. The procedure should be carried out in the early morning, when the air temperature has not yet reached 10 degrees - in warmer weather, the procedure will be ineffective, as the beetles become more active. Fallen individuals need to be burned or poured into a bucket with a salty water solution.
  3. A good remedy for scaring off the flower beetle is milk of lime. At the beginning of the period of bud swelling, you can whitewash the crowns of fruiting apple plantings with a lime solution. Experienced gardeners note that the crowns of whitewashed apple trees repel pests.You should also leave one tree intact during the whitewashing process - it will attract the attention of bugs, and continue the fight against insects on it.
  4. Many gardeners are also interested in how to spray the plantings, and what chemicals to use during the invasion of pests. At that moment, when the buds of apple trees begin to bloom, you can spray the plants with Iskra or Karbofos. By the way, if you treat the planting with these drugs after flowering, you can get rid of other pests - fruit weevil and codling moth.

It is important to understand that chemical methods are best suited for a large population of bugs, and spraying with insecticides should be carried out strictly according to the attached instructions. The destruction of the apple parasite will be more effective if you combine several methods of getting rid of insects.


APRIL IN THE GARDEN AND IN THE GARDEN

Only the last snow has melted. And the sun begins to warm up the garden plots, and wintering pests awaken on the branches. Carrying out April works in the garden.


The winter of this year was relatively mild, but temperature fluctuations could damage the flower buds and annual wood of thermophilic stone fruits. The most dangerous were the March weather conditions. Finish pruning and crowning young trees.

After trimming the damaged branches, clean the wounds with a garden knife to healthy tissue and cover with garden varnish.

Attention! The peach is only pruned in warm, dry seasons at the time of flowering or leaf opening.

If a hollow is found, disinfect it with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and cement it. Restore the whitewash on the tree trunks.

In early April, when the sun heats up the tree trunks, wintering pests begin to awaken under the bark and on the branches.

Beware of counterfeit drugs, as they are not produced and not approved for use on personal household plots, and these are DNOC, Nitrafen, Chlorofos, Vofatox, Metaphos, which have strong toxicity. In addition, the use of pure ferrous sulfate is not recommended, and copper sulfate should be used only in a mixture with lime, i.e. this is a well-known Bordeaux mixture. Meanwhile, so many harmful objects have accumulated that the threat of being left without a crop has become acute.

Therefore, it was precisely Prophylactin or the drug 30 plus that it was recommended to carry out an eradicating spraying against wintering dangerous pests on the "bare cone". If someone, for some reason, did not have time to spray with this drug, you will have to seriously approach the treatment of plants in the phase of advancing the inflorescences and before flowering along the "white or pink buds"

At the beginning of the 1st decade of April, the weather is usually unstable.

Attention! Normal rains, drizzling precipitation, fogs, cold in April during the period from the beginning of the inflorescences - flowering of apricots, peaches, cherries, sweet cherries, pears - create ideal conditions for infecting flowers with dangerous - monilial and bacterial burns.

Flowers affected by a monilial burn turn brown, dry out, take on the appearance of being burned by fire, but do not fall off, remain on the tree for more than a year, being a constant source of infection.

A bacterial burn is even more dangerous - shoots and branches are poured, liquid flows from them and subsequently, with the onset of hot days, whole trees dry out.

At a temperature of 15-18 degrees by mid-April and high humidity, fungal diseases such as scab and powdery mildew are highly spread on fruit trees. As a result of scab damage, dark olive, subsequently black spots appear on the leaves and fruits. Susceptible varieties of apple and pear are not spared by the scab pathogen, which can infect up to 50% of the flowers and pedicels of future ovaries. At the site of the defeat of the ovary, the pedicel is bent, a bloom of sporulation of the scab of an olive-velvety color is noticeable on it with a simple unaided eye, such ovaries crumble.

Treatment with 3% Bordeaux liquid of pome breeds (apple, pear, quince) against scab, spots, moniliosis, and stone fruits (apricot, peach, cherry, sweet cherry, plum and cherry plum) against coccomycosis, curliness, clusterosporia, moniliosis is carried out during bud opening ( phase "green cone"). But the best effect will be obtained when repeated spraying after cold rainy weather with Skor (Keeper, Horus) - 2 ml.

