What is the correct depth to plant potatoes
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Potatoes are an unpretentious culture. With suitable soils, it can be successfully grown even in cold climates. The yield can be significantly increased with strict adherence to the rules for planting potatoes. Consider to what depth and how many centimeters to plant the culture.
Potato planting rules
Despite the existence of hundreds of plant breeding varieties successfully cultivated in our relatively cold climate, all they are demanding on the amount of light, moisture and soil quality.
The best option for planting potatoes is black soil, typical for the southern regions, and partially for the temperate zone. It is in the black earth that the potato root system, located in a layer at a depth of at least 25 cm, feels most comfortable.
There are three options for placing potatoes in the ground, with different planting depths:
- Small - no more than 6 cm; the method is used when the tubers are still laid in cold ground, or the soil belongs to a heavy, loamy variety that is difficult to overcome by the sprout.
- Average - from 6 to 10 cm; ideal for areas with sandy soil.
- Deep - 12 cm or more; well suited for high-quality soils with high fertility, as well as for regions with a lack of natural moisture.
In black earth regions, medium and deep planting of potatoes is often practiced. This is explained by the sufficient looseness of the earth (sprouts can easily find their way up), and early warming of the earth.
The planting depth is also determined by the size of the tubers. If they are small (less than 50 g), then they should be placed a little higher.
Distance between bushes when planting
The main task is to determine the optimal hole depth - give the plant's root system enough room to develop... The distance from neighboring tubers is no less important here.
In this case, it is desirable to use the space as efficiently as possible.
The optimal size of tubers for planting is not less than 50 g and a little more than 100 g. It is necessary to select seed material and prepare it for sowing long before starting work.
To correctly determine the distance between the bushes when planting, it is worth focusing on the future root systems of plants - they should not interfere with each other. We pay attention to the size of the tubers: the larger they are, the greater the distance between the holes we leave.
- Potatoes weighing less than 50 g - every 20 cm.
- Potatoes weighing 50-100 g - every 20-28 cm.
- Potatoes weighing more than 100g - every 28-40 cm.
The scope of the root system is influenced not only by the size of the tuber, but also by the development of the "eye" from which the roots grow. If there are many of them, and the location is spaced, then the structure of the root system will come out especially lush... Each seed should have at least 2-3 eyes.
Row spacing when planting
The distance between the rows of plants is the same as with the remoteness of the holes - the abundance of space ensures the rapid development of the plant, the weight of the stem increases, as a result, and the yield.
The minimum allowable row spacing is considered to be 60-70 cm, but here it is worth focusing on the potato variety:
- Early ripe - 70-80 cm.
- Late ripening - 80-100 cm.
The rule applies to the most common planting patterns - on ridges and in trenches. For the first option, keeping the distance is especially important, since if the rows are not far from each other, difficulties will arise with hilling, which sometimes needs to be carried out 2 times per season.
Although the placement of potatoes in the garden in all cases is done in rows, they themselves can be arranged in different ways. A popular experimental method is planting in double rows with increased spacing between them.
With this scheme "Half-rows" are located close to each other - in some 20 cm, but the row spacing is made meter-long instead of the usual 60-80 cm.
The scheme can be further diversified if the bushes are staggered.
It can be calculated that the density of crops per one hundred square meters remains the same as in the classic version, but we get many advantages - better access of light from one side of the bush, ease of processing the bushes, and finally, the aesthetic appearance of the beds.
Tips for planting potatoes
Not all gardeners know that potatoes are allowed to be planted not with whole seeds, but with cut into pieces. This is done either with a lack of seeds, or with excessive sizes of individual tubers.
You should not abuse the opportunity, since the vitality of plants from cuts weakens... It is also important to remember the following rules:
- Each part of the tuber must have at least 2-3 "eyes" of future roots.
- Chopped seeds are planted only after the cuts are roughened - so they are less likely to get sick.
- The minimum weight of a cut tuber for planting is not less than 30 g.
When planting potatoes, it is important to keep the rows even, otherwise some of the plants will inevitably have less living space. It is difficult to do this by eye.
You can use two simple methods:
- Mark the beds before planting - first, the first row is outlined, a marker is drawn in its place; the subsequent ones are measured from the row, marking the landing zone on each furrow.
- As a guide use an ordinary board with a bed length; as the next row is planted, the board is moved, trying to maintain the required distance by eye.
The methods are simple, but effective. With an even planting, one hundred square meters of black soil should accommodate from 350 to 500 bushes, depending on the size of the tubers.
