How to grow a real tomato?
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And again about tomatoes ...
As you know, tomato is a delicious, everyone's favorite vegetable. The variety of tomatoes is very great both in the shape and color of the fruit, and in terms of ripening, place of cultivation and purpose. They are used, depending on the variety, hybrid, for fresh consumption, in cooking, for making sauces and tomato pastes, juice, canning.
Tomato fruits contain many vitamins such as carotene and mineral salts, as well as carbohydrates and organic acids. They are very useful for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system.
Tomato lovers are 45% less likely to have prostate cancer, as tomatoes are the main source of lycopene. It is known that cancer patients are deficient in this substance. Smokers also need lycopene as a protective agent.
How to grow a real tomato? A real, not a conditionally edible tomato, sourced from Turkey. For this, every summer resident, amateur gardener must grow tomato seedlings myself!
Tomato seedlings appear 3-7 days after sowing. The best temperature for the growth and development of these plants is + 20 ° C ... + 25 ° C. Above 30 ° C, their growth slows down, and at a higher temperature, it stops altogether. Plants are demanding on soil moisture, but do not tolerate high air humidity. It is especially harmful during the seedling period and during flowering. On the contrary, in apartments the air is very dry. In addition, at low (+ 12 ° С ... + 14 ° С) and high (more than + 30 ° С) temperatures in combination with high air humidity, diseases develop.
In mid-late February, seeds of late or tall varieties of tomato are sown. In this case, a larger and high-quality tomato harvest is obtained. In March, you can sow early, determinant varieties and hybrids (seedlings for planting in the ground must be 60 days old).
Some are content to buy tomato seedlings from the market, choosing tall, stocky plants and planting them properly in early June. However, the seedlings sold on the market with good leaf mass can be very young in age, and they will not have enough time to give the bulk of the fruits until August - the time when the bulk of the crop is harvested due to the danger of plant damage late blight.
Sometimes gardeners complain that the seeds died without germinating.... This could have happened for the following reasons:
- they can be infected... Special care should be taken with seeds purchased from amateurs. They must be disinfected! If the seeds have not been disinfected before sowing, then pre-emergence damping off of the sprouts may occur;
- seedling soil may be infected;
- seedling soil can be toxic;
- the soil is overloaded with salts;
- the soil is too dense;
- deep sowing of seeds. If, moreover, germination occurs at low temperatures, when the pre-emergence period is extended, there is a danger of intrasoil decay of germinated seeds;
- excessive moisture. Waterlogging of the soil in combination with a low temperature can lead to rotting of seeds even at - normal sowing depth;
- acidity of the soil;
- sowing seeds stored at low temperatures for a long time. When stored in the cold, seeds can enter a state - deep dormancy, from which they are difficult to remove. Such seeds can sprout in 2-3 weeks or not at all.
You need to properly prepare tomato seeds for sowing like this:
To begin with, soak them in melt water, as it has a very good effect on seed germination, is like a catalyst. To do this, you need to collect snow in a bucket and, when it begins to melt, drain only a third of the total amount to soak seeds and water the plants - throw away the rest (in the form of non-melted snow), since all the most harmful remains there. For subsequent processing of seeds, natural bioregulators can be used, stimulators of plant growth and development, which contribute to an increase in germination energy and seed germination.
Then fill and level the soil in peat pots, moderately moisten and slightly compact. Use tweezers to spread the swollen seeds on the surface of the ground. Gently press the spread seeds with a pencil, for example, to a depth of 1 cm and cover with earth. Different varieties and hybrids of tomatoes, with the same preparation, can sprout a different number of days.
It often happens that one variety has already risen, and several others have not, but so that the seedlings do not stretch out, you have to move the entire container to a bright and cool place, where the temperature during the day is + 17 ° С ... + 20 ° С, and at night + 13 ° С ... + 14 ° С (since seedlings are most often stretched out at night). And those seeds that have not yet sprouted need a temperature of + 25 ° С ... + 30 ° С.
The emergence of seedlings is a very crucial moment!
With a lack of light, the seedling elongates the cotyledonous knee, which wastes precious seed reserves to the detriment of the development of roots and leaves. Stretching is especially strong at high air temperatures, i.e. with an imbalance of illumination and temperature.
A week after the emergence of shoots, the peat pot must be rearranged to a warmer place. When the plants get a little stronger, it is advisable to periodically take them out to the balcony if the temperature outside is not lower than + 8 ° C degrees (the weather should be calm!). When the first true leaf appears, the daytime temperature is raised to + 20 ° C ... + 22 ° C degrees, choosing the warmest and lightest places in the apartment.
