Multiplication of plants by tubers and rhizomes
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MULTIPLICATION OF TUBERS AND RHIZOMES
The multiplication of plants by division of parts it is certainly the simplest and fastest method to reproduce them. The advantage of this method is that in the end you will get plants identical to the mother plant as the typical genetic variability does not occur when pollination occurs where the male gametes (pollen) join the female ones (ovules).
Plants equipped with tubers (Dahlia, Begonia, Aspidistra, cyclamen, potato, etc.) can be divided simply by cutting the tubers into several portions each containing at least one bud.
After having made the different portions, the whole cut part is sprinkled with a broad spectrum fungicide powder or with charcoal powder and left to dry for a few days. The tuber fragments are then planted, one per pot.
THE rhizomes (Iris, ginger, etc.) (photo below) are cut into pieces of about 8 cm in length, each containing a few sprouts and planted individually (waiting 3-4 days for the wound to dry).
Usually the removal of the parts is carried out when the plant is in vegetative rest, which varies according to the plants (consult the individual sheets).
Vegetative reproduction of plants in nature and crops
The vegetative propagation process of plants based on their high regeneration capacity, i.e. the restoration of a part of an entire organism. In this case, the child will inherit all the characteristics of the parent's plants, including valuable varietal qualities.
vegetative reproduction of plants is carried out by various organisms such as specialized (tubers, bulbs, rhizomes) and specialized (leaves, stems).
It is widespread in the vegetative multiplication of wild plants. Some species not very rarely reproduce by seed. These include bulbs, lilies and many others. Strong underground rhizomes of weed make this weed nearly invulnerable. No weeding does not allow to completely eliminate, and the central point of numerous renewal buds, which is literally dotted with rhizomes. From these shoots the plant can be restored even if left in a piece of a couple of centimeters in the ground.
Wild strawberry propagated stolons (whiskers), which are a kind of aerial shoots. Mustache root to the nodes, and from adventitious buds develop young plants, which will soon begin an independent life. Some trees can also reproduce vegetatively. Often broken branches of willows and poplars, getting in a moist environment, take root and form a complete plant. cases in which sometimes even willow rods stuck in the ground as a cover, take root and transformed into trees. And the reason for everything - the vegetative multiplication of plants, which sometimes manifests itself in the most surprising ways. Popular in horticulture indoor jade tree, which is commonly called the money tree, easily propagated by leaf. Under favorable conditions petioles form roots, followed by the newly formed plant. And they don't even need to create special conditions for it - often drop to the ground and take root on their own.
Vegetative propagation of plants has been widely used in cultivation practice. This is an opportunity to get more yield in a shorter time than with the seed method. As a popular example is the multiplication of potato tubers or strawberry whiskers (stolons). And if it is necessary to multiply the young specimen, flowering and fruiting of which will not come soon, the vegetative method is simply irreplaceable. It is used to obtain a large number of annual and perennial plants - herbaceous, deciduous trees and shrubs, and even pine.
Artificial vegetative propagation of plants is particularly relevant in cases where it is necessary to maintain high-quality characteristics of complex hybrids. There are a variety of techniques such as propagation: cuttings, dividing the bush, rooting cuttings, grafting, the use of tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, daughter rosettes, leaf cuttings.
In indoor horticulture it is most often used for plant production and vegetative propagation, examples of which can be seen in ordinary household window sills. Living in urban apartments in Jade, Saintpaulia, dieffenbachia, geranium, ferns, begonias, ficus and many other plants, tend to make it vegetative. And not surprisingly, it is much easier to put the cutting in water or planted in the ground, pretreating stimulant than messing around with seeds, germination which is often questionable.
Vegetative reproduction - a valuable invention of nature, which is widely used in modern plants and has several advantages over the seed method.
Plant propagation can take place vegetatively or sexually.
There sexual reproduction instead it starts from the formation of the seeds. The seeds germinating will give subjects similar to the parents but not the same because the new characteristics derive from the union of the male and female chromosomes.
Means vegetative multiplication when, with the removal of a part of the plant, a new subject is obtained having the same characteristics as the mother plant.
Multiplication by seed
A) Sowing in boxes. B) Cover with glass plate.
C) Seedlings ready for transplanting. D) Seedlings planted in jars.
