Sand berry - sea buckthorn
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Features of culture, agricultural technology, reproduction, promising varieties
Sea buckthorn has been known in Russia for a long time. She belongs to the genus Hippophae. The sea buckthorn got this name because its fruits are very densely clinging to the branches. It is also called: "sand berry", "sand thorn", or "sea coast thorn".
In Russia, sea buckthorn has a very wide distribution area: from the Baltic to Transbaikalia.
In folk medicine, the medicinal properties of sea buckthorn have long been known. And why is this plant so valuable?
Sea buckthorn fruit is a multivitamin product. She is the leader in the content of vitamins A and C. She is also rich in organic acids and mineral salts, which regulate metabolism, the work of the hematopoietic and nervous systems.
Introduced into culture buckthorn buckthorn... This dioecious plant from the family of suckers is a branched thorny shrub up to 4 meters high. Shoots are dark gray or brownish gray. Its leaves are whole, linear-lanceolate with a short petiole. The upper side of the leaves is dark green and the underside is silvery white.
Sea buckthorn flowers are unisexual. Male bushes have small, petal flowers, collected in small spikelets of bright brown color. Male plants can be distinguished from female plants by their buds when entering fruiting: they are large and resemble a small cedar cone.
Sea buckthorn blooms in central Russia in late April - early May, and its berries ripen in August-September and can be stored on the bushes throughout the winter without crumbling.
Sea buckthorn grows rather slowly. It begins to bear fruit in the fourth - fifth year after planting. But it bears fruit annually and abundantly. The fruit is an oval or spherical yellow, red or orange berry.
In general, sea buckthorn is an unpretentious plant. However, she loves sunlight, so the best places to plant her are in open areas protected from cold winds. But at the same time it is a frost-resistant crop. So, in the winter of 2005-2006, when the temperature dropped to -35 ° C, sea buckthorn was in good condition.
This culture prefers a light-textured soil with a high humus content and pH 6.5-7, which is due to the conditions of its natural growth. Despite the fact that it is a moisture-loving plant, areas with a very close occurrence of groundwater should be avoided, their level should not be higher than 1 m from the soil surface.
Planting sea buckthorn
The best time to permanently plant sea buckthorn is spring. On the site where it will be planted, 7-8 kg of humus and 90-100 g of superphosphate are introduced for each square meter of the area. Then, planting holes are dug at a distance of 2.5-3 m from each other. The width of the pits is 60 cm, the depth is 40-60 cm. Drainage is poured onto the bottom of the pit (gravel, broken brick, slag are suitable for this) with a layer of 20 cm.
For planting, 2-3-year-old seedlings are used. Sea buckthorn plants are planted vertically, with the root collar deepening by 5-12 cm. After that, the soil is compacted and watered (at the rate of 1-2 buckets per plant). Then the soil around the seedling is mulched with peat or sawdust. Also, when planting, it is recommended to install planting stakes to tie the plant. This will help the seedling to resist the winds. To obtain high and stable yields, one male is planted on 5-7 female plants. However, it should be planted on the leeward side.
Sea buckthorn planting care
The subsequent care of sea buckthorn plants is no different from the care of other garden crops. It comes down mainly to timely watering, weed control, cutting dried shoots, feeding and removing root shoots.
Due to the fact that the root system of the sea buckthorn is located superficially, it is not recommended to dig up the soil under the sea buckthorn. On the contrary, mulching with humus or compost from birch leaves, apple trees or potato tops has a very beneficial effect on plants. When entering fruiting, sea buckthorn needs mineral fertilizers. In autumn or spring, potassium salt should be added - 30 g, superphosphate - 70 g, ammonium nitrate - 30 g per m² of the trunk circle area. Since sea buckthorn is a moisture-loving plant, it must be watered during dry periods, otherwise it can discard all fruits and leaves.
Sanitary pruning should be carried out annually, removing dried and broken shoots. In the seventh to eighth year, anti-aging pruning is carried out. A complete replacement of branches in the crown is carried out gradually, over 2-3 years, 1-3 branches per year. The shoots should not be cut out at the level of the soil - it is dug up and cut into a ring at the place of growth. However, it is from the growth that a new bush can be formed.
Harvesting sea buckthorn
Harvesting is a laborious process in the sea buckthorn culture. The berries are harvested at the beginning of ripening, when they have already acquired a yellow or red-orange color, but have not yet lost their elasticity.