Landing patterns: ridge and trench, furrow size
Various potato planting schemes can help to more fully realize the quality of the soil and minimize its shortcomings. There are several of them:
- On the crest - the bed is formed in the form of rows of ridges, elevated by 10-30 cm; thus, the tubers are located above the soil level.
- In the trenches - potatoes are planted in shallow (5-10 cm) trenches, in the fall filled with a fertile layer of humus, peat, sawdust.
Planting potatoes organic in a container - analogue of "smart" beds; the container is made about a meter wide, the walls are formed from boards or bricks; the fertile layer is laid in layers (humus-compost-soil), otherwise the embedding proceeds as usual.
These schemes are an alternative to the most common method - under a shovel. Although more labor intensive, they have a number of advantages.
Scheme of how to plant potatoes in the garden and in the country
In addition to a richer harvest, complex schemes make it possible to fully take into account the climatic features of the region.
On the crest
In the upper part of them, shallow furrows are drawn in which potatoes are planted. Wherein it is important that the comb:
- was hilly, with rounded sides;
- in no case should it be triangular, otherwise the plant will sprout to the sides, and not up;
- such a planting is easier to huddle, excess moisture does not accumulate on it in a rainy climate.
In the trenches
Up to 30 cm deep, they are filled with fertile humus, in which the tubers are placed; water accumulates better in trenches, therefore the method is optimal for regions with dry summers.
Organic in a container
Nutrients are better stored in the box, the fertile layer can be changed every year; the soil warms up faster in spring, because the scheme allows the planting of early-maturing varieties; the scheme is indispensable for cold northern latitudes.
Planting depth when using complex layouts
The depth of planting seeds plays an important role even with complex schemes. The process can be started when the soil temperature warms up to 8 ° C... Consider the nuances and what is the depth of the hole:
- On the ridge - in the hills warmed up from three sides, the temperature rises faster; the depth of the tuber depends only on the soil - on loam no more than 6-8 cm, and on chernozem and sandy soil - 8-10 cm.
- In trenches - it is important to properly maintain the depth of the trenches themselves, wait until the fertile layer filling them shrinks and a depression of no more than 5 cm is formed; into it and put the seed.
- On organic matter in a container - as well as on beds in the form of ridges, put in containers earlier, the depth is small - 6–8 cm.
Organics containers are recommended to be installed in a north-south direction, which gives the plants more light.
How to plant potatoes under a shovel
Despite the growing interest in more sophisticated ways of forming beds, planting potatoes under a shovel has been and remains the most common option. This "grandfather's" way of planting by hand, although simple, also requires certain knowledge from the gardener.
How many centimeters deep
The method is simple shoveling - a hole is made in the ground for embedding, half the length of the blade, that is, the same 10-12 cm.
When growing potatoes under a shovel, the tubers are laid at the very bottom of the recess, sprinkled with earth, either flush with the surface, or form a mound 5 cm high.
The classic layout of tubers in the shovel method is 70 cm between rows (boletus) and 30 cm between holes.
What shovel is needed for planting potatoes
Most convenient for working in the beds type of shovel - bayonet... Its blade is made in the shape of a rounded petal. High-strength metals are used as a material - tool steel, or even titanium. Standard blade sizes:
- Length - 32 cm.
- The width at the base is 23 cm.
There are also non-standard options, as a rule, their size varies upwards from the norm.
How is landing without a shovel
When preparing the beds, you can completely do without a trench tool. Firstly, earthwork is done faster using a garden plow, but the method is only good if you plant the potatoes in the furrows.
Subsequently it will require laborious hilling.
An alternative option for planting potatoes is shallow. It resembles the same "smart" beds. The tubers are not buried in principle, but placed on the surface of the earth, sprinkling on top with a layer of straw or mulch (a mixture of peat, sawdust, humus, etc.). This design keeps heat well, does not need digging.
Gardeners have many options to choose from to plant potatoes professionally or in the country. Let the plant be one of the most common and tolerant of harsh conditions, it no less than others requires effort and effort from a person in cultivation.
The planting depth of tubers is usually divided into three categories, each of which is more suitable for a certain type of soil:
- Deep. In this case, the size of the holes is 12 cm or more. Sometimes it reaches 20 or 30 cm. This option is practiced when growing crops on land with high fertility, it is practiced where there is little rainfall. Deep planting is suitable for black soil.
- Average. This method is practiced when cultivating potatoes in peat areas and sandy loam soils. You can use this option for black soil. The tubers are buried to a depth of 7-10 cm.
- Small. With such a planting, the pits are 5-6 cm in size. This is the best option for growing potatoes on very dense soils, for example, loam. It is difficult for sprouts to break through it. Also, a small value is used when landing in cold ground.