At the same time, the plants continue to be periodically taken out to the balcony, tempering them. Sometimes, in warm weather, you can leave them there overnight. It is still necessary to water rarely, only when a noticeable drying out of the soil is noticeable. It is impossible to get carried away with watering at this time.
If you grew seedlings in some kind of large container or container, then the seedlings must be dived. Immediately after transplanting, the plants must be removed from a sunny place. After two days, the seedlings return to the windowsill. If the picking or planting in the ground is delayed, then the plants are stretched even in good light.
If tomato seedlings are still outgrown, then usually when planting it, the roots are buried to 30-40 cm, and the plants are also spud on top. In this case, they waste energy unproductively on the formation and growth of additional roots, since the buried roots do not receive the required amount of oxygen.
In addition, at a depth of 40 cm or more, the soil is much colder, and there are practically no living microorganisms, which are mainly concentrated at a depth of 20-30 cm. Such seedlings no longer have enough energy for the formation of fruits, and no more than two or three of them are formed. on the plant. In this case, it makes sense to plant the seedlings at an angle. To do this, in overgrown plants, it is necessary to cut off the lower leaves and lay the roots and stem in a groove 10-15 cm deep.
A stem with leaves 20-30 cm high remains on top. In this case, many additional roots are formed on the stem. The first 10-12 days, not counting the day of planting, it is better not to water the plants. In the future, water the tomato rarely and with warm water. This stimulates the branching of the root system.
In early June, when the threat of frost has passed, tomato seedlings are planted in open ground. If you have grown the seedlings correctly, then when planted in the ground, these should be strong plants with a height of 30-35 cm and with a stem with a diameter of 8-10 mm. They should have 7-9 leaves and the first flower cluster. After planting, the plants must be watered abundantly, and the soil mulch... The weather for planting is cloudy and calm.
It is best to purchase high-quality seeds of early-ripening and early-ripening tomato hybrids for cultivation, which are more productive and resistant to diseases than varieties. This is the key to success!
A. Password, S. Tolmachev,
scientists - agronomists
How to grow seedlings
Mid-season tomatoes in Russia are grown exclusively by seedlings. Otherwise, they simply will not have time to ripen before the onset of cold weather.
Usually seeds are sown in March 55-60 days before picking to a permanent place. Before growing seedlings, gardeners are advised to familiarize yourself with the indicators of the lunar calendar.
Seeds are treated with special compounds before planting. They reduce the risk of infection of plants and increase their resistance to adverse environmental factors.
Seed preparation for planting:
- Checking planting material for germination... The seeds are soaked in a solution prepared from a glass of warm water and 1 tsp. salt. The floating seeds are considered unsuitable for planting, they are collected and thrown away. The specimens that have sunk to the bottom are washed and used.
- Disinfection of planting material to prevent infection of plants. The seeds are soaked for 20 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. Another option is to soak them overnight in a growth solution.
- Seed growth stimulation. This procedure not only accelerates the appearance of the first shoots, but also increases the resistance of plants to adverse environmental conditions. The planting material is soaked in "Epin", "Sodium humate" and "Zircon".
The choice of capacity and soil
For growing seedlings, large boxes of shallow depth are taken. Seeds are sown both in small plastic cups and in individual peat tablets.
When the seedlings grow up, they are planted in individual pots. Use plastic or peat containers with a volume of at least 300 ml.
The soil for tomatoes should be nutritious, but light. Suitable soil mixtures are available at gardening stores.
Many gardeners prepare the soil for tomato seedlings on their own in the following ways:
- humus, black earth and sand are mixed in equal proportions
- take equal parts of wood or coconut sawdust and garden soil
- peat is mixed with the same amount of sand, ash is added to the composition.
The soil and containers are disinfected before use: they are treated with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Advice! It is convenient to grow seedlings in cake packaging. In this case, the transparent cover will act as a film.
Sowing planting material
Soil is poured into the seed boxes. It is poured abundantly with warm water. Grooves are made in the ground with a depth of 1 cm. Seeds are laid out in them at a distance of 2 cm from each other.
The grooves are sprinkled with soil, which is not tamped. The containers are covered with foil and placed in a warm place.
Growing and care
To grow healthy and viable seedlings, it is important to provide them with proper care.