To facilitate this time-consuming process, gardeners use a variety of tools. You need to make a semicircle (50-60 cm in diameter) from the wire and cover it with foil. With the help of twine, the device is suspended in front, and the hands are free to collect.
Pests and diseases of sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn suffers from a small number of pests and diseases, of which the sea buckthorn moth, sea buckthorn fly and sea buckthorn aphid cause the greatest harm.
Sea buckthorn fly is one of the most dangerous pests of sea buckthorn. Its larvae feed on fruits and are capable of destroying the entire crop. A highly effective way to combat them is spraying with 0.2% chlorophos in mid-June.
Sea buckthorn aphid damages plant leaves. Damaged leaves turn yellow, curl and fall off. To combat it, spraying in the leafing phase with 10% karbofos is recommended.
One of the most dangerous pests is the sea buckthorn moth. Caterpillars take root inside the kidneys and eat them away. To combat it, spraying at the beginning of bud break with 0.5% chlorophos is used.
Of the diseases, verticillary wilting is considered the most dangerous. In affected plants, the leaves turn yellow ahead of time and fall off, and the fruits shrivel. Plants die the next year. You should not harvest sea buckthorn with signs of illness, and already affected plants should be dug up and burned.
Reproduction of sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn reproduces both by seeds and vegetatively.
Seed propagation is used in breeding work to develop new varieties. Seeds are sown in the fall on pre-prepared beds. They are prepared as follows: a significant amount of organic fertilizers and sand is introduced, mixed with the soil and grooves are made 2-3 cm wide and deep.The seeds are sown into grooves at a distance of 1-1.5 cm and covered with humus with a layer of 1 cm.
Spring sowing is also practiced. It is carried out as soon as the soil warms up. The seeds are moistened for 4-5 days at room temperature, and then sown into grooves to a depth of 4-5 cm. The seedlings overwinter without shelter. They can be fed with nitroammophos at the rate of 50 g per 10 l in the phase of 6-8 leaves. The next year, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
The most successful breeding method for sea buckthorn is green cuttings. Shoots are harvested early in the morning. The lower leaves are removed completely. Film greenhouses are used for growing cuttings. The soil for planting cuttings is prepared in this way: 50 kg of humus is added to 1 m², dug to a depth of 30 cm, a bed is made 40 cm high. The surface is leveled and covered with river sand (5 cm layer). Before planting, the substrate is moistened, the cuttings are planted at a distance of 2-3 cm in a row and 5-6 cm between rows. After planting, the cuttings are watered abundantly with water and covered with foil. In the future, they continue to regularly spray with water. To protect from sunlight, it is best to arrange a greenhouse under the crown of fruit trees. With the onset of cold weather, the rooted cuttings are covered with leaves or sawdust. In the spring they are transplanted for growing.
For propagation by lignified cuttings, shoots are harvested in the fall or at the beginning of winter and stored in the snow. In the spring, they are cut into cuttings 18-20 cm long and soaked for a day in a solution of heteroauxin (200 mg per 1 liter of water). Then the cuttings are placed in a container with water and transferred to room conditions. After the appearance of a green cone, the cuttings are planted on a prepared bed. To do this, mix humus with sand (1: 2), dig up, moisten abundantly and cover with a film. Holes are made in the film and cuttings are inserted into them, deepening to the upper bud. Good annual seedlings grow by autumn.
Useful properties of sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn is a storehouse of vitamins and biologically active substances. She has found wide application in both traditional and official medicine. The range of its application is very wide.
Fresh sea buckthorn fruits are recommended for low acidity of gastric juice. It is recommended to apply fresh berries to the affected skin areas.
A decoction of fruits is used for vitamin deficiencies, stomach diseases and diabetes mellitus.
The seeds, leaves and bark of sea buckthorn have healing properties.
A decoction of seeds has a laxative effect. Infusion of fruits and leaves is used for scurvy, rheumatism, gout, salt deposition, indigestion.
The decoction of the bark inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Infusion of the bark is used in the treatment of dysentery.
Sea buckthorn oil is widely used in medicine. It is used for both outdoor and indoor use. They treat burns, frostbite, bedsores, various gynecological and ophthalmological diseases. Inside, it is used for diseases of the stomach and duodenum, for cancer, and so on.
