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Bluegrass (Poa) is a herbaceous perennial that belongs to the Cereal family. It tolerates cold temperatures well, can safely withstand frosts, therefore it is widely distributed in regions with a temperate climate. The plant is distinguished by its endurance and unpretentiousness. Bluegrass is used to feed livestock and looks great on lawns. It is popular both in Russia and in Western Europe, on the American and Australian continents.
Description of the plant
The bluegrass has a short main root with adventitious processes. Due to this, perennial shoots actively grow in a horizontal direction and form a dense green carpet. The grass grows in height from 30 cm to 90 cm. Elastic stems grow in a vertical direction and easily regains its shape after being pressed. Bluegrass is soft to the touch. This lawn is very comfortable for relaxation and is popular with picnic fans. The grain begins active growth in early spring, when the snow melts, and can easily adapt to soils with a wide variety of compositions.
Leaves with longitudinal veins grow upward, and are collected in a basal rosette and in some places grow along the stem. The width of a linear sheet plate is not more than 0.5 cm.
The culture blooms in the second or third year after planting in open ground. This occurs in early May and forms new flowers until July. Inflorescences in the form of a soft panicle grow up to 20 cm. From 3 to 5 spikelets consist of oblong grains in hard scales 3-6 mm in size. Their color ranges from yellow to purple.
Types and varieties of bluegrass with a photo
More than 500 varieties of this cereal crop are at the disposal of gardeners. There are several of the most popular types of bluegrass, which are most commonly included in landscaping mixes.
Meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
This species has a developed root system with a vertical rounded stem. With the help of root branches, the cereal grows rather quickly and forms an extensive loose turf. Popular with landscape designers as an affordable and long-lasting lawn grass.
Common bluegrass (Poa trivialis)
Perennial is widespread on the territory of flooded meadows, grows on chernozem soils near water bodies. This variety is rather large. There are grasses over 1 m in height. A plant with a short root and a straight stem, covered with pale green and grayish leaves. Their width reaches 6 cm. From June to July, flowers appear - spreading panicles, whose length is about 20 cm. Small thorns are located on the dense scales covering the spikelet.
Steppe bluegrass (Poa stepposa)
The dense grass carpet consists of stems from 20 cm to 0.5 m high. Numerous leaves are folded. They reach about 1 mm in width. Since June, the tops of the stems are covered with flowering panicles no more than 10 cm long. Olive spikelets are located on short twigs.
Narrow-leaved bluegrass (Poa angustifolia)
This variety has an external resemblance to the meadow bluegrass. Perennial grows well in arid regions of steppes and meadows. It is a plant with dense, linear leaves. Their width is 1-2 mm. When flowering time comes, fluffy panicles open on the rough shoots.
Soft sod consists of stems 10-30 cm thick. Dense rosettes with short, narrow leaves rise from the surface of the soil, which are almost absent on the rest of the plant. A small panicle about 7 cm long appears on a thin stem. In the process of ripening, green and lilac spikelets turn into bulbs. Seeds spread over a large area and can quickly take root, therefore this variety of bluegrass is called "viviparous".
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua)
The life cycle of the annual bluegrass does not exceed 1-2 years. It is found on sands, pebbles and on the side of the road. The shoots are slightly adherent to the soil and reach a height of 5 to 35 cm. The rosette at the base of the stem consists of soft narrow leaves. From May to September, the spikelets continue to bloom and ripen. They are covered with hard scales and long villi. A small number of spikelets form a loose panicle.
Marsh bluegrass (Poa palustris)
This crop grows in length from 15 to 80 cm and prefers forest edges with moist soils. Shoots are composed of thin, pale green leaves that grow densely at the very base of the plant. They are no more than 3 mm wide. During the flowering period, paniculate spikelets with golden scales reach 20 cm.
Planting and growing
For planting and growing meadow bluegrass, the seed method is used. During preparation, you need to determine the germination of the seed. For this purpose, pre-germination of seeds is carried out in a container filled with wet sawdust. The container should be located in a well-lit place where the temperature is maintained at about 20 ° C. After the emergence of seedlings, they are counted and the ratio of germinated seeds to the total number of tested ones is calculated. This makes it easy to calculate a more accurate seed volume for sowing.
Sowing begins in August to create favorable conditions for the development of young shoots. By the beginning of spring, the seedlings become stronger. They can easily withstand temperature extremes.