In the garden, you should adhere to approximately the same planting depth of tubers, then the site will be easier to process. In addition, processed and sprouted potatoes should be used for faster germination.
To do this, a month before disembarkation, they are disinfected, keeping for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate with a concentration of 1%. Then the potatoes are laid out in one row in a well-lit room so that they can turn green. Then he will not be afraid of germs and mice. Also, the room should be cool. To maintain the required humidity, the potatoes are periodically irrigated from a spray bottle. Before planting (2 days before), the potatoes are sprayed with a Heteroauxin solution. Sprinkle with wood ash on the day of planting.
Planting depth of potatoes
The optimal planting depth for potatoes depends on several factors:
- Climate. The milder the climate and the more favorable the temperature conditions, the faster the earth warms up, the deeper the vegetable can be planted.
- Soil type. The lighter and more fertile the soil, the deeper the tubers can be planted. Sprouts will easily germinate through black soil, but on dense clay soils, the fill should be closer to the surface.
- Landing method. Modern agricultural techniques suggest planting potatoes in various ways: with a walk-behind tractor, under a shovel, in containers, in ridges and even under straw. Each technique dictates its own characteristics of the size of the hole or furrow.
- Potato size. Large tubers with many eyes have a good supply of nutrients and great "vigor" for germination. Small tubers or halves (planting by cutting the tubers is also possible) are laid closer to the ground so that they can break through the soil layer.
How deep should you plant potatoes under a shovel?
So, you prepared the potato tubers and chose to plant them under a shovel. This is the oldest landing method and is a bit energy consuming. But if you have a small garden with light soil, then it is quite possible to cope with a shovel. Basically, a bayonet is chosen for this procedure. It is more comfortable. The depth of the hole when planting potatoes under a shovel is approximately 1/2 -2/3 bayonet. The first hole is covered with earth from the second, and so on. The distance between seedlings is on average 45 cm, and the row spacing is not already 60. With this method of planting, one can be limited to one hilling per season.
How deep should the potato planter plant potatoes?
If the area of the site allows you to grow a lot of potatoes, then you can use a special device for a walk-behind tractor - a potato planter. The meaning of the device is that the tubers are poured into the distributor, the device mechanically makes a depression in the ground, lays the tuber and spuds it. The depth of planting potatoes with a potato planter is standard, about 30-45 cm.The method is quick and easy, but it also has disadvantages:
- tubers should be about the same size, otherwise the whole process will be disrupted
- shoots should not be very long, as the device can injure them.
To what depth should you plant potatoes with a walk-behind tractor?
When using a motor cultivator without a special device for planting potatoes, it will be more convenient to plant the vegetable together. One person will operate the apparatus, the other will plant the tubers. First of all, with a walk-behind tractor, on which lug wheels are installed, grooves are cut. The depth of planting potatoes with a walk-behind tractor will be standard - a shovel bayonet. Then tubers are laid out in the furrows at a distance of 25-40 cm. In the end, they again go through the row with a motor-cultivator, but already with rubber wheels in order to fill the vegetable.
How deep should you plant potatoes in the ridges?
If your plot has close groundwater or the climate is too rainy, then in order to grow a good crop, it is better to plant the tubers in the ridges. Then excess moisture will collect in the aisles and will not prevent young plants from germinating:
- First of all, you need to make a small furrow in the ground and lay out the tubers. This can be done manually or using garden equipment.
- Then a hilly ridge is formed over the seeds.
- The depth of planting potatoes in the ridges is average - 15 cm.
- This method is well suited for dense soils, but on sandy soil with this method a lot of moisture will be lost, which will reduce the yield.
Planting depth of potato seeds
Growing potatoes from seeds is not an easy process, so it is not very popular. However, with this method, you can get a real elite vegetable with strong immunity, not infected with many diseases. Seeds can be bought, or you can prepare yourself. Their germination rate is not high, so it is worth stocking up on material in abundance. The seeding depth of potato seeds will depend on whether you are sowing them for seedlings or directly into open ground. In the first method, it is necessary to plant it to a depth of 1-1.5 cm; seeds are planted in open ground no deeper than 1 cm.
Many summer residents throughout the country are engaged in planting potatoes. There is no universal cultivation method, it all depends on climatic conditions, soil, variety and size of tubers. Therefore, there is an unambiguous answer to the question: "To what depth is it worth planting potatoes?" - you won't be able to give. Each summer resident will choose a suitable option for himself.
