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For lovers of hot exotic: grow hot peppers in the garden and at home

 For lovers of hot exotic: grow hot peppers in the garden and at home


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It is not easy for a novice gardener to grow sweet peppers, and hot peppers are doubly so. And although they belong to the same species, hot pepper is more capricious and whimsical. But nothing is impossible and we will help you solve this problem.

Types of hot peppers

Spicy (bitter, pungent) and sweet peppers belong to the same culture Capsicum annuum L. In the State Register, spicy varieties are separated into a separate group. In most countries of the world where hot peppers are more popular, these varieties are called Chile. To compare them in severity, the so-called Scoville pungency scale was even developed, named after the American chemist Wilbur Scoville. Scoville Scale Units (ECU) indicate the content of capsaicin in fruits, which gives them a burning taste. This substance is used in medicine for the preparation of plasters, alcohol tinctures, ointments. And also capsaicin is used in gas cartridges and revolvers.

In order to get a rough idea of ​​the ECU, we give the following examples:

  • sweet bell pepper has 0 ECU;
  • Tabasco sauce - 5000;
  • jalapeno pepper - 8000;
  • hot Thai pepper - 50-100 thousand;
  • Jamaican hot pepper - 100-200 thousand

Basically, the selection of super-sharp varieties of pepper is fond of in the countries of South and Central America, in Spain, Great Britain. To date, cultivars have been obtained whose pungency exceeds 1 million ECU, and the record holder from South Carolina, the Carolina Reaper pepper, has gained 1,569,300 - 2,200,000 units.

Carolina Reaper - the hottest pepper in the world

In our country, they do not yet attach such importance and attention to the cultivation of sharp varieties and the pungency according to the Scoville scale is not determined. Therefore, information from the descriptions of the State Register is not enough to compare our varieties with those described above. There is also no information about the possibility of their cultivation in the conditions of Russia. All varieties presented in the State Register are intended for growing in open ground, under a film shelter and in greenhouses. Some of them are also used by gardeners for growing at home on a windowsill or on a balcony.

Table: some popular hot peppers

VarietyRipening termsProductivity, kg / m2Fruit weight, gTaste
Varieties for open and closed ground
Astrakhan 147Mid-early312—24Very hot
Mother-in-law tongue2,5—3,240—45Acute
Eagle clawMid-season4,0—4,255—65
Miracle of the Moscow regionEarly ripe3,6—3,936,5Semi-sharp
GorgonNo information20—25Acute
Home varieties
Indian summerEarly ripeNo information5Acute
BrideMid-season200 g from a bush7
Flashlight (Bell)2 kg per bush50Semi-sharp
Fire3,820Acute

Photo Gallery: Some Popular Hot Peppers

Growing hot pepper seedlings

In Russia, hot peppers are grown exclusively by seedlings, since the growing season is quite long.

Calculation of the timing of sowing seeds for seedlings

The timing of sowing seeds depends on two factors:

  • The optimal age of the seedlings is from the moment of emergence of full shoots to transplantation into the ground (open or closed). Sometimes manufacturers indicate this indicator on the packaging of seeds, but if this is not the case, then they adhere to the following relationship:
    • for early varieties, the age of seedlings is chosen within 50-60 days;
    • for mid-ripening - 55-65 days;
    • the later ones are planted at the age of 65-75 days.
  • The timing of planting seedlings in the ground, taken for specific territories, depending on climatic conditions.

Table: timing of planting hot pepper seedlings, depending on the region of cultivation

RegionTiming of planting in the ground
closedopen
Siberia and the UralsMay 5-10June 10-20
The northern part of the middle zone, including the Moscow regionMay 1-5June 10-15
Southern part of the middle laneApril 10-20May 5-15
Southern regionsMarch 1-5April 15-20

In order to calculate the sowing time, the number of days that will be needed to obtain full shoots are added to the optimal age of seedlings for a particular variety (it is the same for all varieties and is 10-15 days). For example, for late varieties it turns out (65-75) + (10-15) = 75-90 days. Then, by counting down from the timing of transplantation in a specific region, the optimal timing of sowing seeds for seedlings is found. For example, for the closed ground of Siberia in our case it will turn out (May 5-10) - (75-90) = February 10-25.