Before sowing, the soil is prepared. The soil is dug up to 15 cm deep and leveled, cleaned of weeds and pebbles. You should get a soil of a uniform consistency. The optimal conditions for growing meadow bluegrass are fertile loams with neutral acidity or alkaline sandy loam soils. If the soil is heavy, it is supplemented with sand and lime. The land should not be saline.
The seed must be soaked for a day. The water should be warm. One hundred square meters of lawn require up to 2.5 kg. After sowing, the first feeding should be done using mineral complexes that are rich in nitrogen and potassium. The entire period, until the first shoots appear, the earth must be regularly moistened.
Throughout the first year, bluegrass requires special care. The lawn must not be allowed to dry out. Watering should be done every few days, and in dry weather - every day. It is recommended to cultivate the soil by sprinkling. It is necessary to control that the formed sod layer is uniform.
For lawns with meadow bluegrass, it is advisable to choose open, well-lit lawns. Creeping roots actively fill ungrown areas on the lawn, forming a dense green carpet. In shaded areas, plants begin to slow down, resulting in a looser sod. It is possible to stimulate the development of perennials with the help of nitrogen fertilizers.
The lawn will have an even grass cover and a more attractive appearance if it is cut in a timely manner. This procedure must be performed at least 2-4 times during the month. At the same time, the height of the stems must be kept at least 5-8 cm. This cereal crop is characterized by a high growth rate, due to which, after mowing the lawn, a very active restoration of the grass cover of the green area occurs.
Meadow bluegrass in landscape design is especially appreciated for the fact that even after picnics and outdoor activities in the sown glades, it quickly returns to its shape and actively grows in areas of bald patches. Such a lawn cannot be damaged by playing football, cycling or riding a car. After a short period of time, the lawn will regain its attractiveness and freshness.
Gardeners actively use this cereal crop, because it is particularly resistant to many diseases and pests, from which other types of herbs often suffer. Growing in areas with flooded soils, bluegrass stems are not susceptible to diseases caused by fungi.
Bluegrass or fescue, the difference is only in decorativeness? The answer is here!
Meadow bluegrass looks great on home gardens, ornamental lawns and lawns in combination with other types of plants. Since it is a relatively aggressive cereal crop, you need to carefully select the herbs and flowers next to which the bluegrass will plant.
Weed control lawn: which grass is better?
Lawns are laid out not only to decorate the garden and the local area, but also to fight weeds like hogweed. Lawn grass (a mixture of herbs) will help to get velvety, uniform in height, pleasant to the eye greens, which grow quickly after mowing.
Of course, it is difficult to buy a particular type of grass in stores - a mixture of lawn grass seeds is usually sold, but the composition of the lawn mixture in percent is indicated on the package, and the composition can be used to judge the future characteristics of the lawn, because each grass has its own character. Lawn grasses have only one thing in common: quick regrowth after mowing and uniform growth.
Not every cereal is suitable for a lawn, although there are a lot of cereal grasses. Plants should be resistant to trampling, grow back quickly after shearing, be drought-resistant and cold-resistant, put up with the shade. Often seeds of flax, poppy, cornflowers are added to a mixture of cereal grasses - such lawn mixtures are even more attractive and tender.
Meadow bluegrass forms a dense, leveled grass stand due to creeping rhizomes, independently fills in lunges on the lawn, forming a dense and durable sod with continuous sowing. Leaves of meadow bluegrass are linear, from dark to light green.
Meadow bluegrass is moisture-loving, easily tolerates severe winters, is resistant to trampling, grows best on fertile, sufficiently aerated soils.
When sowing in autumn, meadow bluegrass shoots in 10 days. The lawn is fully formed the next year, grows slowly, is undersized, does not require frequent mowing. Life expectancy with regular care -
Angustifolia bluegrass differs from meadow bluegrass in narrow and elongated leaves. Drought-resistant, but without watering it loses its decorative effect. Winters well. Forms an elastic and durable sod, grows slowly.
Narrow-leaved bluegrass is very responsive to watering and fertilization. The rest is similar to meadow bluegrass.
Bent bent has dense, short, graceful, green leaves, wide and short, thin creeping rhizomes. Forms a very elastic and fairly durable sod.
The slender bent loves to grow on rich soils, but it can grow on poor soils. Loves moisture. Winters well. The bald spots fills on its own, but slowly. When sown at the end of August, seedlings appear on
Pole grass shoots forms shoots that creep along the soil surface and take root in nodes, thanks to which lawns are repaired on their own. The leaves are short, light green. Forms a short, soft, but dense herbage. Winters well. Propagated by seeds and creeping shoots.
