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Features of growing grapes in the North

Features of growing grapes in the North


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Dozens of grape varieties grow and ripen on the site in Malye Kolpany

Vladimir Nikolaevich Silnov in the vineyard

The first time Vladimir Nikolaevich Silnov struck me more than ten years ago. It was then that I heard about an experienced gardener who is digging

young potatoes at the very beginning of June

.

Yes, I am not deceiving you, dear readers. It was just like that. Imagine - in our climate, when many gardeners are just planting tubers in the beds, he has already dug up young potatoes and treated them to the guests who came to his birthday. We then told in our magazine about his interesting experience.

Undoubtedly, this method of obtaining a very early harvest requires a lot of effort and time. Having visited now, in July, in gardening on the outskirts of Gatchina - in Malye Kolpani - on the site of Vladimir Nikolaevich, I was convinced that he has kept this tradition to this day, although he already celebrated his 65th birthday a couple of years ago.

Young grape seedlings

However, we will talk about potatoes and other vegetables that he successfully grows on his site, a little later, in other issues of the magazine. And today we will focus on his new hobby, to which he pays a lot of attention and about which he speaks with such enthusiasm and even passion, as if he had just discovered it for himself. Although he began to cultivate this culture a long time ago, almost two decades ago. It will go

about grapes

.

At the summer cottage of the Strong grapes are now occupied

two large greenhouses

, and along them, on special stands, rows of containers with seedlings are displayed - this is for replenishing their greenhouses, as well as for selling interesting varieties to the same enthusiastic lovers. And also in two rows stretched trellises with this southerner, cultivated in a wall culture - in the open air on the southern side of the farm block.

True, here too

technology of Vladimir Nikolaevich

differs from the generally accepted one among the majority of wine-growing enthusiasts in the North-West. The grape seedlings are not planted in the ground, but in large 65-liter plastic barrels filled with fifty liters of good nutritious soil.

"Wintering" grapes

He says that even Severodvinsk has become interested in this cultivation experience. I ask: "Is it possible to grow grapes there?" Answers: “In barrels - even in the Far North. The ground is frozen there, it warms up late.

And the content of this culture in a barrel gives the plus that the roots are not in the ground, but above it. In addition, barrels can even be attached to some kind of stands. As a result, the soil in them quickly warms up, and there is an advance in the development of grapes by almost a month ”.

He also solved the problem

winter shelter

such grapes. Barrels after pruning vines on a cart are brought to one place on the site. Two trenches are made there, in which they are laid obliquely in two rows so that the cut vine is turned towards each other. The barrels themselves are sprinkled with earth, and covered with slate on top so that there is ventilation and the branches are not pushed up. Then it will snow - and the grapes will calmly overwinter.

Once he began the development of culture with the varieties Violet Augustov, Korinka Russian, Ilya Muromets. They are still held in high esteem. But now on the site of Vladimir Nikolaevich there are 74 fruiting grape varieties. He says that each tested and selected variety has its own special aroma, taste, they are different - nutmeg, raisin, wine, table ...

There are dozens of varieties and 14 varieties for

outdoor cultivation

, 16 raisins (seedless, loved by children). There are also varieties that are not frost-resistant, for example, Madeleine Selen and Malengr early, but they are early ripening and have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather. They can also be grown in barrels.

In general, Vladimir Nikolaevich believes that grapes near St. Petersburg receive a tangible stimulus for development in the summer - white nights. In the south, day is equal to night, but here in summer the night is 3-4 hours. There is more light time for the growing season, and therefore the superearly varieties ripen here in July-August, and the early ones -

in September

.

