Planting honeysuckle, especially the selection of varieties for Belarus, Moscow region, Siberia and the Urals
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Honeysuckle is an upright or creeping shrub. Currently, more than 190 species of honeysuckle are known, among which there are shrubs that bear fruit (edible or poisonous), as well as a variety of honeysuckle, used as an ornamental plant. Growing honeysuckle has become a favorite pastime for many gardeners. To get a good harvest, you need to select plant varieties taking into account the region and follow a few simple planting and care rules.
What is honeysuckle and its features
Most often, blue honeysuckle is grown in gardens and vegetable gardens - it is a deciduous shrub that grows up to 2.5 meters in height, with beautiful elliptical green leaves and spindle-shaped dark blue berries with a bluish bloom. Edible honeysuckle began to be grown on the territory of Russia in the 20th century, but even now not all gardeners know about it.
Honeysuckle honeysuckle is used as an ornamental plant
Honeysuckle gives the earliest berries: it ripens in early June, even earlier than garden strawberries. While older varieties are reminiscent of blueberries and have a bitter taste, most modern varieties lack this bitterness and contain a lot of sugars. The peculiarity of honeysuckle berries in its ability to clean capillaries, therefore, it is of the greatest value for people of the older generation, however, it is recommended for use in food for everyone, since it has no contraindications.
A handful of honeysuckle berries eaten for breakfast provides the body with a daily requirement of iron and B vitamins
Honeysuckle fruits contain 8% sugar, from 1 to 5 organic acids, pectins, tannins, P-active compounds (antacyans, catechins), provitamins A1, B2, B1, vitamin C, as well as various trace elements: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus , sodium, copper, iron, iodine, aluminum, barium, silicon, strontium, manganese.
Features of honeysuckle:
- Honeysuckle is a cross-pollinated plant, that is, several bushes of different varieties are needed for fruiting. For example, the Bakcharsky giant variety is the best pollinator for the Pride Bakchara, Silginka, Chulymskaya varieties. When planting several bushes of the same variety, you will get abundant flowering without berries.
For good fruiting, it is necessary to plant nearby honeysuckle bushes of various varieties
- The second characteristic of honeysuckle is the flaking of the bark. Already on young branches, cracking and subsequent lagging of the bark from the trunk are noticeable.
Even young branches of honeysuckle can flake off the bark.
- Honeysuckle yields only on young shoots, so you should not get carried away with pruning if you do not want to be left without berries.
- A honeysuckle bush can grow in one place for up to 20 years and can withstand temperatures in winter down to -40 aboutFROM.
- It blooms very first, and the flowers can withstand frosts down to -6 aboutC.
Honeysuckle blooms as the very first of the shrubs, it is an excellent honey plant
Video: honeysuckle from the Bachkar nursery
Where and when is it better to plant a plant
Honeysuckle buds bloom in late April - early May, so when planting in spring, you should adhere to these dates. If you got the seedling very early, when the soil on the site is not yet ready, then you can plant it in a large pot and then transfer it into the planting pit. If a seedling with a closed root system (in a pot), then you can plant the whole season.
It is better to buy honeysuckle seedlings with a closed root system.
Autumn planting of honeysuckle begins in mid-September and, depending on the region of residence, can last until mid-November.
Video: planting honeysuckle varieties Daughter of a Giant
When choosing a landing site, you need to consider the following features:
- Honeysuckle is considered an unpretentious shrub, especially for the northern regions of Russia, where there are frequent rains and not very hot summers. In such areas, it is better to plant honeysuckle in sunny areas without constantly blowing winds.
- In the southern regions, it is better to plant honeysuckle in partial shade or in the sun, but with constant watering. In dry areas without watering, the bush will be short, weak and with a small number of berries.
- Swampy areas with very close groundwater or acidic soil will not work either. If it is impossible to find a more favorable place, plant it on high ridges.
- The soil under the honeysuckle should be light, fertile, neutral acidity.
Honeysuckle planting scheme
Since honeysuckle is cross-pollinated, the bushes should be placed side by side. Three or four bushes can be planted in a row, and more can be planted in groups in several rows.