Pasture ryegrass Is a fast-growing, perennial loose-shrub lawn grass. The leaves are tender, dark or bright green, shiny on the underside. Lawn lunges do not fill in on their own.Pasture ryegrass is decorative, but the lawn is short-lived. Photo: Paulo Lanzetta
Perennial ryegrass grows well on rich loamy soils. Loves moisture. With autumn sowing, ryegrass shoots appear on the ... Then the lawn is decorative and thins and dies off. Suitable for grass, quickly forming a decorative effect, as well as for creating short-lived lawns.
Red fescue forms a dense herbage, thicker than bluegrass, despite the fact that it has a rhizome system like bluegrass. The leaves of red fescue are grooved, from bluish-green to dark green.
Fescue creates a leveled grass stand. Fills bald spots well. Forms a durable sod. It grows well on loamy and sandy loam soils, but develops better on light soils.
Red fescue is moisture-loving, but tolerates drought satisfactorily. The growth rate is average. When sown in the fall, seedlings appear on the lifespan of fescue in the lawn up to 8 years.
Regel's fescue has green or dark green leaves and short rhizomes. Tolerates weak soil salinity and insufficient illumination. It is moisture-loving, but tolerates drought well. After prolonged drying, decorativeness is restored completely. The lunges on the lawn fills in, but slowly. Winter hardiness.
Regel's fescue can live in a lawn for up to 20 years. Photo: chalksteppe.org
When sown in early September, seedlings appear on the Growth rate when seedlings appear average, in mature individuals - high. Frequent lawn mowing is required. Regel's fescue is weed-resistant. Life expectancy in the lawn
Reed fescue - loose shrub grass, forming a dense turf. Reed fescue grows rapidly with the arrival of spring and grows well after mowing. It is undemanding to soils, but it grows better on fertile loams, drained peatlands. Winter-hardy and moisture-loving. The lifespan of reed fescue in the lawn is 20 years.
Rock fescue forms a dense turf, but does not fill the lunges on its own. The leaves are folded longitudinally, green, in summer they acquire a bluish tint. It grows in various soils, but better on fertile soils. Drought tolerant.
With good care, rock fescue forms a continuous and tender grass stand. The plant is winter hardy. Resistant to trampling. When seedlings appear, the growth rate is medium, then low. The herbage is undersized. Life expectancy in the lawn more than 20 years.
Meadow timothy can withstand flooding of the site. Photo: freenatureimages.eu
Timothy grass - loose shrub, forms a good sod. The grass is winter-hardy, moisture-loving, withstands flooding up to 30 days.
Timothy grass is sensitive to drought and shade. It grows better on loamy and clayey soils, poorly tolerates sandy soils, and develops satisfactorily on drained bogs. Leaves are linear, dark green. Life expectancy in the lawn up to 10 years.
CLASSIFICATION OF LAWN HERBS
The composition of the grass stand is of decisive importance in the creation of long-term, highly decorative, sod coverings resistant to adverse environmental factors. The basis of any lawn is grasses. They are characterized by intense tillering, a fibrous type of root system, the ability to tolerate mowing, and high adaptability to growing conditions. All this allows you to get a high-quality lawn grass stand.
Classification of lawn grasses according to their lifespan. In the first year of life annual herbs go through a full development cycle from seed to seed. After the seeds ripen, all aboveground and underground parts of these plants die off. These include species such as annual ryegrass, annual bluegrass, etc.
Biennial herbs in the first growing season, only vegetative organs form - roots, stems, leaves, in the second year of life - fruiting shoots, on which flowers and fruits develop. After the seeds ripen, biennial plants die off completely. These include multiflorous ryegrass, hop alfalfa, etc.
Fruiting shoots perennial herbs in the year of development they die off, but at their base buds are formed, from which new shoots grow in the same or next year. The root system of plants also develops over the years due to the vegetative renewal of roots and rhizomes. Examples: red fescue, bent grass, meadow bluegrass, perennial ryegrass.
Classification of lawn grasses by height in herbage. Grasses occupy three tiers in height in complex grass stands. TO riding grasses include high ryegrass, awnless bonfire, hedgehog team, narrow-spiked wheatgrass, meadow foxtail, creeping wheatgrass, awnless rump, timothy grass, etc. These are light-loving herbs with the highest (up to 1.5 m) shoots located in the upper tier. They have coarse shoots and leaves, tiller poorly, do not tolerate frequent and low mowing. Can be used for turfing areas prone to erosion, meadow lawns, etc.