However, sea buckthorn is contraindicated in patients with acute inflammation of the gallbladder and pancreas.
It is highly valued by cosmetologists all over the world as a tonic, nourishing and firming agent for the skin. Also, sea buckthorn berries are an excellent tool for strengthening hair and nails.
At the same time, this plant has an important forestry value. It is used to prevent soil erosion.
Sea buckthorn berries are consumed both fresh and processed. They make jam, jams, compotes, marshmallows, marmalade. It is also used for the preparation of confectionery.
Sea buckthorn berries are stored in wooden containers or cloth bags in a dark and cool place.
Sea buckthorn oil recipe
Sea buckthorn oil is a miracle drug.
The berries are sorted out, washed, dried and passed through a juicer. The remaining cake is dried in a thin layer at a temperature not exceeding 60 ° C. Then it is crushed and divided into 3-4 equal parts. One part is placed in an enamel pan and poured with refined oil heated to 50 ° C 1.5 cm above the cake. Then cover the pan and simmer the cake and oil in a water bath for 12-15 hours, maintaining the temperature at 45-50 ° C, stirring occasionally. After that, the resulting mass is squeezed out and the next portion of the cake is poured with squeezed oil, the aging process in a water bath is repeated again. The same is done with the two remaining portions of the cake. Then the oil is defended for a week, drained from the sediment and repeated several times. Sea buckthorn oil is stored in glass bottles in the refrigerator.
However, there is also an easier way to obtain sea buckthorn oil. To do this, the dried and crushed cake is infused in vegetable oil for 2-3 weeks at room temperature in a dark place, stirring occasionally. After that, it is wrung out, filtered off, defended and the oil is drained from the precipitate.
Raw sea buckthorn jam
The mashed berries are mixed with granulated sugar in proportions 1: 1, heated to 85 ° C, kept at this temperature for 10 minutes, poured into hot jars and sealed.
Sea buckthorn jam
The berries are poured with a small amount of water (150-200 g) and boiled until they are completely softened. Then add 1.2-1.5 kg of sugar to 1 kg of berries and cook in one step, stirring constantly. Poured hot and sealed hermetically.
Sea buckthorn jelly
Sugar is added to freshly squeezed juice at the rate of 700-800 g per 1 kg of juice, mixed thoroughly, brought to a boil, boiled with continuous stirring to 1/3 of the original volume. Hot poured into heated jars with a capacity of 0.5-1 l, pasteurized for 20-30 minutes.
Sea buckthorn compote
For the preparation of compote, berries are chosen one-dimensional, not overripe. They are washed and placed in glass jars, then poured with sugar syrup (1.2 kg of sugar is taken for 1 kg of berries), then covered with a lid, pasteurized and hermetically sealed. The pasteurization time for a 0.5-1 liter can is 15-20 minutes.
Promising sea buckthorn varieties for cultivation in the Central part of Russia and other regions
Varieties of selection of the State Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia named after M.A. Lisavenko:
Excellent. Late-summer ripening, universal use. A bush of medium vigor, medium density, round shape. Fruits are oval, orange, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 0.7 g. Tasting score is 4.5 points. Average yield 102.8 c / ha. Frost-resistant variety.
Panteleevskaya. Late (third decade of September) ripening period. Winter-hardy, drought-resistant, consistently productive variety. Resistance to pests and diseases is average. The average yield varies from 110 to 204 kg / ha or from 9.6 to 17.6 kg of fruits per bush. A variety of universal use. Plants of moderate vigor, up to 2.5 m high with a spherical crown, of medium density. There are few thorns. The transportability of the fruits is average.
Abundant. A variety of late summer ripening. Highly winter hardy. It begins to bear fruit for 3-4 years, bears fruit abundantly and annually up to 12 years of age. The average yield per bush is 14.4-16 kg (117 kg / ha), the maximum - 20 kg per bush or 167 kg / ha. A multipurpose variety suitable for mechanized vibration harvesting. Medium or tall shrub with a rounded, medium spreading crown. Fruits are medium-sized or large (0.53-0.86 g), cylindrical, dark orange, with a pleasant sweetish-sour taste.