A small number of honeysuckle bushes can be planted in a row, keeping the distance between the plants 1-2 meters
The distance between honeysuckle bushes in planting will depend on the variety, since there are both large spreading bushes and more compact ones. But most often, from 100 to 120 cm is left between the bushes, the same amount is worth retreating from the fence. When planting in multiple rows, make up to 2 meters between rows. When using honeysuckle as a hedge, the holes are placed at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
Neighbors for honeysuckle
Honeysuckle is rarely damaged by various pests, so it can be planted next to other shrubs, but it especially likes the neighborhood with black currants. In the near-stem circle, you should also not plant any plants, since the root system of honeysuckle is superficial.
On sale you can often find both seedlings from local nurseries and imported ones. However, the new and the best are the varieties bred in the Bakcharsky nursery located near Tomsk. Plants 2-3 years old with a good root system are considered the most suitable seedlings. Before planting, the roots should be soaked in water for 1-2 hours with diluted Kornevin or HB 101.
Planting honeysuckle correctly
Due to the structure of the root system, honeysuckle is planted slightly differently than other shrubs:
- The planting hole is dug shallow and wide: 35 * 50 cm, the roots of perennial weeds are carefully selected.
The planting pit is made 50-60 cm wide, and 35 cm deep
- Pour a bucket of compost or humus, 100 grams of superphosphate and half a liter of ash. On heavy clay soils, additionally add 1 bucket of sand, on acidic - from 200 to 400 grams of lime, and on sandy - coconut substrate or hydrogel to retain moisture.
Mineral fertilizers, humus, ash are introduced into the planting pit
- A dense mound is made in the pit, on which the seedling is placed so that the root collar is at the level of the soil. If a seedling with an open root system, then the roots must be spread out along the slopes of the hill. A seedling with a closed root system must be removed from the pot and, slightly straightening the roots, put on a hill or in a planting hole.
A seedling with a closed root system can simply be placed in the planting hole, while the root collar should be at ground level
- We fill the hole with soil and tamp it, pressing the soil to the roots.
- Pour 1-2 buckets of water on top and immediately mulch with grass, straw, wood chips, newspaper, cardboard or just dry soil. This stage is very important, as the soil should not dry out.
The planted honeysuckle should be mulched immediately with grass.
Transplanting a bush to a new location
Honeysuckle tolerates transplantation well. The best time for this is from July to October. Young medium-sized bushes can be dug out with a large clod of earth and transferred to a new place, and large bushes should be trimmed first, shortened or cut out old branches, and only then transplanted.
Planting honeysuckle in the regions
Depending on where you live, there may be some differences in the planting of honeysuckle.
Landing in Belarus
The desired date for planting honeysuckle in the Republic of Belarus is the end of summer and autumn. The place of cultivation is the sun, it will bear little fruit in the shade. The zoned varieties include Goluboe Vereteno, Lakomka, Nizhegorodskaya early, Morena and Vasilievskaya. Due to the long and warm autumn, honeysuckle in Belarus often blooms in November, and sometimes in winter, so it is recommended to choose varieties with a long dormant period.
Honeysuckle variety Blue Spindle is distinguished by medium-sized berries of a sour-sweet taste with a slight bitterness
Landing in the suburbs
For landing, a bright and sunny place is chosen, with neutral soil and no blowing winds. The best varieties for the Moscow region are Chosen One, Nymph, Morena, Silginka.
Honeysuckle varieties Silginka - one of the best options for planting in the Moscow region
Landing in Siberia
For planting honeysuckle in Siberia, you should choose three-year-old seedlings - they are better acclimatized. The planting pit is prepared in advance, and if there is close groundwater, drainage is made from broken bricks or cobblestones. In this case, the hole itself must be dug at least 50 cm deep. The best time to plant honeysuckle is also considered early autumn, and in spring it is good to plant in rainy weather or with constant watering.
For a successful wintering in the Siberian region, it is impossible to feed the honeysuckle with nitrogen fertilizers after mid-June. They make exclusively potassium-phosphorus fertilizing, and it is even better to use ash. Suitable varieties are Berel, Fire Opal, Sirius, Blue Spindle, Cinderella, Blue Bird, Iliada.