How to germinate hot pepper seeds

Any seeds have a certain percentage of germination, which for peppers is usually 65-85% (within the established shelf life of 3-5 years). Therefore, if the gardener wants to get guaranteed shoots in each pot or peat tablet, then before sowing the seeds can be germinated until they hatch. They do it like this:

  1. The seeds are calibrated by dipping them into a glass of salted water. After 15-20 minutes, the emerging seeds are discarded, and those that have sunk to the bottom are left for sowing.

    The floating seeds are discarded, and those that have sunk to the bottom are used for sowing.

  2. In order to prevent fungal diseases, the seeds are disinfected by immersion for 10-15 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate), and then washed in running water.

    For the purpose of prevention, the seeds are disinfected by immersion for 10-15 minutes in a pink solution of potassium permanganate

  3. The prepared seeds are laid out on well-moistened cotton pads, laid out on a plate or in a container.

    The prepared seeds are laid out on well-moistened cotton pads, laid out on a plate or in a container.

  4. The plate is placed in a bag and placed in a warm place (+ 25-28 ° C), for example, on a radiator.
  5. Every day, the bag is opened for airing and, if necessary, the seeds are sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle.
  6. When the seeds hatch and white roots appear from them, they are sown in a prepared substrate.

    When the seeds hatch and white roots appear from them, then they are sown in a prepared substrate

Seedling soil

It is better to grow seedlings of hot pepper immediately in individual peat (plastic) glasses with a volume of 0.3-0.5 liters or in peat tablets with a diameter of 40-50 mm. It is easiest to fill the glasses with ready-made soil mixture from the store, but if you wish, it is easy to prepare it yourself.

The easiest way to buy soil for pepper seedlings is in a store.

This should be done in the fall by mixing the following components (this is a composition for an example, there may be other options):

  • peat - 1 part;
  • sand - 1 part;
  • humus - 2 parts;
  • sod land - 2 parts.

The acidity of the soil should be in the range of pH 6-7, which can be checked with litmus paper. It is advisable to disinfect the self-prepared soil by calcining in the oven at a temperature of + 120-150 ° C or treat it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.

Sowing

Before sowing, the soil in the glasses is moistened, then 1-2 seeds are placed in them and sprinkled with a layer of peat or humus 0.5 cm thick. Crops are moistened with a spray bottle and placed in a warm (+ 25-28 ° C) and dark place until shoots appear. At this time, it is better to cover them with a film to create a greenhouse effect. After sprouting, the film is removed and the containers are moved to a bright place with room temperature, for example, on a windowsill.

When and how to dive hot pepper and whether it is necessary

In general, pepper does not like transplants and picks, especially those associated with root injury. But if initially it was planted in a container of insufficient volume, then after the formation of two or three true leaves on the seedlings, the seedlings dive into large containers by transferring them with a lump of earth. In this case, the plants should remain at the same level as they grew before - the pepper does not like deepening. Plants planted in peat tablets are transplanted into large pots along with tablets, after removing the mesh from them.

When diving, the plants should remain at the same level as they grew before - the pepper does not like deepening

Seedling care

Pepper seedlings need simple, but constant and regular care.

Lighting up

Since the daylight hours in winter and early spring are too short, and the days are often cloudy, the seedlings must be supplemented for normal development. For this, lamps are used, equipped with fluorescent lamps, "housekeepers" or special LED phytolamps that emit light of the spectrum necessary for plants.... Starting from the moment of emergence, plants need to create a daylight hours lasting 12-14 hours. If this is not done, the stems will stretch out, become stunted and die.

Starting from the moment of emergence, plants need to create a daylight hours lasting 12-14 hours

Watering

Tap water should not be used for watering seedlings due to the chlorine content in it, which is dangerous for small seedlings. Better to use melt, rain or bottled water. If this is not possible, then use tap water, letting it settle for 2-3 days beforehand. The frequency of irrigation and the rate of water consumption are chosen so that the soil does not dry out deeper than 0.5-1.0 cm and at the same time does not become swampy. If the air in the room is too dry, then the seedlings should be periodically sprayed with water from a sprayer, and also place a container with water nearby to increase the humidity of the air. Optimally, it should be in the range of 60-75%, which can be checked using a hygrometer.

The frequency of watering and the rate of water consumption is chosen so that the soil does not dry out deeper than 0.5-1.0 cm and at the same time does not become waterlogged

Top dressing

You will need three of them:

  1. Two weeks after the appearance of full shoots, with the formation of two true leaves, the seedlings are fed with nitrogen. To do this, dissolve 2-3 g of ammonium nitrate or 1-2 g of urea in one liter of water and water the seedlings with the resulting solution.
  2. 10-15 days after the dive or after the formation of four true leaves, the plants are fed again, reducing the nitrogen dosage by 2-3 times and adding phosphorus and potassium in the form of potassium monophosphate dissolved in water (1-2 g / l).
  3. And the plants are fed with the same composition 4-6 days before transplanting into the ground.