The list contains the basic rules for caring for plants:
- Before the seeds germinate, as the soil dries out, it is moistened with a spray bottle. When the first shoots appear, they are watered in such a way that the liquid gets only under the root. Water is used at room temperature.
- After germination of all seeds, the film is removed. To prevent the plants from stretching, they are transferred to a cool room for a week.
- Tomatoes dive when real leaves appear on them. At the bottom of individual pots, a layer of disinfected drainage is poured (broken ceramics, brick, expanded clay, shell rock, fine gravel). It will reduce the risk of seedling disease. It is important to make sure that there are holes in the bottom of each container.
- Seedlings are fed for the entire period of its cultivation three times. The first time - 12 days after picking the plants, the next feeding is done with an interval of 2 weeks. For these purposes, it is convenient to use chicken manure diluted in a ratio of 1:10 with the addition of superphosphate.
- Seedlings begin to harden 14 days before the pick. She is taken out onto the balcony or outside. The duration of the first procedure does not exceed 1 hour, then gradually the hardening time is brought to 16 hours.
Note! If a layer of mold has appeared on the soil in which the seeds were sown, then the problem lies in excessive watering. To remedy the situation, the affected soil layer is removed, the boxes are dried, the ground is watered with a light pink solution of potassium permanganate. A layer of clean soil is poured on top.
5 rules for the success of growing tomatoes on the windowsill
If you also want to get healthy and tasty vegetables on your windowsills and loggias, you need to remember a few rules:
- To grow tomatoes in an apartment, you need to choose varieties specially adapted for home conditions. They are genetically inherent in stress resistance to insufficient illumination. Having a low growth and shortened internodes, the bush does not take up much space, and the fruit sets even with a minimum amount of nutrients. For my garden, I choose cherry tomatoes, weighing 15-20 g. They grow in clusters and have an excellent taste due to the high sugar content.
- Indoor tomatoes are best suited for 3-5 liter cylindrical pots. You should know that tomatoes are more demanding on the width of the container than on its depth.
- I buy soil for vegetable seedlings in the garden center. In an apartment, experimenting with soil on your own is not so easy. But good store land, drainage and top dressing give decent results.
- An important condition for growing vegetables is light, therefore, in the winter period of a short daylight hours, the plants are supplemented with special lamps.
- Even a high-quality substrate cannot provide the plant with the necessary nutrients. Therefore, for feeding, it is necessary to alternate organic and complex fertilizers. I combine top dressing with watering about once every 10 days.
- Since tomatoes are especially in need of moisture in the home, they need to be moistened regularly, but in no case should they be poured.
Win-win varieties and hybrids of tomatoes
My experience of growing tomatoes on a windowsill has shown that undersized and dwarf hybrids and varieties give good yields:
- Little Red Riding Hood.
- Bonsai Micro F1.
- Florida Petite.
- The ampel variety "Rowan beads" with long shoots, not only looks delightful in hanging pots, but also gives a lot of tasty fruits.
Description and characteristics of the variety "Countryman"
Tomato fruits are small and oblong. Up to 15 fruits can form on one branch, weighing from 50 to 80 grams. According to reviews, this variety tastes slightly sweet, therefore it is suitable both for fresh consumption and for canning. Tomato "Countryman" grows well in the open field, so it is often used for growing on an industrial scale.
How to grow tomatoes "Countryman"
If you plan to plant this tomato variety in cool regions, then it is best to use seedlings. The best option is to grow seedlings of the "Countryman" variety from seeds, then you will definitely be sure that you have planted the kind of tomato you wanted. Seeds for seedlings are sown in early April in prepared boxes with soil. After the first shoots appear and grow slightly stronger, according to the reviews of experienced summer residents, it is necessary to dive, planting small seedlings for further growth.
Photo of growing from seedlings of tomatoes Countryman
Planting seedlings in open ground, according to the description of the "Countryman" variety, is carried out at the beginning of summer. Keep in mind that the soil should be slightly acidic and fertile, in this case, you can achieve the optimal amount of harvest from one bush. Watering with warm water is a prerequisite for caring for "Countryman" tomatoes.
Recommended reading: Fertilizers for tomatoes
It is also important to carry out a couple of times mineral fertilizing of tomatoes "Countryman", as well as timely weeding and loosening of the soil.
Now you know based on photos and reviews, what is the tomato "Countryman" from the Siberian selection.The description and characteristics of the variety will help you decide on the choice of tomatoes for planting in open ground on your own plot. With proper do-it-yourself care for the "Countryman" tomatoes, you can get almost 18 kg of harvest from one square meter of land.