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Large potatoes from small seeds or how to propagate potatoes by seeds

 Large potatoes from small seeds or how to propagate potatoes by seeds


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We are used to growing tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers and other vegetables from seeds. Why is it that most gardeners always propagate potatoes with tubers? Yes, this method is easier and more convenient, but didn't you yourself notice that every year the harvest becomes more modest, and the size of the tubers is smaller? Sometimes it turns out that in the spring it takes more potatoes to plant than it is possible to dig up in the fall.

Foreword

We are used to growing tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers and other vegetables from seeds. Why is it that most gardeners always propagate potatoes with tubers? Yes, this method is easier and more convenient, but didn't you yourself notice that every year the harvest becomes more modest, and the size of the tubers is smaller?

Sometimes it turns out that in the spring it takes more potatoes to plant than it is possible to dig up in the fall.Even if you select the best tubers for planting and apply fertilizer to each hole, all the same, every year the potatoes degenerate, more and more viral, bacterial, fungal diseases, and taste deteriorates markedly.

Sometimes it turns out that in the spring it takes more potatoes to plant than it is possible to dig up in the fall.

To restore yields, you can choose one of two options: buy high-quality elite tubers every five years, or grow potatoes from seeds yourself. The second option is preferable not only for economic reasons, but also because, under the guise of elite planting material, ordinary tubers of low quality can be sold to you, and by their appearance you will not be able to determine whether they are in fact elite or not.

Video about growing potatoes from seeds

Why growing potatoes from seed is better:

  • the cost of seeds is much lower than the cost of tubers;
  • the seeds take up very little space; a basement or cellar is not needed to store them;
  • potatoes grown from seeds initially do not have any diseases and are resistant to late blight and unfavorable environmental factors;
  • the yield of potatoes is higher than when planted with tubers.

Growing potatoes with seeds: features and difficulties

Propagating potatoes with seeds will give you the opportunity to feel like a breeder, since the potatoes will not grow of the same type. Potato bushes will vary in yield, color and size of tubers, and disease resistance. Thus, you can immediately select the best tubers as planting material for the next year, focusing on the desired plant traits.

Propagating potatoes with seeds will make you feel like a breeder

However, it is worth noting and main difficultiesthat you will have to face when growing seedlings of potatoes from seeds:

  • the root system of potato seedlings is formed slower and worse than that of the same tomatoes, it is necessary to provide the most loose soil or even grow first on sawdust until the seedlings reach a height of 3 cm;
  • seedlings are very moody, react to the slightest inconvenience, and with a lack of light, they stretch out strongly;
  • without the regular use of biological products (trichodermina, planriz, black yeast), potato seedlings are very susceptible to diseases, especially black leg;
  • potato seedlings are small and fragile; they will have to be transplanted with great care.

Detailed instructions on how to grow potatoes from seeds

Due to the peculiarities of the Russian climate, potato seeds need to be grown in seedlings in a greenhouse, and not in the open field. You can purchase ready-made potato seeds or prepare them yourself. In summer, berries are formed on many varieties of potatoes, which must be collected in gauze bags and hung in a bright, warm room for a while for ripening. The finished berries should become soft and lighter, then you can crush them in a cup, rinse the resulting seeds, dry and sprinkle on bags. Since the germination of potato seeds is low, it is better to stock up on more of them. Seeds up to two years old germinate faster than older seeds.

The finished berries should become soft and lighter, then you can crush them in a cup, rinse the resulting seeds, dry them and sprinkle them into bags

Sowing seeds

Before sowing, it is recommended to soak the seeds in water for two days. Hardening with variable temperatures for 10 days is also effective: at night, the soaked seeds in trays are kept in the refrigerator at a temperature of +1 degrees, and during the day - indoors at room temperature.

Seeds are sown in boxes from late March to early April. Fill the boxes with a damp mixture of 1 part soil and 4 parts peat, adding fertilizer. Place the potato seeds in the ground in rows: 5 cm between the seeds and 10 cm between the rows. Sprinkle the seeds on top with a layer of sand of 0.5 cm, slightly compacting it so that they do not wash off when watering.

Cover the boxes with foil or glass and move to a warm place, you can go to a foil greenhouse. Seedlings should appear in a week or two. When you see two real leaves on the seedlings, you will need to dive the seedlings into small plastic cups with drainage holes or into peat pots. Water and weed the potato seedlings regularly, and feed the plants with ammonium nitrate during rooting.