Chuiskaya. A variety of summer ripening, universal use. The bush is of medium vigor, the crown is relatively compact, of medium density, rounded, spreading. Fruits are oval-cylindrical, orange, sweet and sour, with an average weight of 0.8 g. The average yield is 119.6 c / ha. Frost-resistant variety.
Amber berry - variety of selection GNU VNIIS them. I.V. Michurin. Late summer ripening. Comes into fruiting in the fifth year, bears fruit abundantly and annually. Average yield is 12-14 kg per bush. Fruit transportability is high.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
department of berry crops GNU VNIIS them. Michurin.
Evgeniya Bryksina, applicant
Sea buckthorn - a treasure of nature
As soon as this miracle plant is not called: "Siberian pineapple", "pheasant berry", "sea thorn", "sand berry", "pantry of vitamins"! The Latin name for sea buckthorn is translated as "shiny horse". The thing is that sick and wounded horses were fed with shoots of wild-growing sea buckthorn, which is why the animals quickly recovered, and their wool became shiny. At the same time, the ancient aesculapians decided: since this berry helps horses, then even more so for horsemen.
The miraculous plant is mentioned in ancient manuscripts of Tibet, Mongolia, as well as in Chinese medicine, and all descriptions boil down to the fact that sea buckthorn is a universal medicinal plant. It belongs to the family of suckers. Among his relatives are Loch and Shepherdia. The very same sea buckthorn, there are 65 species, and buckthorn is used in culture.
In Russia, the plant began to be bred as an ornamental one more than 150 years ago. The first varietal sea buckthorn appeared only at the beginning of the 20th century. And the real sea buckthorn boom happened in the early 80s of the last century, when doctors started talking about the many beneficial properties of sea buckthorn oil.
Today, amateur gardeners have appreciated sea buckthorn. Little known in the recent past, the shrub has firmly become one of the best multivitamin plants. As for the butter, according to the scientific secretary of the Institute of Fruit Growing, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Marina Shalkevich, you can cook it yourself. The main thing is that the sea buckthorn grows in the garden.
Natalia TYSHKEVICH, host of "Garden and Vegetable Garden"
“In the late 19th - early 20th centuries, sea buckthorn appeared in the collections of botanical gardens,” says Marina Shalkevich. - Including in Belarus. In the 1950s, Russian scientists created the world's first sea buckthorn varieties - Altai News, Olive, Golden Cob, Katun's Gift, Vitamin. Today there are more than 200 varieties in the world assortment, including sweet-fruited and non-prickly ones.
Sea buckthorn is a frost-resistant culture: it can withstand frosts from minus 36 to minus 50 degrees. But it often suffers from the alternation of thaws and cold weather. The varieties zoned in Belarus are quite winter-hardy. The advantage of sea buckthorn is its high resistance to spring frosts, so it can be safely used as an "insurance" crop. The plant is not afraid of flooding. But what is demanding, so to soil fertility and light: in the shade of other plants, it bears fruit very poorly.
For planting, choose a flat area or a gentle slope with a light-textured soil (sandy loam, light loamy) and with a groundwater level of no more than 1 m.If the soil is heavy loamy, then sand and peat must be added to it before planting. It is also worth considering protection from the wind: under its gusts, the plant, loaded with harvest, bends, and the branches break. The best precursors for sea buckthorn are mustard and rapeseed.
Sea buckthorn can be planted both in spring - 3 - 5 days after the soil has completely thawed - and in autumn. The best are standard one-year or two-year seedlings. Two buckets of compost or humus are introduced into the planting pit and 1 - 2 glasses of complete mineral fertilizer are added. If the soil is too acidic (pH 4.5 - 5.5), it must be calcified (200 - 300 g / m2 of lime per planting pit).
To destroy the clutches of possible hibernating pests (eggs of aphids and leaf rollers), before planting, the seedlings are treated with "Karbofos, 50% ae." - 60 ml / 10 l of water.
On light soils, the root collar is deepened by 10 - 15 cm: this way the root system will be more developed. Plants are planted at a distance of 2 m from each other. Since sea buckthorn needs a pair, one male plant is enough for 6-10 female plants. "Men" are planted from the side of the prevailing winds. The planted trees are not pruned, but only broken off and damaged branches are removed. After planting, the seedlings are watered (10-15 liters of water per plant) and mulched.
In the first two years, the soil is kept under black fallow. Since the roots of sea buckthorn lie close to the surface, it is necessary to process it no deeper than 7 - 10 cm.