The most dangerous period for scab infection is the pinking of the central bud of the plant - the end of flowering and 12-14 days after it.

In mid-April, by the time the inflorescences become isolated, other pests, such as the weevil (apple blossom beetle), are also activated. In the spring, the apple blossom beetle comes out of wintering and begins to feed on the juice of the buds and buds, piercing them. Female beetles lay eggs inside the buds. White larvae hatch from the eggs, which feed on the inner content of the bud. The buds, damaged by the larvae of the apple blossom beetle, do not open, dry up, forming a brown cap. And if there are no flowers, there will be no fruit.

In the phenophase “inflorescence extension” and “white bud” on stone fruit and pear, by the end of April, the most important (this crucial time) should be sprayed against emerging pests and diseases with one of the following drugs: Gerold, Fufonon Nova (Aliot), Alatar , Aktara, Apache or Punisher, Bushido, Kinmiks, Senpai, combining them with one of the listed fungicides: Abiga-Peak (HOM, Oksikh), Raek, Skor (Guardian, Horus), Topaz with the addition of Novosil growth stimulator to the tank mixtures.

When a "rosebud" appears on early apple varieties, spraying is carried out with the same preparations.

For a long autumn-winter period and a month and a half of spring, all fertilizers applied to the soil since autumn have already been washed into the lower horizons of the soil, we recommend feeding all trees and shrubs.

The first top dressing in early April for the resumption of growth processes and the normal passage of the flowering phase, it is necessary to fertilize with ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 20 g per 1 square meter of feeding area.

The second feeding of fruit crops is done in the second decade of April, a week before the beginning of flowering, with mineral fertilizers, which include Fertika Spring-Summer microelements and others.

To restore soil fertility, it is advisable to sow annual green manure crops (white mustard, oil radish, spring rape, phacelia) in the aisles of the garden. We remind you that in the budding stage green manure crops are embedded in the soil. And in the subsequent sowing of green manure crops, you can carry out almost the entire growing season. These crops restore humus well in the root layer, cleanse the soil of harmful toxins.

AT THE VINEYARD. At the beginning of April, slightly loosen the shelters of the vines, but do not open them completely. According to long-term average data, it is necessary to open grapes not earlier than half of April, and then, without unleashing the "fascines", spray with Bordeaux 3% liquid or Abiga-Peak. To prevent frost damage, it is necessary to stock up on films of the Agrospan type (Agrotex, Greentex) to quickly cover the vine.

ON THE BERRY. The strawberries are already vegetating, hurry up to comb out the old foliage, on which there are remnants of spores of fungal diseases. At the same time, we recommend spraying on the sheet apparatus with Abiga Peak against fungal diseases. Feed with nitrogen fertilizers (20 g per 1 sq.m.) or special fertilizers for berry crops. Organize watering for dry springs.

Raspberries, black currants and gooseberries should be treated on the leaves against diseases with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or its substitutes (HOM, Oxyhom, Abiga Peak or Topaz). It is advisable to re-spray the berries with the same preparations after 10-14 days.

On red currants in the second decade of April, red-gall aphids hatch, red spots appear on young leaves. This moment should not be missed, therefore, one of the approved insecticidal preparations should be used: Tanrek, (Fufanon, Apiot, Biotlin, Aktara, etc.) with the addition of Topaz fungicide and Novosil stimulator to the working solution to prevent powdery mildew and anthracnose disease. Repeat this treatment after 7-10 days.

Raspberries when a "green cone" appears, trim the frost-bitten or dried tops of the shoots and sprinkle with 1% Bordeaux liquid.

APRIL ON THE GARDEN. Since the beginning of April, it is time to plant potato tubers that were previously vernalized and processed by Prestige and Maxim. When planting, add one of the recommended special potato fertilizers to the holes: Fertika potato, Sotka "potato", OMU "Potato".

Seedlings of early white cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli should be planted as early as possible, when planting, apply Agrovit and fertilizers such as Fertik Vegetable, Azofosku or ammophos, spill the wells with Alirin-B or Gamair solution, put 1-3 tablets of Glyocladin under each plant. After planting, cover the plants with Agrospan films for super early production.