Let's see the first sexual reproduction. First of all, the seeds must be harvested at the right maturity. They are separated from the fruit wrapping and washed if necessary, taking care to dry them well to prevent them from germinating prematurely, then they are placed in sachets in dry rooms away from animals or insects. It is advisable not to use seeds stored for a long time, the germination capacity is reduced after the first year. The suitable times for the germination of the seeds are spring and autumn and the essential elements for the life of the new plants are air, water and heat. The seeds of the most resistant varieties are placed in the ground outdoors while for the more delicate ones, sowing will take place in boxes or pots which can be placed in optimal places for protection and control. In both cases, the preparation of the soil must be taken into consideration, which must be well drained, soft, cleaned of herbs and various debris and fertilized if necessary. The pots for sowing will be drained with layers of potsherds on which the soil and seeds will be placed. The sowing should not be too dense to avoid too thin and stunted growths, cover the seeds with a layer of soil or sand. For very small seeds scattered on the surface it is advisable to cover the pot or box with glass plates or with a transparent polyethylene sheet until the seedlings are born, these covers in addition to maintaining the right degree of humidity avoid contact with plant parasites or insects. . Finally, the largest sowings can be carried out in seedbeds (arranged land, of reduced dimensions). The new plants will then be planted in the final place and condition.
A) Cut a branch of about 15 cm.
B) Remove the leaves except the terminal ones.
C) Place the cutting in a vase by burying almost the entire stem.
There multiplication by vegetative or agamic way it can be performed in various ways depending on the characteristics of the plant so we will have the cutting, grafting, division, layering and offshoot. The cutting is the method. more common, it allows you to use part of the stem, branch or leaf, so we will have woody, semi-woody, herbaceous or semi-arbaceous cuttings.
The cuttings herbaceous are made in spring, using shoots of medium development, the leaves are reduced and placed in beds of sand, soil and peat, covering with glass plates or transparent polyethylene bags. For the woody cuttings to be carried out in late summer, portions of the branch cut under a knot with at least two buds are used, and they are placed outdoors, as appropriate, in well-worked and healthy soil, in a greenhouse or in a box.
Begonia rex leaf cutting
A) Detach the leaf from the mother plant.
B) Score the ribs on the reverse side of the leaf.
C) Place in the box fixing the first leaf to the soil with forks.
D) New seedlings born in correspondence of the cuts.
Some plants like the Begonia rex they can emit roots from cuts produced on the veins of the lower page of the leaves, these, placed in contact with soil and covered with. glass plates, will give rise to the new plants.
It should be remembered that for a good percentage of rooting, humidity and moderate heat are needed, avoiding stagnation of water and direct sunlight.
Grafts with scion
A) Spur graft B) Double split or English graft
Eye or bud graft
A) Cutting of the gem. B) Gem ready to be inserted.
C) Special cut in the rootstock. D) Insertion of the gem. E) Binding.
With thegraft they join together a portion of a plant to another different plant but of the same species or genus. The branch part to be inserted is named nesto, while the plant on which it is inserted is called rootstock. There are several types of grafting depending on whether a bud or a portion of a branch is used as a graft to be inserted with appropriate cuts perfectly adhering to the sub-cortical part (the cambium) of the rootstock, so we will have the eye graft or bud, to scion, split etc. A particular type of graft is the one called "by approximation" in which two branches of different plants are welded together and continue their life independently. The graft is not detached from the plant that supplies it until the welding has taken place.
For certain plants, especially those with bulbs, tubers and rhizomes, multiplication can be done through division: the tuber is divided so that at least one bud is present on both sides, or the division is carried out by removing the bulbils that form around the larger bulb. The large majority of herbaceous perennials are multiplied by division. This very simple method consists in dividing the plants into two or more parts with roots, branches or buds.
Towards the beginning of summer, another type of agamic multiplication can be performed: layering. It is used in particular for plants that can hardly be reproduced by cutting or division. A cut is made on the stem or on a branch of the plant by removing a small part of the bark, it is placed, wet sphagnum or peat on the cut part and covered with a polyethylene coating that protects and maintains humidity. After a period ranging from I to 4 months from the incision, the plant will emit new roots and it will then be possible to remove the branch part and plant it.
Last multiplication method is the offshoot it consists in making the branches of a shrub produce roots by bending them to the ground and burying them, after having produced incisions at the level of the nodes to facilitate the emission of the roots. After rooting, the new plants are detached and placed in pots or in the ground.