Grassland occupy the lower layer in the grass stand (up to 0.7 m). These include: meadow bluegrass, red fescue, common bent, white bent, shoot bent, fine bent, common bent. These grasses form a large number of thin vegetative shoots with narrow leaves, after mowing they strongly bush, forming many shortened shoots. Compared to riding grasses, they have significantly fewer generative shoots. Resistant to trampling, creates a dense and dense lawn.
Semi-upper grasses occupy an intermediate position between upstream and downstream and form a second tier in grass mixtures. They have high generative shoots (0.7-1 m) and many shortened vegetative shoots. Form a bush of medium density. They tolerate mowing well, grow back quickly and tiller well.
Classification of lawn grasses by the type of tillering. Of decisive importance for the formation of a sod cover is such a property of cereal grasses as tillering (the nature of shoots). The classification on this basis was developed in the most detail by A.A. Laptev (1983) 1. By the type of tillering, rhizome, rhizome-bush, loose bush, turf (dense bush) and stolon-forming (with creeping aerial shoots) cereals are distinguished.
Rhizome herbs have a tillering node, which lies at a depth of 5 cm or more underground. New underground shoots develop horizontally below the soil surface, sometimes forming several underground nodes. At some distance from the tillering node, the underground stem bends abruptly upward, rises to the soil surface and forms a new above-ground shoot there, which takes root and, in turn, forms new underground shoots-rhizomes. Such plants bloom and produce seeds. Due to constant vegetative propagation due to the growth of new rhizomes, these cereals, under favorable conditions, can maintain their herbage for decades. Bush weakly, creating an even but not dense cover, can fill the gaps between bush varieties. Rhizome lawn grasses include awnless rump, creeping wheatgrass, fragrant bison, etc.
Rhizome-loose shrubs cereal grasses, like rhizome grasses, form underground shoots (rhizomes) of different lengths at a depth of 8 cm. From the underground part, which bends upwards and gives a rosette at the bend, new plants develop, which bush like loose shrubs. From the buds located in the axils of the leaves, rhizomes of the second and subsequent orders are formed, which also form rosette areas at the bend. Since the plants form a system of rosette shoots of a bushy nature, interconnected by rhizomes of different lengths, underground shoots evenly and densely populate the soil surface, at the same time forming a dense, durable sod in the underground part. They are distinguished by slow growth, but, starting from the third or fourth year, they occupy a dominant position, providing stability and longevity to the lawn grass. Plants of this group most fully meet the requirements for lawns of high
A.A. Laptev Lawns. - Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983.
high quality. They bush well, and frequent mowing promotes the growth of shoots and the creation of a dense grass cover. This group includes: meadow bluegrass, red fescue, common bent, etc.
Loose shrubs turf grasses form a tillering node, which lies shallowly in the soil. The stem comes out to the soil surface at a short distance from the tillering node, rising at an acute angle upward. In the soil, this stem forms a new tillering node, on which the bud is formed again. The buds develop new shoots, which also come to the surface of the soil at a short distance from the old ones. Under the ground, only one tillering node is formed at the shoot of loose bush cereals, and underground shoots, as in rhizome cereals, do not develop. A friable bush is formed above the ground, consisting of a large number of shoots. Loose-shrub grasses include: meadow fescue, perennial ryegrass, multiflorous and annual, wheatgrass, common comb, rootless wheatgrass, etc. Loose-shrub grasses do not form dense turf, but the herbage can be sufficiently and evenly closed. These grasses reproduce only by seeds, therefore they do not form strong sod. In lawn grass stands, they are short-lived and play the role of a temporary dominant.
Turf, or dense bush, grasses form a tillering node on the soil surface. The new shoot developing from the bud is tightly pressed against the old shoot. The roots of the new shoot develop at the same time. Such plants look like a dense bush, inside which there are old, dying parts, and along the edges - the youngest. Dense bush herbs include: sheep fescue, furrowed fescue (fescue), some varieties of red fescue, etc. Dense bush herbs bush well, but with further growth they form tussocks. They form a very dense, powerful sod, interfering with the normal growth of other grasses, therefore, they are rarely used when arranging lawns, only in those cases when, due to arid conditions, other grasses cannot grow.