Against soil pests such as crickets, wireworms, bears, cabbage and onion flies, add one of the following preparations to the soil: Terradox or Zemlin, Provotox, Medvetox.

From the end of March, from April 1 and every next 7-10 days, it is recommended to sow radishes. In the very first days of April, at the onset of soil maturity, sow vegetable (green) peas of brain varieties.

Feed winter garlic with nitrogen fertilizers or special fertilizers, for example, from the series "My own agronomist". And from the onion sharpener (pink worms on the bottom of the garlic bulb), add the Terradox preparation (40g per 10 sq.m.) into the soil. Break up the soil crust in your garden beds regularly. Garlic does not tolerate compacted soil.

In the very first days of April, we sow all cold-resistant green and small-seeded vegetables (sorrel, dill, parsley, leafy and head salads, as well as leaf and petiole celery, carrots, parsnips.) We plant onions on a green feather and onion, sow nigella seeds.

By the end of April, we sow heat-loving crops: beets and tomatoes (seedless) by sowing seeds in the ground, cucumbers (with dry seeds), corn on the cob.

IN THE FLOWER. Tulips, daffodils, muscari, scillas, chionodoxes, crocuses and other bulbous plants feed 20 grams of ammonium nitrate per square meter of planting, use Fertika crystal "Flower".

From the beginning of April, urgently open the roses, apply fertilizer containing nitrogen and spray with the following preparations: Abiga-Peak (HOM, Oksikhom), with the addition of Novosil.

Remove old leaves and spill with Abiga-Peak and Novosil solution for planting irises. If damaged in the previous season by an iris fly, spray the growing leaves with any insecticide, for example, Aliot (Fufanon), Alatar and add Terradox to the soil. Repeat this work by the time the flower arrow emerges from the irises. Inspect, touch up, add earth to perennial flowers.


Who does autumn prevention save from?

Prophylactic spraying of apple trees is aimed at reducing the number of pests and eliminating pathogens. Below we present a table with a list of harmful objects of the apple tree and wintering places.

older caterpillars

in cracks in the bark, under fallen leaves

on a young growth, at the base of the buds, on the undergrowth

at the base of the kidneys, in the cracks in the bark

on branches under a moisture-proof flap (spraying is not effective)

caterpillars of younger ages

near buds, on young shoots

in the cracks in the trunk, under the leaves

on fallen leaves and fruits

in mummified fruits, in affected branches

When analyzing the presented table, pay attention to the wintering stage. The treatment of apple trees from pests is advisable when they are in an active stage. Higher doses will be required to kill the pest eggs. Therefore, the processing of trees is carried out only with a high number of phytophage.

Among the diseases of the apple tree there are those that require mandatory preventive treatment. These include scab and fruit rot. It is necessary to process it taking into account the recommended doses and temperatures for a particular drug.


Pear flower beetle

This is enemy number one for every pear tree. The beetle belongs to the coleoptera, has a small size, but a distinct brown tint. The larvae of the pear beetle have a characteristic white color, and it is they who overwinter in the soil and bark of each tree. This pest begins to wake up with a general awakening of nature. A characteristic sign of the presence and attack of the pear flower beetle is the lack of bud and foliage development. A favorite habitat on a pear is hidden, dark places that are hidden from the human eye. The damage caused by this pest is very large, since this directly affects the inflorescences, pollination and yield of the tree.

It is necessary to deal with the pear flower beetle in a complex manner, using both mechanical and chemical methods. Thoroughly examine the tree for damaged buds, cut off anything suspicious, especially one that has changed its usual color. Remember to use mechanical shakes to catch adults off guard and prevent them from laying eggs and multiplying. If there are more than three flower beetles, feel free to use specialized pesticides designed to deal specifically with this insect.


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Comments:

  1. Amiri

    Thank you so much for posting it in good quality ....... I've been waiting so much ......

  2. Giollabuidhe

    Eh: What can I say? The author, as always, is on top. Respect! I liked everything, especially the beginning. Smiled. Of course, there are now critics who will say that this does not happen, that this is all invented, and so on. But I read it with pleasure, and my friends read it - everyone is delighted.



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