Deepening tubers with different planting methods
There are many ways to plant potatoes, including exotic ones, but three are common:
- Under the shovel. The site is small, dug up in autumn or spring, the uterus is placed in the hole. The planting depth of potatoes depends on how the uterus is placed in the fossa. In the traditional method, they are planted with sprouts (or eyes) upwards, the planting depth is the distance from the top of the uterus to the surface of the earth. If you plant sprouts sideways or down, then the distance from them to the surface increases, the depth will be greater. With the most common planting method, in which the seeds are thrown into the hole without looking, the planting depth is the distance from the center of the tuber to the edge of the hole. With its simplicity, this method (throwing into the hole without looking) has one drawback - uneven germination. Sprouts that are closer to the surface germinate faster, those located on the back of the tuber - longer. The difference in the emergence of seedlings in 3-7 days will subsequently affect the growth of potatoes very noticeably, which will complicate both hilling and harvesting.
- Into the furrows (not to be confused with trenches). The method is used when the size of the plot for potatoes is from 3-4 acres. Gardening equipment is used to prepare the soil. Given the size of the site, the potatoes are planted (thrown) into the previously made furrows without bending over. Planting depth is equal to the depth of the furrow, minus 2-3 centimeters (distance from the bottom of the furrow to the center of the mother tuber). If the soil is loose, fertile, not waterlogged, the furrows are made 10-15 cm deep. After planting, the seeds are covered with ridges obtained by cutting.
- Into the ridges. Applied with excessive moisture in the area. The plot is prepared in the same way as in the second method, but the seeds are planted in the ridge, after making a hole with a shovel. Considering that the site is waterlogged, they are planted 5-8 cm.
To determine a site-specific planting depth, everything is taken into account: how to plant, the type of soil on the site, the weather, the size of the seeds.
How to mark before planting potatoes
Potato growers prepare a whole set of devices for marking future beds. Markers are used, similar to those that appeared at the dawn of potato growing. The rake-like device only uses tines spaced across the width of the rows.
When working with such a tool, you need to withstand a straight line motion. Therefore, the first scribe pass is carried out with special care. All subsequent passes are made along the existing grooves. The marker is placed in the finished groove and new rows are drawn. Then landing will be performed in them.
Some gardeners are trying to take a comprehensive approach to the issue. They make a device for cutting planting furrows. It has to be transported across the field, digging furrows at a given cutting width. Along the way, the planting depth is set (10 ... 12 cm).
The work is pretty hard. We have to pull small plows that create grooves for planting potatoes. However, in the future, the remaining process will be solved simply:
- The seed needs to be spread out in the grooves with the specified distance.
- Sprinkle the spread potatoes with a rake or hoe.
This completes the landing process.
Arrangements for forming holes in rows
To mark distances and create in the row itself, growers offer a whole range of tools. The simplest one can do two holes at the same time, the third cone is lowered into the previous hole.
The device works quite efficiently. Everyone who has adopted such a device notes that the quality of the work is high. All holes have an exact depth of 10..12 cm.
The length of the cone itself is 15 cm. The potatoes do not sink to the very bottom. Many potato growers use a little wood ash to control the wireworm before laying the tuber. Natural potash fertilizer is applied to the soil, along the way, the acidity in the area of the planted material decreases.
The universal marker with adjustable parameters was recommended for gardeners in the media. According to these schemes, some enterprises produced industrial designs. It is not difficult to use them, but it is difficult to carry 12… 15 kg across the field. Few use such a device.
However, today such devices can be made not from steel pipes, but using plastic pipelines. The weight will be reduced to 3 ... 4 kg.
Some potato growers complain that it is difficult for them to maintain the straightness of the rows. You have to go, leaving the markings behind. Rarely, who can move directly across the field. Here, the markup with a lace will help.
- A cord is tied to the pegs.
- The first peg is hammered at the beginning of the row.
- They go to the end and hammer in the second peg at the end.
- The lace is pulled up to a taut state (screwed onto the second peg).
A few simple movements, and it turns out to be a straight line. It is easy to navigate on it when marking.
Even on a long potato field, it will not be difficult to maintain straight-line movement when marking.
Popular potato planting patterns: planting depth and row spacing
There are several options for planting potatoes that can be used in private household plots. Each of them is recommended for certain regions of the Russian Federation as the most suitable in terms of climatic conditions.
Under the shovel (in rows)
This is the simplest and most popular method; it is recommended to use it in the southern and central regions of the Russian Federation, including the Black Earth Region. All you need is a shovel, basting pegs and seed potatoes. Sequencing:
- They dig up, fertilize and level the soil at the site if necessary.