Planting in open ground

At the end of the frost, around the third decade of May, potato seedlings can be planted in open ground. Dig holes 10 cm deep, add 300 g of humus to them and pour (half a liter of water per hole). Bury the seedlings in the ground so that a stem with three upper leaves remains on the surface.

To protect young potato seedlings from possible temperature changes, cover the bed with plastic wrap. It will be possible to remove it when the plants get stronger and warm weather sets in. In dry weather, water the potatoes every two days, weed and loosen the soil regularly. Also, during the season, you will need to spud the potatoes twice.

Video about planting potatoes with seeds

Of course, from the very first year you will not get a high harvest of potatoes, which would be enough for the whole winter. In the first season, mini-tubers weighing from 10 to 50 g grow from potato seeds (in the same way as onion sets grow from onion seeds). With good care, you can get more tubers from one bush, up to a kilogram of tubers, and some tubers will reach 100 g. Even better will be the harvest when grown in a greenhouse.

From mini-tubers next year you will receive super-elite potatoes of the highest quality (first reproduction), from which in the third year will grow super-elite potatoes of good quality, in the fourth year you will get elite potatoes, and from the fifth-sixth year you will already dig out ordinary potatoes, harvest will begin to decline again. Therefore, after five years, you can repeat the entire procedure for growing potatoes from seeds.

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Is it possible to grow potatoes with seeds: planting and care

The harvest of potatoes can be obtained not only by planting planting material, but also in other ways. At the same time, the culture is improved, the plants from the renewed tubers cease to hurt. Potato seeds can be harvested and harvested from your own plantings or bought ready-made in a garden store. Potatoes grown for seedlings from seeds at home are again becoming elite and high-yielding.


What does the reproduction of potatoes from seeds give?

Many may think: why complicate your life, if ready-made seedlings or samples of elite tubers are sold everywhere and they can be routinely used, as was done before. What are the benefits of working with seed?

  1. Cheapness. It is not difficult to guess that seeds will cost much less than elite mini-tubers or seedlings. Potatoes for planting good yielding varieties cannot be cheap, since their breeding is a rather long process. In addition, not every gardener is so experienced in his business as to easily distinguish meristem tubers from ordinary ones by sight, and enterprising sellers skillfully use this. You can even come across completely low-quality planting material, several times exceeding the multiplicity of its reproduction from the first elites.
  2. The seeds take up little space. Is there a difference where you can fold several bags of seeds or select a whole cool dark room for storing potato tubers? Moreover, the shelf life of seeds is quite long, which does not impair their germination in any way.
  3. Every gardener knows that plants grown from seeds are always more resistant to diseases and pests than those obtained from ready-made tubers.
  4. A potato bush grown from seed will yield a better crop than a similar bush grown from a tuber. The average weight of one such potato ranges from 80 to 100 grams, not to mention that it will already be an absolutely renewed variety.
  5. Having sown the seeds once, you can get a good harvest of an elite variety for another 6 years, and select tubers for planting for planting in the usual way. For the first time, mini-tubers are obtained from seeds, the next year it is twice a super-elite, then a super-elite variety, in the fourth year it is simply an elite, and in subsequent years there are reproductions, the first of which still retain their best qualities.


Growing potatoes using Dutch technology

How to properly prepare the soil

Even in the autumn, soil preparation begins for spring planting. First, the entire land plot must be plowed well, and then organic additives, mullein, superphosphate (500 grams per one hundred square meters) and potassium salt (200 grams per one hundred square meters) must be added to the soil. Cultivation of the soil is necessary for the complete destruction of the weed root system on the site.

When plowing again in early spring, it is advisable to add urea to the soil (about 500 grams per one hundred square meters).

Cultivation in a small summer cottage can be carried out using a conventional garden fork, and in large garden or farm fields, a disc cultivator must be used. The cultivator - the milling cutter will help to carry out all the difficult physical work: it will not only crush and loosen the ground, but also level it and dig in it.

Selection and preparation of planting potatoes

Seeds for planting must strictly comply with the following requirements:

  • The size is approximately 50 millimeters in diameter.
  • Maximum germination.
  • 100% natural grade.

Planting material must be germinated until the formation of potato sprouts of a certain size. For planting in a summer cottage, the shoots can be five or more millimeters in length, and in the fields, using agricultural machinery, the length of the shoots should not exceed 5 millimeters. Longer branches break off easily during mass planting.