Bluebird - a variety of honeysuckle with early ripening fruits
Landing in the Urals
In the Urals, honeysuckle also prefers to grow in the sun, with the exception of the Southern Urals, where in summer the soil temperature can reach 50 aboutC - in such areas should be planted in partial shade, but not in full shade from the house or barn. In especially hot years, you can stretch a construction mesh over the plantings, which will reduce the energy of the sun, and the honeysuckle will be good enough. In summer, in arid places, watering is required, especially in early June, when the berries begin to sing. The best varieties include the following: Yugan, Kamchadalka, Bakcharsky giant, Bakcharskaya, Maria, Nymph, Blue spindle, Blue bird, Titmouse.
The Bachkarskaya honeysuckle variety is resistant to temperature fluctuations in central Russia and the Urals
Honeysuckle does not need shelter for the winter.
Honeysuckle is rightfully considered one of the most useful berries, you can make wonderful jams, jams, compotes from it. Berries are eaten fresh, frozen for the winter, ground with sugar. When planting, be sure to take into account the peculiarity of honeysuckle to bear fruit only when cross-pollinated with other varieties of this plant and plant at least three bushes.
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The height of the shrub is more than 2 m, the root system is much larger in diameter than the crown and is located close to the soil surface. The honeysuckle leaf plate resembles an ellipse and has a solid edge, a short spine. The leaves are located opposite, sometimes they can grow together into one. Their color is bright green on the upper side, on the lower side it is dull, with a bluish tint.
The flowers are rather large, paired, with a two-lipped corolla. They can be white, pink, yellow or green. Most often they are located in pairs in the axils of the leaves or at the ends of the branches. The berry is elongated, its color is yellow, orange, red, deep blue and black. Fruits develop in pairs on a branch and often grow together.
The edible varieties of honeysuckle are distinguished by their large fruits. The berries are juicy, with excellent taste - sweet with a slight tinge of sourness, which is why the shrub is popular with gardeners.
Planting honeysuckle in the suburbs
Useful properties, decorative qualities, unpretentiousness in growing, frost resistance are increasingly attracting the attention of gardeners of the Moscow region to honeysuckle.
The best varieties of honeysuckle for the Moscow region
Breeders have developed varieties adapted to cool and humid climatic conditions, which are not afraid of cold winters near Moscow and unexpected return frosts.
Vigorous variety, can reach 2 m in height, prefers sunny areas, requires regular watering. The fruits are sweet, without bitterness, with a pleasant aroma, reach a size of more than 2.5 cm, do not crumble during ripening.
It grows in height no more than 1 m, the crown is round, thickened. Fruits are about 2 cm long, sweet, fragrant. The variety is late-ripening, but high-yielding - up to 3 kg of fruits are harvested from one bush. When ripe, the berries do not crumble.
Medium early variety, low, but with a voluminous lush crown. Perfect for cultivation in the Moscow region. It is frost-resistant, unpretentious, bears fruit up to 25 years. The berries are bluish-blue, large, without bitterness.
The variety is mid-season, large-fruited, the berries are large up to 5 cm in length, have a sweet taste with a slight sourness. Productivity with good care reaches 4.5 kg per bush.
An early maturing undersized variety, while the yield can reach up to 5 kg. The size of the berries is medium, ripening at the end of June. Differs in unusual fruit taste - sweet, with strawberry aroma without characteristic bitterness or astringency.
When to plant a shrub
Planting honeysuckle seedlings in the Moscow region in open ground can be done both in autumn and spring.
It is preferable to do this in the fall, about a month before the onset of stable frosts, when the plant is preparing for the dormant period. If planted between late August and mid-September, it will have time to take root and be better prepared for winter.
Planting in spring is possible, provided that the seedling is in a cassette, where its roots are protected. When planted in spring with open roots, the chances of survival are significantly reduced.
Site selection and soil preparation for growth
The soil for planting should be of a loose structure, fertile, rich in nutrients. Ideally, if it is loamy or sandy loam soil.
A prerequisite for survival and getting a large harvest is the right choice of planting site. It should be:
- open to sunlight
- protected from cold wind and drafts, so it is better to plant the seedling from the south side of the building or fence
- with a good drainage system and slightly acidic soil, sandy soil, wetlands and lowlands should be avoided
- with a moderate amount of moisture
- stay at a sufficient distance from other trees and shrubs
- do not be in the shade.