Stolon-forming cereal grasses are distinguished by the fact that above-ground shoots, pressed to the ground, radially depart from the tillering zone. At the nodes, these shoots take root and form a rosette of leaves and vertical shoots. Forms a sod of medium density. This group includes the bent bent, finger-bent pork, etc.
Classification of lawn grasses by type of development. There are winter, spring and semi-winter cereals.
Spring cereals form generative shoots in the year of sowing, winter cereals - after overwintering, semi-winter cereals can go through a period of vernalization under conditions of spring temperatures.
Classification of perennial lawn grasses by durability. By
the duration of the life cycle of lawn grasses are divided into long-term, short-term and transitional.
The most long-lived are those types of grasses that slowly develop from seed germination to flowering (red fescue, meadow bluegrass, common bent, etc.).
Fast-growing herbs are less long-lived. These are multiflorous and pasture ryegrass, wheatgrass, rootless wheatgrass, common comb grass, etc. Indirectly, longevity can be judged by the rate of development of a cereal plant: the longest-lived cereals reach full development in the third or fourth year.
Thus, for parterre lawns, long-term lower rhizome-loose bush and loose bush turf grasses will be most suitable.
For ordinary garden and park lawns, lower and some semi-upper loose and rhizome species are also suitable (meadow fescue, perennial ryegrass, common comb grass, rootless wheatgrass, meadow foxtail, wheat grass, etc.).
Types of grasses that form excellent quality herbage. Red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) belongs to the grassroots perennial grains. Forms a strong elastic turf and a beautiful dark green, dense, thin and even grass stand, a powerful, highly branched, densely fibrous root system, which, growing obliquely to the sides and down, densely penetrates the soil and holds it well. Individual roots penetrate into the soil to a depth of more than 125 cm, while the bulk of the roots extends to a depth of 12–20 cm. In the upper horizon of the soil, numerous short rhizomes grow, from which new shoots with an independent root system are formed. In the first year of life, it grows very slowly, it reaches good development in the second year of the growing season, and full development in the third or fourth year. After mowing, it grows back well and evenly. Red fescue has the ability to quickly restore herbage after mechanical damage. The growth rate is average, the development in crops is relatively slow, which is a sign of its longevity. Mixed renewal of shoots is characteristic of red fescue. It is distinguished by a high vigor of shoots, a dense grass stand in parterre lawns is formed by the end of the first year of the growing season - by 1 dm 2 151 shoots, by the end of the second - 188 and by the end of the third - 255. In shaded park lawns, the grass stand is more sparse, but rather close - per 1 dm 2 79 shoots in the first year of life and 112 - in the second. It can grow on all soils except very dry and heavy soils. Differs in high frost resistance and resistance to spring frosts, quite hardy, but suffers from prolonged drought. It should be noted that red fescue is highly resistant to rust and powdery mildew. It is one of the best grasses for creating first-class, resilient lawns for various purposes in many soil and climatic conditions. Red fescue has three varieties: rhizome-loose, loose and dense. For lawns, the first two forms are most valuable.
Variegated fescue (Festuca heterophylla L.) - perennial perennial rhizome-loose grass grass. In the first year, forms a dense basal rosette. Leaves are dark green, thin, narrow. It grows in early spring and goes under the snow with green leaves. Forms a powerful fibrous root system. Grows back well after mowing. It is resistant to frost, trampling and shading.
Meadow bluegrass (Roa pratensis L.) - a valuable perennial cereal crop for highly decorative lawns for any purpose. It is a perennial lower rhizome or rhizome-loose-leaf winter cereal. Forms an even, firm turf and a beautiful dense, intense green uniform herbage. The root system penetrates quite deeply into the soil, although the bulk of the roots is located in the upper layer ( Fig. 299). Generative shoots are straight, thin, high (50-70 cm). The plant produces many shortened vegetative shoots. Numerous rhizomes form a significant number of offspring around the mother plant, developing new shoots with independent root systems, their roots branching well and firmly strengthening the upper soil horizons. There are many leaves, both in basal and vegetative shoots. They are dark green, glossy. Leaf width 1-4 mm, length 20-30 cm. In the year of sowing, bluegrass grows slowly, developing mainly the root system. The first single shoots appear on the 12-14th day, mass - a month after sowing. Tillering occurs 3 weeks after germination. Reaches full development in the third or fourth year of life. It starts to grow in early spring. In autumn, it stops growing late, goes green under the snow. The plant is durable. Under favorable conditions, it is well preserved in grass stands, 10-15 years or more. Undemanding to climatic conditions. It perfectly withstands severe winters and late frosts, and is quite drought-resistant. During a long summer drought, it can burn. Shade tolerance is insufficient. Meadow bluegrass tolerates soil compaction better than other grasses. It tolerates mowing well. It grows on various soils, but prefers humus-rich, sufficiently moist and non-acidic. Bluegrass resists well the introduction of other plant species, eventually occupying a dominant position in the herbage.