Formation

Pepper bushes must be shaped for normal development. Usually this is done in 2-3 stems, and the operation is started either at the stage of seedling, or after transplantation into the ground. It depends on when the fork forms on the stem. Usually, the stem begins to bifurcate after the fifth or sixth leaf and a so-called crown flower bud is formed at the fork. It must be removed immediately and without regret, after which the young stems will begin to grow and develop confidently. All possible stepchildren must also be removed before the fork.

Video: shaping pepper seedlings

Planting pepper in the ground

When the air and soil warm up enough and the average daily temperature is set at + 15 ° C, you can start transplanting seedlings into the ground.

Soil preparation

Pepper, including hot pepper, loves loose nutrient soil with an acidity close to neutral. The preparation of the beds begins in advance, as a rule, in the fall. For deep digging, fertilizers are added in the following composition:

  • humus or compost - 5-10 kg / m2;
  • superphosphate - 30-40 g / m2;
  • wood ash - 3-5 l / m2.

In early spring, as soon as weather conditions permit, the soil should be loosened (burrowed) in order to retain the accumulated moisture.

Landing rules

For many vegetable crops, including hot pepper, tape planting schemes are well suited, in which 2-3 rows of plants are located on a bed 100-120 cm wide. The spacing between rows, as well as the spacing between bushes in a row, depends on the characteristics of the particular variety. If necessary, such beds can be easily covered with a film or non-woven covering material along pre-installed arcs. This scheme is also suitable for greenhouses.

The strip planting scheme for hot pepper is suitable for both open ground and greenhouses

When planning a site, you need to remember one important rule - hot and sweet peppers should be planted as far as possible from each other. Otherwise, as a result of mutual cross-pollination, hot peppers can lose their pungency, and sweet peppers can acquire it.

The transplant is carried out in previously abundantly moistened holes along with peat pots or transshipment with a lump of earth from plastic glasses. At the same time, make sure that the plants are not buried by more than 1 cm.After planting, the peppers are once again moistened and mulched with any suitable material at hand:

  • peat;
  • humus;
  • straw;
  • sunflower or buckwheat husk, etc.

Growing hot peppers in the open field

If a bed of hot pepper is located in a warm, sunny place without drafts and flooding, then the success of the event will depend only on timely and regular care.

Watering

Bitter peppers do not like moisture deficiency, so they need to be watered quite often. At the same time, the need for irrigation is determined by the degree of soil moisture - it should not dry out more than 2-4 cm, and at the same time, waterlogging and waterlogging should not be allowed. Usually 2-3 waterings per week are sufficient. Mulching prevents crusting and allows for longer watering intervals. The use of drip irrigation systems greatly facilitates the process and improves the microclimate in the beds.

Top dressing

Two weeks after transplanting seedlings into the ground, they begin the first feeding. At this time, it is necessary to ensure the rapid growth of bushes and the growth of green mass, therefore, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are used... They can be:

  • mineral:
    • ammonium nitrate at a rate of 20-30 g / m2
    • urea - 10-20 g / m 2;
  • organic:
    • infusions of mullein or chicken manure (in a barrel with a wide neck, the selected component is infused in half with water for 5-7 days), diluted with water 1: 5 or 1: 10 (for chicken manure), at a consumption of 1 liter per bush;
    • green fertilizer, which is prepared and applied in a similar way, only instead of manure, ordinary freshly cut grass or weeds from the garden are used (nettle is best suited).

During the flowering period, for better formation of ovaries, peppers are often sprayed with a solution of boric acid at a concentration of 1 g / l. After that, for the rapid growth of fruits, you will need potassium and phosphorus, which are easiest (and best) to apply by watering the plants with a solution of 10-20 g of potassium monophosphate in a bucket of water - this is the norm for 1 m2. Further, feeding is repeated at intervals of 2-3 weeks, alternating nitrogen (their dosage is halved) with potassium-phosphorus. And also useful foliar dressing with complex mineral fertilizers (for example, Agricola, Chistaya leaf, Sudarushka, etc.), applying them in accordance with the attached instructions.