The fertilizers applied during planting will last for a couple of years. For better growth in the second year, you can feed the sea buckthorn with nitrogen fertilizers (15 g of urea or 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 sq. M of the trunk circle). On the third or fourth, nitrogen (20 g / sq. M of urea or 30 g / sq. M of ammonium nitrate), phosphoric (60 - 80 g / sq. M of superphosphate or phosphate flour) and potassium (15 g / sq. m potassium sulfate or 20 g / sq. m potassium salt) fertilizer. Starting from the third year, a natural or artificial (cereals - ryegrass, fescue, meadow bluegrass, legumes - white, hybrid, red clover, as well as their mixtures) lawn is formed.
During certain periods of the growing season (before flowering, during the formation and development of fruits), the moisture demand of sea buckthorn increases. However, it is not worth overmoistening the soil too much. Plants respond well to early autumn watering (first half of September). In addition, winter watering is carried out (30 liters for a young plant and 60 - 80 liters for a fruiting plant).
Many gardeners are wondering: is it necessary to cut the sea buckthorn? The fact is that this culture does not tolerate this procedure very well - the wounds heal for a long time. Therefore, it must be carried out with special care.
Sea buckthorn can be grown both as a tree and as a bush. What to prefer is the choice for the gardener. The tree is more compact, it is easier to work the soil under it. The bush will not only give a greater harvest, but will also allow the plant to be preserved, even if one of the branches breaks off. If the seedling has several equivalent branches, then you should not form a tree from it. In the first years after planting, the bole is cleaned, cutting out all the branches on the ring at a height of up to 0.5 m.
Every year in the spring (before bud break), sanitary pruning is carried out, removing dry, diseased and damaged branches, as well as shoots that have dried up after fruiting. All sections are covered with garden varnish or natural oil paint.
Thinning of the crown (removal of thickening, rubbing shoots) in sea buckthorn is minimized. By the age of five to eight years, the trees, as a rule, reach 2.5 - 4 m, which greatly complicates both their care and harvesting. To restrain growth, experts advise cutting the plant into a well-developed horizontal branch at a height of about 2 m, leaving a small thorn in order to avoid freezing. Such pruning can also be carried out during the ripening of the fruit.
Rejuvenating pruning (cutting for three-year-old wood leaving 1 - 2 lateral branches) is carried out from seven to eight years of age. At this time, as a rule, branches growing on the periphery of the crown begin to bear fruit. "Internal" shoots are bare, and the yield falls. As a rule, in the third year, the trees restore fruiting.
There are no problems with the reproduction of sea buckthorn. Some varieties ("Trofimovskaya", "gift to the garden") give many root suckers, which fully retain the properties of the mother plant. They must be prepared for transplantation in advance. At the end of April - beginning of May, we spud the offspring by 10 - 15 cm so that the adventitious roots are formed. After a month, we carry out one more hilling - by 20 cm. And we make sure that the soil around the overgrowth is moist. In the spring of next year, we separate the rooted offspring. In order not to destroy the mother plant, it is advisable to take them at a distance of at least a meter and separate carefully, trying not to damage, the skeletal roots of an adult plant.
A widespread method of propagation is also lignified cuttings. It allows you to get about 60% of standard seedlings within one year.
Annual shoots are harvested in late autumn (after leaf fall) or in spring before bud break. They are stored in the basement in the snow or in the refrigerator, protecting them from drying out and decay. Before planting, cuttings are cut 20-30 cm long and kept in water at room temperature for a week (the water is changed daily), leaving 2 to 3 buds on the surface.
A place for planting cuttings is prepared in the fall. For 1 sq. m add 200 - 400 g of lime, 30 - 40 g of simple superphosphate, 15 - 20 g of potassium salt and 1.5 - 2 buckets of humus. The soil is dug to the depth of a shovel bayonet and a bed is made 15 - 20 cm high. The prepared cuttings are planted vertically on the bed at a distance of 10 - 15 cm from each other. The distance between the rows is 25 - 30 cm. 2 - 3 buds are left above the soil surface. After planting, watered and mulched with a layer of peat (2 cm). Caring for cuttings is reduced to regular watering (during the first month after planting 2 - 3 times a day), loosening the soil and weeding. In the first 1 - 1.5 months, no fertilization is applied.