Common bent, or thin bent (Agrostis tenuis L.). Perennial lower rhizome-loose cereal. Leaves are thin, narrow-linear, up to 3 mm wide, forming a dense, even grass stand. The plant forms a significant number of thin shortened vegetative shoots, which are abundantly leafy along the entire length. It starts growing late, but turns green under the snow. The root system is well developed and forms a firm sod. Under favorable conditions, seedlings appear on the 9-14th day, tillering occurs a month after the emergence of seedlings. In the first year of life, it grows slowly, reaching full development in the second or third year after sowing the seeds. The plant is shade-tolerant, frost-resistant, tolerates short-term stagnation of water. It is unpretentious to the soil, it can grow on various soils, including poor peatlands and acidic soils, even on saline meadows. Reacts well to fertilization and irrigation. Highly resistant to trampling. Mowing tolerates well, grows evenly and not very quickly.
Perennial ryegrass, or perennial ryegrass, or English ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) - perennial semi-upper loose shrub winter cereal (SP Fig. 300). In the first year after sowing the seeds, it forms a dense, intensely green, brightly shiny beautiful lawn. The root system is powerful, fibrous, highly branched, penetrates deeply into the soil, holding it together and forming a sod of medium strength. Generative stems are erect or elbow-ascending, not very thin, well leafy in the lower part. In addition, perennial ryegrass forms numerous shortened, abundantly leafy vegetative shoots. A significant number of leaves are concentrated on shortened vegetative shoots at a height of 10-18 cm from the soil surface, which is important when creating lawns, which are often mowed low. The leaves are dark green, intense green below, bright, shiny, 8-17 cm long, 1-5 mm wide. Blooms in June. The seeds ripen in July. After mowing, it grows back quickly, evenly, retaining its decorative effect until late autumn. Under the snow goes green. The plant tolerates moderate shade, trampling and compaction of the soil, quickly recovers from mechanical damage. Pasture ryegrass is sensitive to winter frosts and late spring frosts. In frosty winters without snow, it often freezes, forming bald patches in the grass stand, sometimes completely freezes. Recently, however, varieties have appeared that are characterized by increased winter hardiness. Life expectancy in the herbage is about 5 years. Due to the rapid development in the first year, perennial ryegrass is considered one of the best types of lawn grasses after red fescue, some species of bent grass and meadow bluegrass, although it is inferior to them in terms of sod strength and the formed lawn carpet.
Grasses of good quality
Sheep fescue (Festuca ovina L.) - perennial dense bushy grassland. Differs in slower growth compared to other types of fescue. Frost and drought resistant. Develops a powerful fibrous root system. In winter, 45-50% of young shoots are kept green under snow. Leaves are bright or dark green, sometimes with a bluish tint, cylindrical, numerous, basal, collected on strongly shortened vegetative shoots. Forms a dense herbage. Grows back well after mowing. With frequent low mowing, forms a dense, continuous carpet of gray color (like blue spruces). Disease resistance and shade tolerance are high. Seeds remain viable for 2-3 years. Seedlings appear on the 10-12th day, tillering begins in 30 days. Reaches full development in the 2-3rd year. A very unpretentious plant, suitable for poor soils, requires less fertilization compared to red fescue, can grow on clean sands. It is preserved in cultivated herbage for more than 10 years.
Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) - semi-upper loose-shrub winter cereal. Forms a well-developed root system, tillering well, actively growing back after mowing.
Furrowed fescue or fescue (Festuca sulcata Hack.) - perennial turf grass. Possesses high frost and drought resistance. Forms a dense, multi-stemmed bush. Folded or folded leaves with two grooves. Differs in slow growth.
Common bluegrass (Roa trivalis L.) - has several forms, differing in structural features. Perennial rhizome grassland grassland. Develops numerous, compactly located shoots. Generative shoots up to 1 m tall. Leaves are linear-pointed, flat, 4 mm wide. Reaches full development in the second year. It remains in the herbage for 5-7 years. Resistant to trampling and shading, but susceptible to drought. Has a superficial root system.
