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Growing tomatoes in low greenhouses. Part 1

Growing tomatoes in low greenhouses. Part 1


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My experience of growing tomatoes in low greenhouses

Tomatoes are grown near St. Petersburgusually in tall greenhouses. Every year at the end of May, at the Baltic and other railway stations of the city, you can see people with boxes, from which sometimes protrude the tops of tomato seedlings, also wrapped in newsprint.

Very often these seedlings are tall, overgrown and pale green. Many gardeners plant it in their greenhouses in the very end of May or in early June, when the threat of frost has passed.

And I, like most gardeners, in the nineties of the last century planted my tomatoes in a tall greenhouse of the "Harvest" type (there were no others then, except for homemade products built by craftsmen). Seedlings were usually placed on May 21-23. At the same time, she froze twice. It was very annoying, because so much labor was spent on growing it in a city apartment - and all in vain. And it is very difficult to protect these delicate and tall tomatoes from frost. This is not cucumbers - covered with newspapers - and everything is in order.


In the future, the tomatoes take root - it takes several days, and they develop normally. But it cannot be said that tomatoes are in optimal conditions. When you go into a greenhouse, it seems to be warm. But this is at the top, at the level of the head and chest. And below - at ground level, the air is cooler. Its temperature is below the optimum temperature for tomatoes 22 ... 25 ° С. In mid-June, tomatoes bloom in such greenhouses, an ovary appears on the first clusters. As you know, 50-60 days should pass from fruit setting to reddening, so it turns out that the first mature - red, pink or yellow tomatoes are harvested by the gardener at the beginning of August, but after August 10 it often becomes cool here, especially at night. As a result, the reddening of the fruit slows down. And, having walked through gardening at the end of August, you see tall, solid greenhouses with powerful tomato bushes, on which large green fruits often hang.


Of course, many tomatoes are harvested at the stage of blanche ripeness, they will reach, ripen (best of all - in a felt boot), but, in my opinion, these will be inferior tomatoes. I think that a full-fledged, real tomato should hang on the bush for another 4-5 days after reddening, in some varieties it should become soft. Such a fruit cannot even be cut with an ordinary knife, but only with a saw-knife. But on the other hand, by sending a slightly salted circle of such a tomato into your mouth, you will experience a real taste pleasure, not to mention the benefits of such fruits. After all, tomatoes are most useful only those that have ripened on the bush and have only recently been removed from it - fragrant and tasty. And fruits that have ripened after picking, as well as market and store fruits, do not have a real taste and smell, and, in my opinion, their benefits are immeasurably less.

The pretty store-bought tomatoes are mostly grown on "chemistry", and their consumption in large quantities can cause allergies. Usually, at the beginning of September, gardeners complete the cultivation of tomatoes, remove the film from the greenhouses. I don’t know what housewives do with green tomatoes, but I believe that green fruits are "production waste", dear to them - in compost... What's the bottom line? For a lot of money, a tall greenhouse was bought (fortunately now there is a large selection of models), its own or purchased seedlings were planted, a lot of work was spent in caring for tomato bushes, and full-fledged red tomatoes, as they say: "the cat cried." And this picture repeats itself from year to year.

I had some break in my gardening business, and time is ticking. Every year, in old age, the strength becomes less, and when I again started growing tomatoes, I already thought: what should I do. The point is that my old ones greenhouses almost out of order, moreover, their assembly is very laborious. And I decided to try growing tomatoes in low greenhouses and with the least labor input. For two years I have been growing tomatoes according to the technology I have developed and get a good harvest of red fruits. Everyone blushes, there are almost no greens.

In 2009 I had one greenhouse (6 m long and 1 m wide). I removed about 30 kg of red tomatoes from the bushes grown there. Last year there were already two greenhouses with a total area of ​​9 m², and I got 55 kg of red tomatoes! Some neighbors who saw my greenhouses and the result obtained also wanted to switch to the same technology. Therefore, I decided to tell the readers of the magazine about it. I am sure that among them there will be those who want to receive ripe tasty fruits with little material costs.

Tomato growing technology

For a 6 meter greenhouse, you will need 12 green arches, which are now available in stores. They will provide a greenhouse height of 1.2 m and a width of this bed of 1 m.

I also advise you to purchase 4 more spare arches, which will come in handy in case of return frosts for double cover with film. I also need to buy 8 meters of film, I stopped my choice on film "Svetlitsa", because I believe that the harvest is higher under it. All of these materials are not in short supply, and are not very expensive, in any case, such a low greenhouse is several times cheaper than an ordinary high greenhouse.