Sea buckthorn and green cuttings reproduce well. Drainage is laid on the bottom of a container with a height of 20 - 27 cm (2 - 3 cm of broken brick, expanded clay or sand). Pour 15-20 cm of fertile soil on top (you can use commercially available soil) and then a layer (3-4 cm) of calcined coarse sand. Cuttings 20-30 cm long and 5 mm in diameter are harvested at the end of June. At their base, the lower leaves are removed at a height of 2 cm, and the remaining ones are shortened by a third. The lower sections are treated with special rooting powders.
Cuttings are planted in a container, which is closed from above with a transparent plastic bag and sprayed from a spray bottle 3-4 times a day. After three weeks, when the roots appear, spraying is replaced by watering. After 1.5 - 2 months after planting, the cuttings are also removed from the film. Rooted cuttings are planted in the garden for growing. By the fall of next year, standard plants are obtained. You can leave rooted cuttings for the winter (October - April) and in the basement. Watering is limited, they only make sure that they do not dry out too much. And then, in the spring, the cuttings are planted for growing.
Sea buckthorn is a wind-pollinated, dioecious plant. And in order to be with the harvest, both female and male varieties must grow in the garden. The sex of a plant can be recognized by the appearance of the generative buds, which are formed starting from three to four years of age. The buds of male plants, as a rule, are larger than female ones and are similar in shape to small bumps, and female ones are like a heart.
Amateur gardeners, who have small plots, so as not to plant male plants, graft them into the “female” crown. The grafting technique is the same as on other fruit crops (simple, improved copulation, but applied). 3-5 grafts that have taken root are enough for good pollination of the female plant.
Sea buckthorn got its name not by accident. In late summer and early autumn, its branches are literally covered with fruits. But harvesting a rich harvest is not an easy task. Firstly, it is not easy to get close to the berries without scratching your hands on the numerous thorns. Secondly, they are very firmly adhered to the branches.
However, thornless or weakly thornless varieties have already been bred. Despite the fact that the fruits can hang on the branches until the very frost, one should not be late with harvesting. When overripe, the berries lose quality, the number of fruits with a wet separation increases and the risk of damage by discoloration and softening increases. Sea buckthorn has acquired a typical color for the variety: yellow, orange, red? So it's time to clean up. If you want to boil jam or pickle berries, remove them before they are fully ripe. But for jelly, marmalade and sea buckthorn oil, take only well-ripened ones.
To facilitate harvesting, many gardeners use strong wire to twist a device that resembles the head of a snake. Sometimes a small tray is attached to such a bracket, into which the fruits fall along with the leaves. But this method severely injures the plant.
Less injury to your hands if you start picking from the base of the shoot rather than the top of the head. You can spread a film around the tree or pull on a "skirt", then you don't have to pick one berry at a time. Or it is even easier to do: cut off branches with "blind ears" (they have no growth and end with a sultan of leaves). And then slowly pick them up or. to freeze. This method is good for flaming and leveling varieties. If the tree is very tall, then you can even cut off the upper branches with fruits. And then, having cut them into 15 - 20 cm pieces, put them in the freezer for a couple of hours. Frozen berries themselves easily come off the branch. In Mongolia and Siberia, for example, sea buckthorn is harvested after the first frosts hit: it is simply shaken off onto film. But this method is suitable only for those areas where winter comes early and there are no thaws.
Sea buckthorn varieties, zoned in Belarus, are “Trofimovskaya”, “Aromatic”, “Botanical”, “Augustinka”, “Gift to the Garden”, “Nivelena”, “Krasnoplodnaya”, “Flame”.
Ingestion of sea buckthorn oil is contraindicated in acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis in colitis with a tendency to diarrhea and some other diseases.
One hundred grams of sea buckthorn berries contain one and a half to two daily norms of vitamin C and half of vitamin E.
It is best to use varieties with dark-colored fruits: "gift to the garden", "red-fruited", "fiery". Squeeze the juice from the berries and place in a cold place. When the oil comes to the surface, collect it. Grind the remaining pomace again, put it in an enamel pan, fill it with filtered (unrefined quickly oxidizes) sunflower oil heated to 40 (no more) degrees and put it in a dark cool place for a week. After that, squeeze out the oil, which, by the way, can be poured into a new portion of the squeeze. Filter the resulting oil, pour into a dark glass bottle to the very top (there should be as little air as possible) and store in the refrigerator for no more than 1 year.