Flattened bluegrass (Roa compressa L.) - long-term lower rhizome cereal. It has numerous flattened stems up to 50 cm high, the leaves are narrow-linear, greenish-gray. Panicles 10-14 cm long, spikelets 2-8-flowered, greenish or brown-violet. Withstands high temperatures, sunshine, drought-resistant. Differs in slow development.
Multi-cut ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) - semi-upper
loose cereal. Possesses weak winter hardiness. In lawns
herbage lasts up to three years.
- 1. List the main features of rhizome-bush type of tillering cereals.
- 2. What cereals belong to the dense bush type of tillering?
- 3. What are the features of the formation of cereals with loose bush type of tillering?
- 4. What are the characteristics of cereals with creeping aerial shoots?
- 5. Give a brief ecological and biological characteristics of meadow bluegrass.
How to choose grass for your garden lawn
The biggest mistake is buying the first grass you see for your lawn. So you can easily be disappointed, because each type of lawn has its own purpose, its own recommendations for sowing and care. Therefore, first of all, you need to figure out what and where you want to plant.
For central Russia, it is worth choosing a grass, which includes field bluegrass, bent grass, fescue and ryegas. This is the most standard composition that does not require special care, does not need special soil and easily tolerates frost.
The cereals that form the basis of standard lawn grass:
- Meadow bluegrass. The grass begins to grow fully only in the third year after planting. It recovers easily after mowing and is the first to grow green in the spring. Resistant to trampling.
- Meadow fescue. A very susceptible herb. She will save the lawn while the meadow bluegrass is strengthening. Forms a grass carpet perfectly already in the first year after planting. By the 4th year it is completely replaced by other lawn components. Dislikes frequent mowing.
- Red fescue. Shows all its beauty only in the second year after planting. It tolerates both shade and sun well.
- The bent field is thin. An unpretentious grass that will repel any weed. In the first year, it grows very slowly. The last one rises in the spring. Loves mowing, which gives her an additional impetus to active growth.
- Raigas is pasture. Tough, dark grass that grows quickly and tolerates trampling. Pleases with its color before the onset of frost.
These five grasses are found in every lawn grass. Producers only change the amount of seed occurrences depending on the desired result. Therefore, further it is necessary to decide what is expected on a particular piece of land.
- The parterre lawn is suitable for flat areas with fertile soil. It is not planned to walk on such areas, more often these are places under the windows. The composition contains more white bent and meadow fescue.
- Versatile lawn. Suitable for "heavy" ground near garden paths, near a fence. At the base there is more ryegas, red fescue, meadow bluegrass. It is adapted to external influences, requires constant haircuts.
- Sports lawn. It is based on more ryegas, meadow fescue. The grass is suitable for picnics, walks with animals, children's games. The coating is tough, but easily tolerates any impact.
- A lawn for sunny places. It is more reed and red fescue. Salat on open areas where it is impossible to arrange a shade or curtain.
- Shady lawn. It is dominated by ryegas, red fescue and bent grass.
What kind of lawn does your site need?
Lawn types: what are they?
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Now it is difficult to imagine city parks or private areas without open lawns - lawns. Like many European ideas, the arrangement of large areas of the lawn took root in Russia during the reign of Peter the Great. So in 1715 an order was issued in Peterhof ". very low, wet places, also where the roots of the trees are hummocky. fill it with dug clay with sand, which is taken from the road. Where it will be poured, sow oats here in the spring, and when it spikes, mow it.".
The laid lawns can be observed not only in Peterhof, but also in many Russian estates of Muranovo, Abramtsevo, Arkhangelskoye and others.
In 1896 A. Regel in his book "Graceful Gardening and Artistic Gardens" wrote in detail about the great architectural and artistic significance of lawns: "The lawn occupies a particularly prominent place in every garden, of whatever style and order - much more prominent than water and roads. In Russia, they do not yet realize this: here, in addition to utilitarian goals, they often require only one thing from the garden - coolness in the summer heat and therefore shade the garden as much as possible this is a gross mistake: in the picture of the garden, lawns form light, and bushes and trees form shadows, so a garden without a lawn is as absurd as a picture without light ".
So what is a lawn and what is it like? A lawn is a specially arranged, leveled area of soil, sown with cereal plants that form a sod (a layer of grass roots intertwined with each other).
There are several types of lawns: sports, decorative, special purpose lawns.