Shaping and pinning

If the formation of pepper was not started at the seedling stage, then it must be done after the formation of a fork in the stem. In the future, crown buds may appear in other forks - they are also removed. Usually the bush is led in no more than 2-3 stems, therefore, after their formation, all emerging stepchildren periodically and regularly pinch. When 25-30 fruits are tied on the bush, all the tops should also be pinched. In this way, the further formation of flowers and ovaries is stopped, and the strength of the plant is concentrated on the ripening of the left peppers.

when pinching hot pepper, one fruit is left on each side shoot

Processing

Bitter peppers are sometimes affected by diseases and pests along with other varieties of the crop. Control measures are the same as for sweet varieties.We will briefly list the preventive measures, which in the overwhelming majority of cases are sufficient to avoid problems:

  • Treatment of seedlings and adult bushes with Phytosporin - M. This is a biological plant protection agent against fungal diseases, which does not cause addiction (resistance) in pathogens. Spraying can be carried out during the growing season with an interval of 2-3 weeks, the drug is safe for humans and can be used during ripening and harvesting.

    Fitosporin - M is not addictive in pathogens

  • Conventional insecticides (pest control agents) help with pests and should be used when there are signs of an attack. A month before harvesting, only biological agents can be used, for example, Fitoverm, Aktara and others, as well as various folk remedies. Moreover, often, for example, in the fight against aphids and slugs, infusions of the fruits of hot pepper from the harvest of last year help.

    Fitoverm is effective against many pests and safe for humans

Features of growing in a greenhouse

In most regions with cold climates, bitter peppers can only be grown in a greenhouse, since they do not have time to ripen in the open field. The agricultural technology of the closed ground of this culture has some features:

  • The need to comply with certain growing conditions:
    • The optimum temperature range is 23-28 ° C. If it is exceeded, ventilation should be applied, and if the temperature drops to + 12-15 ° C, additional heating will be required.
    • Air humidity within 70-80%. It can be adjusted by ventilating when the norm is exceeded and by placing containers with water in case of increased dryness.
  • In the absence of bees, artificial pollination will be required by manually shaking the bushes or using a fan.
  • The concentration of nitrogen-containing fertilizers during feeding is reduced by half in comparison with open ground.
  • Planting schemes are chosen a little more thickened than in open ground, therefore they form plants with 1-2 stems.

Features of growing at home

Growing at home takes place in a limited amount of soil, which imposes a restriction on the use of varieties with a voluminous root system.

Usually they try to choose low-growing varieties for the house, but there is a successful experience of growing tall bushes on the balcony, for example, Flashlight. In this case, you need to be guided by the recommendations outlined earlier, taking into account additional points to which you should pay attention:

  • Plants need a lot of light, but from direct sunlight it is better to shade them with horizontal blinds, creating diffused illumination.
  • For the winter period from December to February, the pepper must be kept in a state of rest. For this:
    • cut off all ovaries and flowers;
    • reduce the temperature to + 15-18 ° C;
    • stop feeding;
    • watering is replaced by regular spraying of water on the topsoil and plants;
    • additional illumination is not carried out.
  • In the spring, pruning is done, removing unnecessarily elongated shoots.
  • Drafts should not be allowed in the room where the pepper is grown, but periodic ventilation is needed.

Video: pruning and shaping elite varieties of super hot peppers at home for "advanced pepper experts" (33 minutes)

Reviews of gardeners

An ordinary consumer does not need a lot of hot pepper and is unlikely to get involved with growing it. But lovers of spicy ketchups, sauces and seasonings will certainly not miss the opportunity to get an exotic variety of hot vegetables on their site or at home.


Sowing dates for peppers for seedlings in 2021 at home

Growing seedlings at home is the most important stage in the life of summer residents and gardeners, which begins even before the opening of the summer cottage season. To grow healthy, strong and good seedlings, you need to have certain knowledge - how to properly plant, care, dive, etc. And it is very important to know the optimal sowing dates for sweet peppers in 2021. A lot depends on the correctly chosen planting time, because the seedlings of a vegetable crop should grow to a normal size and get stronger by the optimal moment of planting in open ground.


Conditions for growing hot pepper

Lighting

For this culture, the lighting regime is very important. In summer, it is necessary to use the sun's rays to the maximum, in other times, it is better to use special lamps.

Capacity

The container with pepper is placed on the south side; in the summer months it will be convenient to take it to the loggia and balcony, where there is more sun.