Even ancient healers claimed that this "precious plant contains more than a hundred healing substances, which are very useful for the easily injured human body." The sea buckthorn berry is nothing more than a natural tablet of biologically active substances and, above all, a storehouse of vitamins. Tibetan lamas, for example, have long regarded sea buckthorn as a treasure trove of medicines.
There is more ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn fruits than in black currant berries. They also contain a lot of vitamin E, which is used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophies, burns and the effects of X-rays. In terms of vitamin E, sea buckthorn is second only to germinated wheat germ and cloudberry. Carotene is also found in large quantities, which is converted in the body into vitamin A. And it is known to be an excellent antioxidant that prevents the formation of free radicals and prevents the development of such serious diseases as atherosclerosis and hypertension. Carotene (everyone knows this) is absorbed only with fat. There is enough of it in sea buckthorn.
Moreover, berries contain substances that weaken the toxic effect of antibiotics, increase the elasticity of blood vessels, destroy cholesterol and prevent the development of atherosclerosis, and reduce blood clotting. And this is an excellent prevention of thrombophlebitis and heart attack.
The benefits of sea buckthorn leaves and berries
- You can boil a decoction to rub the joints, throw a handful of leaves into a saucepan, pour water to cover the leaves a little, boil for 10 minutes.
- With arthritis, rheumatism, gout will help a useful infusion of sea buckthorn. Take a handful of leaves, pour half liters of boiling water, sweat for 5 minutes and take 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day half an hour before meals.
- If you feel that you have a sore throat or problems with the gums, often gargle with warm infusion of the throat 4 6 times Sea buckthorn infusion a day.
- With erosion of the stomach, sea buckthorn berries can be dry and fresh (3 tbsp. L), filled with half liters of boiling water and boiled for about 10 minutes. Add honey and drink as tea a few glasses a day, preferably on an empty stomach, 2-3 weeks.
- With hair loss, sea buckthorn will also come to the rescue. Be sure to eat berries, drink the decoction from the branches and rub it into your hair. Try sea buckthorn hair masks and your hair will look great.
- For dermatitis, skin ulcers, eczema, brew 20 g of berries per glass of water and make compresses on problem areas or drink half a glass inside.
- For burns, abscesses, cuts, scars, frostbite, you need to apply fresh sea buckthorn berries.
- For colds, sea buckthorn berries are a wonderful remedy, if you add honey to them, you get an excellent cure for dry cough.
- A decoction of sea buckthorn seeds is an excellent laxative.
- Sea buckthorn also helps with indigestion. Take a small handful, somewhere a tablespoon of dry leaves and branches of sea buckthorn, pour a glass of water, let it boil, simmer for 5-7 minutes, leave for an hour and immediately drink.
- To improve digestion, increase acidity, you need to take a little (1 tablespoon) of fresh sea buckthorn berries, pour 200 ml of boiling water, wait an hour and drink one third of a glass 3 times a day after meals.
Here it turns out how much use the leaves and berries of sea buckthorn.
Shepherdia silvery is a deciduous shrub with a height of two to six meters. The plant got its name in honor of the English botanist D. Shepherd; North America is considered the birthplace of red sea buckthorn. You can find other names for the shrub: buffalo berry, Abkhazian sea buckthorn, pink sea buckthorn, Nebraska currant.
Shepherdia leaves are oval in shape, rounded at the top, covered with silvery hairs on both sides. The arrangement of the leaves is opposite. Red sea buckthorn blooms in April. The flowers are small, yellow, divided into male and female. To get a harvest of berries, you need to plant male and female plants next to the site. Pollination occurs only with the help of insects - this is another difference between Shepherdia and the usual sea buckthorn, which belongs to wind-pollinated plants.
Shepherdia's fruit is a red globular drupe covered with white dots. Mass ripening of berries occurs in August or early September, they are located on the branches in the same way as sea buckthorn berries. Ripe fruits do not fall to the ground for a long time, which makes their collection very convenient. Shepherdia berries taste sweet and sour, sometimes with bitterness.
The life expectancy of red sea buckthorn is up to 30 years, annually one bush gives an average of 15 kg of berries.