Cooking tomato seedlings

To grow seedlings, I needed 30 milk bags 10 cm high (in the bottom of them I made 2-3 holes to drain excess water) and high-quality soil (like “For favorite plants). If you have ash, then you can add a little of it to the soil. On the side of the bags, I glued a piece of adhesive plaster to write the name of the variety on it. Then I planted 2-3 tomato seeds in each bag with soil, moistened each planting hole with two or three drops of water. Then he sent the bags to the kitchen cabinet, covering them with a piece of plastic. On day 4-5, as soon as the first shoots loops appear, the packages are rearranged on the windowsill (my windows face south-west). To fit all the packages, I made a hanging shelf. I leave only one, the strongest sprout in the bags, the rest are removed. To the upper part of the frame of the part of the window where the seedlings are placed, I attach a reflective sheet (this is an aluminum foil on a substrate, it is used in bath construction). I tuck the lower end of the panel into the gap between the radiator and the window sill. After all, the seedlings after the emergence of shoots already need less heat, but more light.

Picking seedlings I do not. Firstly, this is a laborious and troublesome operation, and secondly, if you do not dive the seedlings, then the tomato seeds can be sown a little later, and in the spring every day there is more and more light, which is extremely necessary for the seedlings. Every two days, the seedlings must be turned 180o. When to sow tomatoes? In my practice, it is March 24-25. Then the tomatoes will sprout by early April, at which time the day is already quite long, and by mid-May, when it is time to plant seedlings in a greenhouse, it will have a height of 20-25 cm, a strong stem and dark green leaves.

Watering seedlings

How often to water the seedlings? In no case often - it will stretch out. If there is no sun - once every five days, if it's hot - once every three days, and a little. Even if the seedlings wither, lose turgor - it's not scary, pour it - and after two hours the turgor will be restored. Seedlings should grow with a minimum of water. Then the roots, in search of moisture, will grow throughout the entire volume of the package, and the seedlings will have a powerful root system by the time they are planted in the greenhouse. Dig up the ground and install arcs as early as possible, as soon as the ground allows. In this case, it is not necessary to turn the layer over - the soil only needs to be loosened to the depth of half a shovel bayonet. When digging, it is advisable to make half a bucket or a bucket of humus for each square meter of the garden bed. It is desirable that the garden bed and greenhouse are located in the north-south direction.

Read part 2. Growing tomatoes in low greenhouses in the Northwest →

Mark Ginsburg, veteran gardener
Photo by the author


Planting tomatoes

It's time to plant young tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, flower pots, containers, boxes or open ground.

For pots, you need to buy a special soil, preferably for vegetables and herbs.

In our climate, it is safest to plant tomatoes in open ground after May 15-20, when the night frosts on the soil disappear. In cold regions of the country, the dates are shifted.

If there is a possibility of frost at night (even temperatures of 0 ° C), it is necessary to protect the tomato plants - cover them with a box and a blanket overnight.

How to plant tomato seedlings - step by step:

  1. Soil preparation. About 2-3 weeks before planting tomato seedlings, you need to prepare the planting site. Soil preparation includes:
  • weed removal
  • fertilizing the soil with compost or adding a layer of universal soil from the store on top
  • fertilizing with mineral fertilizers
  • thorough aeration - you need to loosen the soil with a heron.
  1. Tomatoes are planted in holes, every 40 cm. The root ball is placed deep in the soil, but does not cover the first leaves.
  2. Thoroughly compact the substrate.
  3. Water the seedlings intensively.
  4. After 2 weeks, we feed young tomato plants with a small dose of mineral fertilizers to get a better harvest.

Teaching seedlings on your own is beneficial for many reasons. This allows you to get tasty tomatoes much earlier, seedlings are cheaper, and the choice of varieties is much larger. Well-prepared seedlings should be stocky, even in size, without signs of wilting, mechanical and physiological damage, diseases and pests. The seedlings must have a healthy root system that creates an unbreakable root ball.


Planting tomato seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse

Modern technologies have allowed gardeners to simplify the process of growing tomatoes. Greenhouses made of film and glass have become a thing of the past; they have been replaced by more convenient and highly efficient materials, among which polycarbonate is very popular. However, a polycarbonate shelter requires some knowledge to grow tomatoes. In favorable conditions, quite unpretentious crops grow. The article discusses the issues of the time of planting seedlings in the greenhouse, soil preparation, as well as the rules for planting tomatoes.


About varieties

In my greenhouse I am constantly testing new varieties of Novosibirsk selection.

The Raya variety (Novosibirsk Agrarian University of NSAU, authors Lyakh A.A., Petrov A.F.) was registered in the State Register in 2019. This is an early maturing determinant tomato. Cuboid fruits are good fresh, in salads, suitable for growing in open ground and film greenhouses.

Standard variety of the Central Siberian Botanical Garden of the SB RAS. A zoned variety, the best in taste and yield. The fruits are marketable, good fresh and for harvesting.