When caring for a plant, it is necessary to ensure that no more than five fruits appear on the bush.

In order to grow a plant, you need to take a couple of medium-sized containers. The first is for the planted seeds to sprout and the plant to take root, and the second is for replanting after transplanting the peppers.

Important: line the bottom of the container with a drainage layer of pebbles or expanded clay so that moisture does not stagnate in the container.

Temperature

Pepper loves temperatures around 20-22 degrees during the day, and 18-20 degrees at night. These rules really need to be followed.


Caring for an orchid after it has faded

Home care for orchids after flowering is also essential. When the orchids finish flowering, the flower stalk remains naked. Now the florist's task is to cut the peduncle without harming the plant. This procedure is carried out with a clean instrument, with great care so as not to damage other parts of the plant. Cutting off the dried peduncle, you can see that it is hollow inside. Now, in order to exclude decay of the trunk, it is necessary to carefully water the flower so that moisture does not penetrate into the hollow hole. And it is better to completely close the cavity with beeswax. But if the end of the peduncle still has a green color, then they do not touch it, because it can bloom again after a while.

Experienced growers have long noticed a way to stimulate a plant to bloom again. To do this, you just need to cut over the third node. Two or three months after this, the orchid will bloom a second time. But the quantity and quality of flowers may be worse than the previous bloom.

Rest period. After the plant has faded, it needs to rest and gain strength. Therefore, the plant is provided with a warm place, a bright place, without direct sunlight. The number of irrigations is also reduced, between them the substrate must be absolutely dry. At this time, high-quality feeding is needed, which promotes the formation of the root system and the growth of the plant. Temperature also plays an important role during the rest period. Do not allow too dry air. To do this, you can use a humidifier, or place a saucer of water next to the plant.

During the rest period, an orchid transplant can be carried out, but only when it is really necessary. This can be understood by the long roots sticking out of the drainage holes. A transplant is stressful for the plant, and after it, a long break in the formation of peduncles is possible.


Planting and methods of growing hot peppers in indoor conditions

If you are not averse to adding pepper to your cooking, feel free to choose the variety you like and harvest. Growing a fruit bush is as easy as shelling pears, and there is more than enough beauty and benefits from it!

In indoor conditions, chili peppers are grown as a perennial, or the plant is renewed annually by cuttings. The root system grows very quickly and requires regular replanting into a larger pot. During this procedure, you can slightly shorten the roots, limiting their growth.

Pepper requires a rich and nutritious substrate based on leafy soil, peat and sand. The composition of the purchased substrate should contain vermicompost and lowland peat. Heavy garden soil can be diluted with any baking powder, such as sand, and sandstone can be supplemented with peat and compost.

Shrubs can be trimmed in spring for a more compact shape and breeding material. Cuttings quickly take root in water and take root in the ground.

A new specimen is easy to grow from seed. In stores, among the variety of varieties, you can find an option to your liking or get seeds from ripe fruits. As usual, the best time for sowing is spring. Seeds, without deepening, are planted in loose and nutritious soil and harvested in partial shade. In just a week, seedlings will appear on the surface. Along with garden seedlings, peppers will grow in diffused light until they become cramped in one container. Then they are planted in different containers and gradually accustomed to the sun.

In the current season, you can already get fruits from a new shrub. Recruits bloom in 2-3 months, and the rate of fruit formation depends on the temperature of the content. The higher it is, the sooner the fruit ripens. Indoor cultivars do not require cross-pollination. But practice shows that such timely assistance speeds up the process and increases yields. To do this, gently transfer pollen from one flower to another with a brush or cotton swab.

When the active season is over, on the eve of wintering, it is advisable to free the bushes from excess fruits and flowers. In low light conditions, they still will not be able to ripen, but they will rob the plant of the strength that it will need in winter.

Bitter pepper "Elephant trunk". © Chilli Seedz


Popular varieties of red hot peppers

Many popular dishes cannot be prepared without hot peppers. Its use in food not only imparts a special pungent taste, but also has a positive effect on human health. Red hot peppers are high in vitamin C.

"Adjika"

The medium-early ripening variety is intended for outdoor cultivation. Fruits are red, elongated, weighing up to 90 grams. The pulp is thick, spicy, with a pleasant aroma. The fruits are used as a seasoning in the preparation of culinary dishes and preparations.

Fact! Hot peppers can be dried for long-term storage.