How to plant correctly
When planting, the seedling should have a height of 35-40 cm and several branches. It should not have any damage, broken branches and dry places, rot and damage at the roots. It is advisable to purchase material for planting in special nurseries.
Sequence of actions for landing:
- Dig a hole 50x50x50 cm in size.
- Lay drainage at the bottom with a layer of 10-15 cm.
- Mix the soil from the pit with sand, ash and humus in equal amounts.
- In the prepared hole, build a cone from the soil, place a seedling on it, straighten the roots.
- Cover with earth so that the root collar is 5-7 cm above the surface.
- Install a support number next to the seedling.
- Compact the soil around the bush, form a side at a distance of 30 cm from the root collar.
- Pour a bucket of water over the soil and mulch with dry foliage, straw or sawdust.
Place the plants at a distance of at least 1-2 m from each other.
How to plant honeysuckle correctly
Planting honeysuckle in the Moscow region is no different from planting this shrub in other regions of our country.
Honeysuckle is a very unpretentious perennial, however, it also has some requirements, in particular, to the place of planting and to the type of soil. This shrub loves the sun, so the area where it will be planted should be sunny. The soil should be loose, fertile and moist.
Remember! There should be no stagnation of moisture in the soil, and soil water should not come close to the soil surface. At the bottom of the planting holes, it is imperative to lay out a layer of drainage material - broken bricks, expanded clay, etc.
The distance between the seedlings should be at least 1.3 - 1.5 m.The depth of the holes should be at least 0.5 m.The top layer of soil is deposited separately and mixed with the nutrient substrate:
A couple of days after the holes are dug and filled with a nutritious substrate, you can start planting honeysuckle seedlings. The seedling is carefully placed in the planting hole, carefully placing the roots along the diameter of the hole, the root collar should be buried no more than 7 cm. Fill in with the remaining substrate and watered. Over the next 7 days, watering should be regular so that the soil is constantly wet.
On a note! These bushes should not be arranged in a row, but like flowers in a flower bed, so that they are better pollinated during flowering.
Caring for honeysuckle after planting
Honeysuckle needs proper care:
- Honeysuckle - moisture-loving plant, so it will be just fine if you immediately mulch and keep it moist regularly watering (even more so if planted in a sunny place). But timely watering at the beginning of the growing season is especially important.
If you plant honeysuckle in the shade of trees, there will almost always be enough moisture.
Do not forget about timely loosening of the soil (to a depth of 5-8 cm) and weeding.
- Shrub is very fond of feeding organic matter, and you can give them simply by pouring them under the bush (for example, as mulch) every 1-2 years. At the same time, it is believed that the most suitable organic fertilizers for honeysuckle are rotted horse manure (humus) and wood ash.
The scheme for feeding honeysuckle with mineral fertilizers is as follows (performed every 2-3 years):
- after fruiting (in autumn) - phosphoric and potash fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium sulfate or special "Autumn")
- early spring (before flowering) - nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea)
- after flowering - nitrogen-phosphorus-potash, i.e. complex fertilizers (for example, nitroammofosk).
- In the future, you will definitely need to carry out a thinning, so to speak, brightening pruning honeysuckle (and of course, do not forget about sanitary, although they can be combined). If at first the shrub grows relatively slowly (the root system develops), then after 4-6 years, rapid growth and active shoot formation begin, in other words, without pruning, the bush will simply overgrow and begin to shade itself.
Moreover, pruning is best done immediately after fruiting, while the leaves have not yet fallen, so that it is better to see which shoots are too weak and which are already dry (sanitary pruning).
By the way! The site has an article about how to properly care for honeysuckle in the fall (including properly pruning).
- If in the future you want to propagate your berry bush, then keep in mind that it is perfectly cuttings and propagates by digging cuttings.
Advice! About, how can honeysuckle be propagated in different ways in spring, summer and autumn, read in this detailed material.
Interesting! There is a quite reasonable opinion that since honeysuckle is a forest shrub, it needs minimal care, in other words, the main thing is to place it correctly on the site (choose a suitable place and plant several bushes at the right distance).
Video: planting and caring for edible honeysuckle