In addition, our gardeners, winegrowers do not know what grape diseases are, from which plants and gardeners in the southern regions suffer. There we have to do several treatments for the notorious mildew, and our gardeners have no idea about this disease. But he is firmly convinced: in our climate, it is worth growing only super-early or early varieties:

E. Valentinov
Photo by Vladimir Silnov and the author


Features of growing grapes in the North - garden and vegetable garden

On the contrary, I create more dew roots - my groundwater is close - after 30 cm white wet clay begins. Therefore, I put a mound higher and mulch well. This is a necessary measure, but you should know that dew roots are not always evil.
If the soil is mulched for the winter, they will not freeze. This fixes one problem. If the grapes are afraid of cracking, the same mulch and regular moisture help eliminate moisture surges. These are two.
And the dew roots also have advantages:
they are useful if the layer of fertile soil is very thin or close to water
they help the plant fight in conditions of lack of moisture, collecting dew
due to dew roots, grapes can survive for some more time if the main root is damaged by phyloxera or other pests.

Well, the easiest way to get rid of the problem with dew roots is to wrap the stem at soil level and slightly below with plastic from a cut polyethylene bottle, but not tightly, so that the thickening stem can push the plastic apart. Then, if dew roots arise, they will not need to be chopped off - they themselves will go down.

And finally: how do they fight dew roots in vineyards with drip irrigation? ) Only mulch and nothing there freezes or cracks


Wine grape varieties for Crimea

Among the technical grape varieties suitable for cultivation in Crimea, there are: Rkatsiteli, Aligote, Bastardo Magarachsky, Pinot fran, Pinot gris, Saperavi, Chardonnay. They make red and white wines.

Rkatsiteli

Rkatsiteli is a late-ripening Georgian grape variety.

Characteristics:

  • vigorous bushes
  • 60-85% fruiting shoots
  • dense cylindrical-conical clusters
  • brush weight 140-240 g
  • oval berries
  • thin, golden yellow skin with brownish spots
  • juicy and firm pulp
  • sugar content - 18-21%
  • high resistance to mildew, gray rot of berries, to powdery mildew - low
  • average winter hardiness
  • yield - 60-116 kg / ha
  • harvesting September 16-30.

Aligote

Aligote is an early maturing French wine variety.

Characteristics:

  • medium-sized bushes
  • 75-85% fruiting shoots
  • cylindrical-conical, dense clusters
  • brush weight 85-90 g
  • small, rounded berries
  • thin but firm, yellow-green skin with a pink tint and thick purine
  • sweet, simple taste
  • sugar content - 17-24%
  • yield 90-140 c / ha
  • the variety is susceptible to gray berry rot, mildew, resistant to powdery mildew
  • average frost resistance
  • harvesting - September 7-16.

Bastardo Magarachsky

Bastardo Magarach is a late-ripening technical variety bred in VNNIIViV "Magarach".

Characteristics:

  • 80-85% fruiting shoots
  • medium-sized bushes
  • cylindro-conical clusters of medium density
  • brush weight - 14-150 g
  • medium, oval berries
  • thick, dark blue skin with thick purine
  • juicy, greenish pulp
  • simple, balanced taste
  • sugar content - 22-25%
  • yield - 107-183 c / ha
  • medium resistance to mildew and powdery mildew, high - to drought
  • average winter hardiness
  • harvesting - September 16-20.

Pinot fran

Pinot fran is a mid-season, frost-resistant, technical variety originally from France.

Characteristics:

  • medium-sized bushes
  • 86% fruiting shoots
  • conical, medium-sized clusters
  • dark blue, almost purple, rounded berries
  • transparent, colorless pulp
  • bunch weight - 100-110 g
  • sugar content - 17-20%
  • yield - 120-155 c / ha
  • medium resistance to mildew and powdery mildew
  • high resistance to drought and frost
  • harvesting - August 22 - September 2.

Pinot gris

Pinot gris is a mid-season technical variety.

Characteristics:

  • medium-sized bushes
  • 80% fruiting shoots
  • bunch weight - 75-80 g
  • small, dark blue berries
  • juicy, transparent pulp
  • pear, apple, lime, lemon, nectarine, honey, flower aroma
  • sugar content - 26-33%.
  • yield - 30-42 c / ha.
  • the variety is susceptible to mildew and powdery mildew, gray rot, frost resistant
  • harvesting - October 1-10.

Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a mid-season French grape variety.

Characteristics:

  • medium-sized bushes
  • 64-76% fruiting shoots
  • bunch weight 70-80 g
  • tapered, medium-dense brushes
  • medium, rounded berries
  • thin, firm, light green skin
  • slimy, juicy pulp
  • simple taste
  • sugar content - 16-18%
  • yield - 30-40 c / ha
  • the variety is susceptible to mildew and powdery mildew
  • medium frost and drought resistance
  • harvesting - September 15-20.

Saperavi

Saperavi is a Georgian late-ripening grape variety.

Characteristics:

  • medium-sized bushes
  • 50-70% of fruitful shoots
  • bunch weight - 115-170 g
  • conical, loose clusters
  • small, oval berries
  • thick, dark blue skin with a purine bloom
  • juicy pulp with pink juice
  • refreshing taste
  • sugar content - 21-23%
  • yield - 90-120 c / ha
  • weak resistance to mildew and powdery mildew
  • low winter hardiness
  • high drought tolerance
  • harvesting - September 20-25.


Winter hardy grape varieties

The most necessary requirements for grape varieties in the Moscow region and to the north are frost resistance, the ripening period of the crop and vines. But you shouldn't put so-called “non-concealment” at the forefront. This concept is relative and does not depend on the variety, but on what are the minimum temperatures in your country house in winter. In the first step, choose the earliest frost-resistant varieties. Later, with experience, an understanding will come that northern viticulture also provides us with certain bonuses, for example, in the form of long daylight hours, which partially compensates for the missing warmth of the grapes. And then you can try growing later varieties.

In addition, in the north, there are practically no diseases and pests of grapes. However, it is always better to prevent danger. There are so-called complex-resistant grape varieties - with high resistance to both frost and disease.

Also determine the purpose of the grapes. Why do you need it: for the table, for juice and wine, for decorating the gazebo, or just "so that there was"? Today there are more than 15,000 grape varieties, so there is plenty to choose from.

I will advise beginners about delicious and unpretentious table varieties Agat Donskoy , Aleshenkin, Jubilee Novgorod, universal Platovsky, Crystal, ultra early canteen Beauty of Nikopol, as well as some universal Amur hybrids A.I. Potapenko and F.I. Shatilova. Those who have children should pay attention to the super early and mildly sweet varieties. Liepaja Amber and Early Tsiravsky (selection by G.E. Vesmins), as well as for the variety Beauty of the North with a high content of useful folic acid. From the listed grape varieties, select no more than four to five for the first planting.

How to buy grape seedlings and rooting cuttings

The most reliable sources of planting material are winegrowers' clubs and forums, where enthusiastic and experienced gardeners and collectors communicate, as well as MOIP and TSKHA. You should not buy seedlings and cuttings at spontaneous roadside markets and exhibitions (of course, this does not apply to the stands of well-known nurseries).


The amazement variety is an early maturing uncovered grape. The shape of the fruit is oval or ovoid. The average weight of one berry fluctuates in the region of 6-8 g, in some cases the weight reaches 10-12 g. The flesh of the fruit is juicy, the skin is medium, does not crack. The taste of the grape is sweetish, a little nutmeg is felt. Fruit color remains intense even after ripening.

The bunch of grapes is large, loose, cylindrical in shape, can weigh 500-700 g. The amazement variety has good resistance to common pests. After planting, the seedlings immediately adapt and grow actively, they can be put on a trellis or a gazebo. Shoots grow well, therefore early maturation of the vine is noted, the growth is 4/5. The flower is bisexual.

Note that the characteristic and description of the amaze grape is quite versatile, and many gardeners grow it for juicing, wine, or for sale.


Watch the video: Growing Grapes on Trees


Comments:

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