- Pegs mark the location of the rows and pull a rope between them so that they are even.
- Dig holes at the required distance. In order to evenly measure the distance between the potatoes in the rows, use a marker. It depends on the type of culture, and ranges from 25 cm for early varieties and 30-35 cm for later ones. If the variety is unknown, and therefore it is impossible to predict the strength of the growth of the bush, then it can be roughly determined by how many sprouts there are on the tuber - if there are many of them, then a greater distance must be left for it.
- Put 1-2 handfuls of humus in each hole and 1 tbsp. l. ash, mix them with the soil. Lay on top 1 tuber with the eyes up. How deep to plant seed potatoes depends on the type of soil in the area and the size of the tuber. When landing under a shovel, I usually plant it at an average depth (5-10 cm).
- Sprinkle earth on the hole in front of the running row and move on to the next hole.
- The distance between the rows of potatoes is 0.6 m for early varieties and 0.7 m for all others. It is undesirable to leave less, narrow aisles interfere with the normal care of plants, and there is little land in them for hilling.
When planting is over, level the ground on the site with a rake.
Into the ridges
This method involves placing potatoes in grooves rather than holes. It can be recommended for use in regions where the summer is rainy and the earth does not dry out quickly. Water flows from the ridges into the aisle and the potatoes do not suffer from excessive moisture. Sequencing:
- Dig up and level the soil at the site.
- Mark the places where the rows will be located.
- Continuous grooves with a depth of 15 cm are cut with a shovel or walk-behind tractor with lug wheels.
- Potatoes are placed along the entire length of the ridge at its top. The distance between the tubers is about 0.3 m.
- They adhere to the optimal planting depth of potatoes - 5-10 cm.
- Fall asleep with earth from adjacent row spacings. For this, the walk-behind tractor is placed in the aisles. The wheels of the walk-behind tractor, now ordinary, press down on the ground, forming a ridge.
- The row spacing with this method is 0.7 m.
When planting potatoes with a walk-behind tractor or manually in the ridges, in the future, only 1 hilling is required, in which their height is brought to 0.3 m.
In the trenches
This method is suitable for planting potatoes in cold climates. Warm ridges are prepared since the fall, for which furrows 0.3 m deep are dug out in the prepared area.They are filled with a variety of organic matter: a mixture of compost, humus, hay dust, fallen leaves (1-1.5 buckets per 1 sq. M), add ash. If the soil is acidic, it is limed (0.2-0.4 kg of lime or chalk per 1 sq. M).
In the spring, when the plant material settles, the depth of the trenches will be 5 cm. The tubers are laid in them. The distance when planting potatoes in this way is the same as in the previous versions - 0.3 m, between the rows too - 0.7 m.The tubers are sprinkled with earth and covered with 5 cm thick mulch.
The advantages of this method are that the potatoes do not need to be fertilized, because all the nutrients are already in the organic matter. Disadvantages - during the period of heavy rains, water can accumulate in the trenches, it must be drained along grooves 10-15 cm deep, which are laid near each garden bed.
The essence of this method is that 2 adjacent potato rows are placed at a distance of 0.3 m, and the row spacing is made not 0.7 m, but 1.1 m.The tubers are laid out in them in a checkerboard pattern with an interval of 0.35 m, fall asleep with earth and huddle in 1 row. The ridge turns out to be wide, its height and shape can be adjusted. Planting potatoes in double rows can be carried out both manually and with a walk-behind tractor.
According to the Mittlider method
This scheme, developed by Dr. Mittlider, potatoes planted in this way are said to be capable of producing record yields. Despite the fact that it will take some effort to form such beds, in the future this scheme fully justifies itself.
- The potato plot is divided into ridges of 0.45 m wide. The length is arbitrary, but not more than 10 m.
- The tubers are planted in a checkerboard pattern in 2 rows with an interval of 0.3 m between them to a depth of 7-12 cm.
- On their sides, bumpers with a height of 0.1 m are made.
- In the center of each ridge, a groove is cut into which fertilizers are placed.
- In the classic version, they should be mineral, but some vegetable growers also use organic matter.
- The row spacing when planting potatoes in beds is made about 0.75-1.1 m.
Hilling plants planted using the Mittlider method is not required.
After the growing season has passed, it is necessary to start collecting the ripe crop. It is worth doing this when the tops are completely yellow and dry. Digging up ripe potatoes is carried out on sunny days, so that later you do not have to waste time drying the tubers. When all the potatoes have been dug up, preparation for storage is carried out and a suitable room for the vegetable is selected. It is better to store the harvested crop in the cellar.
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