Sports lawns are used in stadiums, hippodromes and other sports grounds. For their device, the varieties and types of herbs that are most resistant to trampling and compaction are selected - perennial ryegrass, timothy grass, bluegrass, fescue. At the same time, it must be remembered that what hardy plants are not used, the lawn will be able to withstand only a certain load, in comparison with artificial turf.
Lawns for special purposes are required at airfields, highways and railways slopes, hydraulic engineering and other structures.
The most common type of lawn is decorative lawns, they decorate gardens, parks and boulevards of cities, suburban areas and squares. Depending on the location and composition of growing herbs, they can be divided into several types.
The most decorative type of lawns is parterre lawns. They are created in the main parts of the architectural composition of the garden, near fountains, sculptural groups, decorative ponds, in the front part of the garden. The grasses of parterre lawns should be long-term and, from early spring to late autumn, form a low, dense, uniformly closed herbage of one-color bright green color. These requirements are met by perennial low-growing cereal grasses with thin stems, narrow leaves, high tillering intensity - red fescue, meadow bluegrass, common bent. Meadow and sheep fescue, as well as white bent fescue are less suitable. You can sow a mixture of grass from species that have a completely uniform texture and color of the bush, which creates a uniform green carpet as a result of joint growth.
The next type of lawn is garden and park lawns. They can already be physically disturbed compared to parterre lawns. They are distinguished by decorativeness, longevity, drought resistance, shade tolerance and resistance to mechanical damage. Some types of grasses used for parterre lawns are suitable for the device of garden and park lawns - red fescue, field grass. In addition, depending on the specific soil and climatic conditions, bluegrass and forest, sheep's fescue, furrowed, oriental, perennial ryegrass, wheatgrass without roots, common comb, etc. can be used.
The third type of lawn is meadow lawns. They are created by over-sowing grass mixtures and surface treatment of sod in the existing herbage. Meadow lawns can be represented by forbs. It is advisable to include in the composition of grass mixtures such leguminous grasses as horned grass, red, white and hybrid clover, blue, yellow and hop alfalfa, sainfoin, etc. As a result, you can get beautifully flowering meadows and lawns.
There is also a Moorish type of lawn. They create it in place of both parterre and ordinary garden and park lawns, sowing flower plants or a mixture of herbs and flower plants. Most often, poppy, cornflower, gypsophila, nemesia, marigold, flax, escholzia and other plants are used for this. The Moorish lawn can be represented by both annual and perennial grasses.
Meadow bluegrass (Poa pratensis)
Family Cereals - Poaceae Meadow grass is common in the temperate northern zone. Basal leaves of the main shoot and leaves of vegetative shoots are abundant, dark green, more or less folded along, with a prominent midrib, smooth or rough in the upper part, shortly pointed, narrowly linear. The width of the leaves reaches 4 mm, the tongue is obtuse, 0.5-2 mm in length. Generative shoots are straight, smooth, 10-15 cm high. The panicle is compressed before and after flowering, during flowering - wide-pyramidal, up to 20 cm in length. Spikelets congested greenish, elongated-elliptical. Large-scale wholesale trade in seeds of agricultural plants and products for agricultural enterprises
At the base of the fetus there is a tuft of numerous whitish hairs. This is a typical mesophyte, but it is also adapted to exist in conditions with less moisture supply. Prefers moderately moist, sufficiently fertile, aerated sandy loam and loamy soils. It grows well on more fertile varieties of peat soils.
Meadow bluegrass can withstand prolonged flooding by melt water. It grows better when groundwater is at a depth of 0.5-1.0 m. It has a negative attitude to soil salinity. Very sensitive to soil acidity. Grows best in lime-rich soils.
To a large extent susceptible to diseases of powdery mildew and rust.
It is undemanding to temperature conditions, but during the heat, long summer drought, plants can burn without watering. It is characterized by high winter hardiness. Perfectly withstands severe winters and frosts during the growing season.
Meadow bluegrass is a perennial grassland. Due to its biological characteristics, meadow bluegrass forms and stably preserves high quality grassy coverings with dense, intense green grass and firm sod.
Meadow bluegrass stops growing in late autumn, much later than other lawn grasses, and turns green under the snow.
Differs in durability. Under favorable conditions, it grows in artificial grass stands for several decades. The grass stand of meadow bluegrass is resistant to trampling.
The grass stand of meadow bluegrass does not tolerate soil drought well, but the rhizomes are very viable, therefore, it is not necessary to resell the lawns under these conditions: with the resumption of irrigation, the herbage grows.