Seeds are recommended to be planted at the beginning of March; hot pepper seedlings are planted in a permanent place at the age of 60–70 days. A distance of 35 cm is maintained between the plants, 50 cm are left between the rows. In July, the first fruits ripen.

"Barmaley"

An early variety of hot pepper, 90–95 days pass from germination to ripening. Lateral shoots do not develop on the plant, this greatly facilitates planting care. The fruits are large, long from 12 to 15 cm. Plants of this variety tolerate temporary cold snaps well and do not need to be formed.

The variety is grown in seedlings. Seeds are planted in the second half of March, in light fertile soil. You can use ready-made soil of the universal type or prepare the soil mixture yourself. To do this, take 2 parts of sod soil + 2 parts of humus + 1 part of coarse sand. Seeds germinate at a temperature of +23 degrees. Young plants are transplanted to a permanent place in late May or early June. Care consists of watering, fertilizing and weeding.

"Red Fat Man"

The variety is mid-season, intended for growing in open areas. Full ripening of the fruit occurs within 120-145 days. The bushes are semi-spreading, low. Fruits are red, elongated, cone-shaped, with a pronounced pungent taste. Fruit weight from 60 to 90 grams, length 18 cm, wall thickness 4 mm. 2.9 kg of hot peppers are obtained from 1 m². Fat Red can be grown for commercial use. The fruits are used in cooking, canning, and also as a seasoning.

Seeds for seedlings are planted in early March. The seeding depth is 1 cm. For seed germination, the temperature in the room is maintained at +22 degrees. Plants are planted in late May or early June. The planting scheme is 20x30 cm. Care consists in timely watering, weeding, and fertilization. Harvesting begins in the second half of July.


Research work "Handsome pepper at home"

Irina Kiseleva
Research work "Handsome pepper at home"

Municipal budgetary educational institution Lyceum No. 1

Lipetsk region them. Hero of the Soviet Union B.A.Kotov

Research:

«Handsome pepper at home»

Leader: Kiseleva I.V.

Useful and negative properties ... 7

- how to grow pepper in room conditions.

- search for optimal conditions for the growth of pepper at room temperature.

- explore ways to grow peppers in at home

- to expand knowledge about vegetable culture and its importance in

- instill a love for agricultural work.

- the study of this topic is that this vegetable is quite expensive, because it is not easy to grow it. It is very thermophilic, and therefore it is very difficult to grow it without a greenhouse. Therefore, if you can grow it into home conditions as expected, and even get a harvest, then we will get a wonderful vitamin delicacy, for which we do not have to go to the store.

Gardening - gardening as a branch of plant growing, growing a garden, orchards.

- is it possible to grow red pepper at home, regardless of the season?

After Columbus discovered America in Europe, descriptions of numerous forms of pepper began to appear. Archaeological excavations of burials in Central America, Mexico and the highlands of Peru have shown that the sweet Bulgarian pepper already 6 thousand years BC. e. actively used as a condiment for cooking. Leguminous pepper cultivated as an annual plant. In tropical countries, it is a perennial that belongs to the nightshade family. There are three types of pepper: Mexican or leguminous annual, Colombian or perennial shrub, pubescent and ear-shaped. Colombian pepper is believed to be native to the subtropical and tropical regions of Guatemala and Mexico. Until now, various forms of wild-growing peppers have been preserved here.

In Paris (France) and in Belgrade (Serbia) monuments to the Bulgarian Pepper were erected!

Pepper in culture - an annual plant. The root system is tap-type, strongly branched with a significant number of lateral and additional roots. Pepper transplant (growing through dived seedlings) promotes even greater branching of the root system, making it fibrous. Roots grow most intensively before fruiting. The growth of the root system is influenced by the stresses associated with transplant plants - changes in microclimate, humidity, substrate, reduced lighting. The root system recovers slowly, so it is better to grow seedlings without picking, which increases the mass of the root system by 1.5 times.