Read more articles on our website "Antonov Sad.ru"


Growing tomatoes: grandma's secrets

04.10.2009 | Author: Advisor

Starting a conversation about tomatoes, a very vivid picture from childhood emerges: in the granny's garden, tall bushes with carved leaves, tied to pegs, stand in slender rows. The plants are covered with small green-red fruits and they smell so ... nice. You will not be able to resist, and you will tear off the brownish elastic "bull's eye". How sweet it seemed!
And when a child's gaze snatched from the general picture of iridescence the striped back of a Colorado potato beetle feasting on a tomato, a fit of rage was overwhelmed and the beetle was subjected to a terrible execution without trial or investigation. Here is such a mark left in the soul of the beds with the tomato "Ladies fingers"

And more than once the grannies of the garden surprised me: a tomato with yellow fruits and a lemon flavor, a huge sweet "Bull's Heart", a giant "Pink Giant" ... And now! So many varieties that just ah! And by the way, I don’t remember that Granny had a bad harvest! All Nazarovka is surprised at grandmother's tomatoes.

I think my grandmother will not mind if I tell you, dear readers, about some secrets that allow you to shoot a pretty decent harvest every year, regardless of the variety. So, let's begin.

The first secret. Seeds and seedlings. Granny buys ordinary seeds, soaks them for 24 hours in water and 30 minutes in potassium permanganate, and then plants them in prepared boxes. Planting date is March. Somewhere in April, the grown seedlings are planted in a greenhouse of an uncomplicated design. It was done quite simply: a hole was dug in the ground, manure was laid on the bottom, and a layer of earth was on top. Covered
a wooden structure with four low walls and a "hut" made of polyethylene film. Here in this "house" the seedlings live until the beginning of June. Then - into the ground.

The second secret. Soil preparation. Well, there are only emotions - after all, Granny has a cow, chickens, a horse, and a pig. A mixture of animal droppings is the only fertilizer for her two vegetable gardens.
Manure is brought in before winter, and plowed in the spring. I want to draw your attention to the fact that granny does not do any more feeding. Plants simply in the ground and sprinkles with ordinary water. However, the crop rotation is observed and does not plant "tomato by tomato".

The place for the tomatoes is the brightest and highest place. It should be noted that the soil in the garden of light texture is most likely sandy loam. And, based on experience, we can recommend growing tomatoes on just such a soil.

It’s harder for you and me: the majority have neither cattle nor sandy loam. We will proceed from what we have. Firstly, it doesn't cost us anything to make box beds according to the Mittlider and fill them with the soil of the composition we need - not a bad option. Secondly, the same APIONs will help to solve the nutrition problem: he buried it along with the roots, and just water!

The third secret. Care. All grandma's care for tomatoes comes down to regular evening watering with warm water, systematic pinching and hilling bushes as they grow. As soon as the plants reach 30 centimeters in height, the granny ties them to the pegs.

There is one more operation - spraying. The grandmother sprays the tomato beds with the “hom” preparation to prevent late blight disease twice during the entire period: about 2 weeks after planting in the ground and then 14–20 days later. That's all.

And now it's worth talking about the main diseases of tomato. Plants are especially often affected late blight and apical rot.

Tomato phytophthora. Distributed everywhere. Affects fruits, leaves and stems of plants. Vague brown hard spots appear on green fruits. On the leaves, the spots are brownish, on the underside around them in wet weather a whitish bloom of mycelium and parasite spores forms. The main source of the disease is the soil and affected potato tubers, in which the fungus overwinters.

Control measures. Application of fungicides: Quadris (4-6 g / 10 l of water), Ridomil-gold - the first prophylactic treatment (10 g / 10 l of water), the second 14-21 days after the first (15 g / 10 l of water).

Top rot of fruit - a disease of a physiological nature, manifests itself in periods with high temperatures and low air humidity with a lack of moisture in the soil. Under conditions of intense evaporation, dehydration of fruit tissues occurs, which leads to their death. In greenhouses, top rot of fruits is observed mainly when the irrigation regime is violated and there is a lack of calcium in plant tissues. A watery dark green spot appears at or near the top of the fruit. Affected tissues fall, become hard and dry, only with the introduction of secondary microorganisms do they soften. Elongated or pear-shaped tomato varieties are more prone to top rot.

Control measures. Use of resistant varieties. Application of lime or calcium fertilizers before planting.Regular watering (especially during dry periods) and bed mulching.

Rubric: Vegetable crops | Tags: agricultural technology, top rot, cultivation, protection, vegetables, nightshade, tomato, tomato, late blight, late blight

Watch the video: The Secret To Growing Tomatoes. How To Grow Tomatoes For Beginners


Comments:

  1. Ajmal

    You are wrong. I am able to prove it. Write to me in PM, it talks to you.

  2. Sherlock

    In my opinion, you were deceived like a child.

  3. JoJojora

    Yes it's all science fiction

  4. Bedver

    Yes indeed. I agree with everything above per said.



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