Multiplication by division
Multiplication by layering
A) Annular cut of the cortex (partial)
B) Wet sphagnum on the cut
C) Protection with polyethylene bag
When to take the cutting?
During the entire growing season, from March to September-October, depending on the plant species and the flowering period, passing from soft wood cuttings to those of semi-hard wood, therefore hard, as the end of the season approaches. In particular, hardwood cuttings are taken from bare plants for which the period of vegetative rest has begun, ie in autumn, semi-hard cuttings during summer, and soft herbaceous wood cuttings during spring. The leaf cuttings are taken from March to September.
How long should the cutting be?
It depends on the plant species. For illustrative purposes, it goes from 8-10cm, for species such as jasmine, rhododendron and camellia, at 20-25cm for plants such as forsythia or pepper tree.
How much to bury the cutting?
A little more than About 1/3 of the length with the apical side facing up.
How far apart is the cutting?
Of 10-20 cm depending on the size of the cutting and the growth rate of the species.
What substrate to use for the cutting?
A loam composed of peat and sand in equal parts, for the cuttings buried in special containers or pots, and a soil of peat, sand and garden earth, for the cuttings buried in the ground.
Every when and how to water the cutting?
Intervene by frequency and intensity in order to keep the soil constantly moist, avoiding the formation of water stagnation, potential causes of fungal diseases of the root mass. It is sufficient to lift the plastic or non-woven fabric sheet every 2-3 days to remove any condensation and check the degree of humidity of the substrate. If necessary, sprinkle the soil with a spray so as not to alter the compactness of the soil around the cuttings.
Do you need to fertilize the cutting?
Generally not, using a sufficiently fertile and nutrient-rich soil, even if during the eventual stay in the individual jars, before the final planting, interventions with slow release granular mineral fertilizer can be hypothesized or liquid to be diluted in water to be used for watering.
How long does the cutting take to root?
Approximately 30 to 45 days, depending on the species, the fertility of the soil and the correct care, a period that can be speeded up by treating the part of the cutting to be buried with rooting hormones.
When should the cutting be placed in the final home?
With the arrival of the following spring, the new seedlings are placed in the final home in pots or in the ground, or placed in individual jars, postponing the final burial to the end of summer-autumn.
Multiplication by grafting of succulents
It is the most complex and particular system, usually used only for plants that are difficult to multiply or with particularly slow growth. There apical part of the plant to be multiplied is inserted on the stem of a rootstock species, of which the particular vigor of the root system is exploited.
☛ The practice of grafting consists in putting the innermost tissues of the two species that will form the combination into contact. One iVertical incision of 1-2 centimeters made on the rootstock will have to accommodate the flaps of tissue of the species to be multiplied (scion), deprived of the skin to the appropriate extent so that they can easily penetrate the incision.
☛ By putting the two parties in contact, if the operation has been carried out correctly, within two weeks we will witness the "fusion" of the different tissuesi, with the formation of a new single individual who will be constituted at the base by the rootstock plant (root vigor and faster growth) and in the upper part by the multiplied plant (ornamental or flowering characteristics desired).
It is always good to remember that in order not to awkwardly convey dangerous fungal diseases, the manipulation of exposed fabrics requires the use of well cleaned and disinfected tools.
How to graft a succulent plant
1. The top of the rootstock is cut with a sharp blade
2. Round the edges and remove the thorns
3. The edges of the scion prepared for grafting are also rounded
4. The two elements of the graft are prepared so that the central tissues match
5. The two elements of the graft overlap and fasten well with rubber bands
6. After about two weeks, the rubber bands can be removed Physiological damage and illness
The state of suffering shown by a plant may be the consequence of the bad cultivation what we are doing with it or a parasite attack or be caused by some pathogen.
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Multiply the calla lilies by extracting the seeds from the spadix and sowing them in the earth
If we have chosen to multiply the calla lilies by sowing, we will simply have to extract the seeds from the spadix. The calla flower produces and ripens seeds inside. If we extract them, the plant is not damaged but we use a rather slow technique. When the seeds are ripe, they will turn brown. At that point we will be able to sow them in a rich and well-drained land, until they sprout. In the meantime we try to protect them in a warm and shady place. We will thus obtain beautiful plants that will grow in a few months, reaching the size of the mother plant.