The stalk of the pepper is herbaceous, in the lower part it stiffens. Flowering begins 40-60 days after germination. The flower opens from 6 am to 10 am. The bud ripens within 25-35 days. Higher temperatures and sunlight accelerate this process. Cloudy and cool weather retards the development of the flower bud. Self-pollinating pepper. Pepper sweet is a heat-loving plant. Seeds begin to germinate at temperatures above + 13 ° C. The optimum temperature for plant growth and development is + 26 ... + 30 ° С. At a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° С seeds germinate on the 7-10th day, and at + 16 ... + 18 ° С - 20-22 days. Pepper plants are light-loving. When shaded, buds, ovaries crumble, leaves turn yellow, stems become brittle, fruiting is delayed by 10-12 days, yield decreases. The lack of moisture in the soil, substrate, air when growing pepper leads to a decrease in flowers, ovaries, the fruits are formed small, deformed. Moisture is necessary for the successful formation of the vegetative mass, the number of leaves, their surface, the growth of the root mass, as well as for the processes of formation and filling of fruits. On the other hand, waterlogging of the substrate, air leads to a deterioration in nutrition and the appearance of diseases. Peppers need 70-80% humidity. A decrease in air humidity leads to shedding of flowers and ovaries. Pepper sweet is very picky about the structure and fertility of the soil - requires light, humus-rich, nutrient-rich soils. The acidity of the soil should be close to neutral pH 6.0-6.6. The root system of peppers grows slowly, so the soil must be rich in nutrients. Pepper plants are not endure heavy, clay, alkaline and acidic soils.

Sweet pepper contains vitamins C, B1, B2, B9, P, PP and carotene, therefore, people suffering from depression, diabetes mellitus, as well as memory impairment, insomnia, and loss of strength should be included pepper on the menu... By the amount of vitamin C pepper surpasses lemons and black currants.

Ascorbic acid is combined with a large amount of vitamin P and such a community helps to strengthen blood vessels, reduce the permeability of their walls. Due to the high content of mineral salts of potassium, as well as calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus, fluorine, iron, chlorine, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, chromium, sulfur, cobalt pepper indispensable for anemia, low immunity, early baldness, osteoporosis.

The composition of pepper (both hot and sweet) the alkaloid capsaicin is included, which, in fact, gives the vegetable its characteristic taste. This substance stimulates work stomach and pancreas, stimulates appetite, lowers blood pressure, thins the blood and prevents blood clots. Due to the low content of capsaicin in bell peppers, unlike bitter peppers, it can be consumed in large quantities without fear for your stomach. Therefore, a juice is made from sweet pepper, which is recommended to drink in case of diabetes mellitus, as well as to stimulate the growth of nails and hair.

Sweet pepper is one of the top ten marketed products containing pesticides. Experts say that even with a one-time consumption of such a product, a person may experience health problems.

Sweet pepper contraindicated in patients with severe ischemic disease (angina pectoris, heart rhythm disturbances, hypertension, gastric ulcer and intestinal ulcer, suffering from gastritis with increased acidity of gastric juice, colitis, with exacerbation of chronic liver and kidney diseases, hemorrhoids, epilepsy.

No. Development Date Action

1 Planting seeds 02/05/2017 Pour 10-15 seeds onto cheesecloth and cover with milk.

2 Swelling 02/19/2017 After 2 weeks, the seeds swelled, I planted them in the ground.

3 The emergence of a sprout 03/05/2017 Sprouts with a height of 3 cm appeared

4 Watering 3 times a week I watered the plants with settled water

5 Change in height 04/18/2017 My sprout was 13 cm

I found out pepper grows well in indoor conditionsif you create favorable conditionsfor growth and development: light, warmth, watering.

Peppers need moderate watering. He is not tolerates droughtssince its leaves cease to be elastic and begin to droop - I had to watch this.

Pepper does not tolerate cold and drafts... He needs periodic loosening of the soil.

N. Zvonarev. Pepper, eggplant. Varieties, cultivation, care, recipes. 2011

Magazine "Season at the dacha" No. 2, 2013

O. Lush. How to grow peppers correctly. 2012

T. Oktyabrskaya. How to properly grow vegetable seedlings.

Newspaper "Garden"... Harvest secrets. No. 1, 2010

Magazine "Favorite product" No. 7, 2011

A. Lebedeva. How to properly grow vegetables in an apartment.


Planting sweet peppers in the ground

To grow peppers at home, you need a light soil.

It is better to prepare grain soil in advance. Fertilize the soil with natural fertilizers throughout the year (5 kg per square meter). In the fall, add potash and phosphorus fertilizers (50 g each), dig up the garden bed. In the spring, we fertilize the earth with ammonium nitrate (40 g).

Five days before planting seedlings, disinfect the soil with copper sulfate (one tablespoon per bucket of water).

Growing pepper at home is not that difficult. The main thing is to adhere to the basic care recommendations and you are guaranteed a rich harvest!


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