Before planting seeds, you need to make sure the soil is ready. The determination of soil moisture is carried out in a simple way: you need to pick up a handful of earth in your hand, squeeze it tightly, and then throw it. If the soil is ready for planting, then the lump of earth will easily crumble.

In each planting hole, you first need to pour a small amount of onion husks (to scare off potato pests), then a handful of ash, and already on top of the potato tuber upwards.

Planting potatoes using Dutch technology

If you plant potatoes in early spring, then the green part of the bush will grow more actively, and the root part will form potato tubers at an accelerated rate. The distance between potato holes during planting should not be less than 75-90 centimeters. If such proportions are observed, about a thousand potato tubers for varieties of medium and late ripening times and about 700 tubers for early varieties will be required at most per one hundred square meters.


Growing seeds

Seedlings are planted in March, in two months they will be transplanted into the ground. The soil must be fertile, you also need sand, and if it comes from the sandbox, then be sure to calcify it in order to avoid possible further plant diseases. For planting seeds, boxes 10 cm deep are suitable. The seeds should now germinate in a cloth, soaked in Epin for 30-40 minutes. Next, take out the seeds and quickly rinse them under warm water, spread them in a damp cloth for further germination. You do not need to fill the seeds with water, otherwise they will die. Wet a cloth periodically for 5-7 days, after which sprouts should appear. Next, spread them on the soil and cover with a centimeter layer of sand, spray with water, using neither a watering can nor a jet, but even the earth should get wet well. Place the box in a warm and bright place, covered with plastic or glass. After germination of plants, water it regularly and in moderation, do not forget to make a backlight, because if the plants do not have enough light, they will stretch out.

If shoots have already appeared, then it's time to make top dressing with urea at the rate of 10 liters of water 10 g. substances. Drizzle with water at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. After about 40 days, the seedlings will be about 20cm tall. May has come, wait until the 15th or 20th and start planting seedlings in the ground. However, if the cultivation of potatoes from seeds is carried out at a distance of seedlings 15 cm from each other, then the next day you will receive the same minitubers. If the distance is 40cm, then in the fall you can harvest regular potatoes.

For the seedlings to take root well, give them abundant watering for about 10 days. To develop a more root system, you need to cut off the flowers before flowering.

If this method of growing potatoes seemed difficult to you, then there are other methods of growing potatoes, for example, under straw or in a barrel.

If you nevertheless decide to use the method of growing potatoes with tubers, then it is better to use a varietal super-elite potato, which is obtained in the third year of your life by planting a tuber in open ground and selecting from the remaining best tubers. Moreover, note for yourself which potato bushes have not been attacked by pests, since the harvest from such bushes will be the best. Agree that in no store you will be so confident in the quality of potato seeds.

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Growing potatoes from seeds

This is not the most successful way to get a potato crop, but in the case when there is not enough seed, the right decision. The seeds are small and quickly lose their ability to germinate. The next year after harvesting, they will give no more than 50% germination.

Sowing is done in greenhouses or nurseries. Small seeds on wet soil can be easily swatted without burying. After the emergence of shoots, thin out, leaving a distance of 10 cm between them.

Seeds sprout in 10 days, seedlings are planted at the age of two months, usually in mid-May. From such calculations, we determine the time for sowing seeds - the first days of March.

After the establishment of persistent heat, usually on May 15-16, the seedlings are planted in the beds. Further care is carried out in the usual way - hilling, watering, feeding.


Planting and leaving

Small boxes of 10 cm in height are suitable for planting potatoes for seedlings. Some summer residents use plastic cups at home. For these purposes, you can also choose small flower pots.

Landing

In the soil mixture for planting germinated seeds, potatoes make grooves to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm, into which seed material is sown at a distance of 5 cm from each other. The sown seeds are mulched with soil mixture, instead of which sand can also be used. The surface is moistened with a spray.

Until the first shoots of seedlings from seeds appear, the soil mixture is moistened as necessary by means of a sprayer, so that a strong jet of water does not wash the seeds to the surface.

The first shoots can be seen on the 8-10th day. At the stage of appearance of the second row of leaves, a pick is made, if there is a need for a pick. The seedlings that are grown in separate containers are not subject to picking.

For good and uniform illumination of seedlings, containers with it are regularly turned to the sun in different directions or additionally illuminated.

A week after the appearance of the first shoots, potato seedlings require feeding. It is made with ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 1 g per liter of water. Subsequent fertilizing of potato seedlings is carried out until the moment of transplantation into the soil with an interval of 25-30 days.


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