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Scolopendrium leaflet (Asplenium scolopendrium) belongs to an extensive group of perennial ferns. In the botanical classifier, he is credited with being related to the Kostenets family. In the popular saying, you can often hear the name "deer tongue". The plant comes from the countries of Eurasia, where it mainly lives in mountainous areas. The fern climbs into limestones or hides in narrow rocky gorges.
A shortened, even rhizome, covered with a thick layer of scales, serves as the basis for the development of dense petiole leaves gathered together. The length of the leathery wai is approximately 60 cm in mature specimens. A convex vein is clearly visible on the surface. The foliage is belt-shaped. The width of the plates reaches 3-7 cm, depending on the variety name. The bottom of the sheet looks like a heart. The petioles on which the plates are held are overgrown with small brown hairs with a greenish tint. On the reverse side, oblong spores are grouped. They sit in pairs in a perpendicular direction to the main vein. Sori are considered an important reproductive organ.
In addition to smooth foliage, there are ferns with wavy or split fronds. On their plots, flower growers grow various varieties and hybrids of the centipede leaf. Let's list some of them and pay attention to the key features:
- "Crispa" - foliage with a folded edge, which gives the bushes "curliness" and visually increases in volume;
- "Undulata" - decorated with leaves with wavy edges, and the plates seem to be corrugated along the length of the main vein;
- "Marginatum" - has narrow, divided into blades vayami with a curly edge;
- "Lacerata" - stands out against the background of other varieties with wide leaves, whose tips are not corrugated along the entire perimeter;
- "Cristatum" - the top of the leaves are comb, and the rest of the surface is solid and smooth;
- "Ramosum" - this species is in demand more than others, because it has forked spreading fronds;
- "Ramo Cristatum" - the plant is characterized by curly, lush leaves.
Caring for a skolopendra leaflet at home
The leaflet is adapted for home cultivation, provided that the plant is provided with proper care and a suitable microclimate is created.
Location and lighting
Direct rays are detrimental to the fern. At home, the bushes are placed farther from the window and a darkened corner is chosen. If it is not possible to protect the flowerpot from the sun, you can keep the plant on the windowsill on the north side of the building.
During the period of freezing of vegetative processes, the pots with a leaflet are transferred to a cool room, and when the intensive growth of greenery begins, they are returned back to the warmth. In the summertime, flower growers are advised to adhere to a temperature regime of 20-250C. In winter, the thermometer should not fall below 120FROM.
Reindeer tongue should be watered frequently throughout the year. Drying out of the substrate negatively affects the development of culture. Moistened, but not wet structure - the optimal state of the soil mixture. Excess water leads to root rot and death of the seedling. Failure in watering mode is the cause of many leaflet diseases.
Irrigation water is defended for 24 hours until there are no chlorine impurities in it, which are debugged in the soil next to the root system. Since the fern prefers to grow on limestone, they take a liquid with normal hardness.
Most city apartments are characterized by low air humidity, and the leaflet needs a constant source of moisture. Without spraying, foliage wilts and loses turgor pressure. Rinsing the herbs under a stream of a warm shower is beneficial. To increase the humidity, pallets with expanded clay or pebbles are installed near the flowerpot of the leaflet, where a little water is poured. If there is no expanded clay at hand, you can put buckets or jars of cold water on the floor, then the plant will absorb just as much moisture as it takes.
Overdried air harms young shoots, especially in the early stages of development. If the shoots do not receive the required amount of moisture, then wilting and dying off awaits them.
The planting of the leaflet is carried out in a lime-type soil with a high content of nutrients. It is important that the substrate is breathable. Dredge is bought in a store or assembled by hand. Take 1 part of chopped pine bark, 2 parts of leafy soil and 1 part of sand. The bottom of the container is covered with drainage material to drain the liquid.
Fern is very carefully applied under the fern bushes. The procedure is performed in spring or summer at the time of active growth of leaf mass. It is enough to fertilize the seedlings once every 3-4 weeks with complex mixtures for fern crops. It is recommended to add only half of the amount indicated by the manufacturer in the instructions.
At a young age, leaflet bushes are transplanted every year in March or April, so as not to hamper the roots in growth. The new flowerpot is selected one size larger than the previous one. When the bush turns 3-4 years old, the growing season is already slower, and the roots do not grow so intensively. Therefore, the plant is allowed to be transplanted only once every 2-3 years. The apical buds should not be covered with earth.
Leaflet propagation methods
Cultural species of skolopendrovy leaflet in room conditions are propagated by division. The bushes are divided during transplantation into several healthy sections. Another way to reproduce a leaflet is to sow ripe spores in the fall. However, the latter method is laborious and does not always bring results.
Diseases and pests
The leaflet resists a number of dangerous diseases and insects. Unlike other decorative deciduous plants, it is able to restore wilted foliage and grow fresh greens again if the root system is not completely dead. It will take a little time for young growth to appear from the dormant buds that hide in the ground. This can be prevented by prolonged drought, dehydration of the rhizome, lowering the air temperature in the room below a critical level, or causing burns to the leaves.
If the bushes of the leaf have lost their visual appeal, the ground part is completely cut off to enable the plant to acquire new fronds. However, in the event of death and decay of the roots, which occurs when deviating from the irrigation regime, there is practically no chance to save the fern.
Asplenium or Centipede leaflet. Fortune fountain
Site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.
It is clear that the role of mini-hosts in the decoration of the garden is not great: they are too small. They were born primarily to become an object of collection, to please the eye and entertain the soul of a collector. Every year, more and more new specimens appear in the line of such varieties with more than modest dimensions, which deprives fans and lovers of small hosts of peace and sleep.
What's new in this area of selection?
The most spectacular garden ferns
Luxurious garden ferns are distinguished not only by their status as an ancient plant. These garden stars have no equal in beauty of leaves, lacy and fascinatingly complex wai, in their ability to instantly change the atmosphere in the ensemble and create outlandish shady thickets. One of the distinguishing features of ferns has always been a clean, rich color of greenery, but in terms of color, these plants are far from being as simple as they seem at first glance. Indeed, among the ferns there are also spectacular unusual species that can surprise with unusual textures and outlandish shades of the palette, with an original form. However, for all their showiness, these plants never lose their legendary mystery.
Ferns in the garden landscape
Using ferns in garden design
Ferns most effectively reveal the beauty and diversity of green. Perhaps no other garden plants so expressively demonstrate all the magic of shades and textures, various effects and the possibilities of their use in the design of compositions. After all, greenery, not crowned with inflorescences or flowers, is not necessarily boring.
Both in nature and at the heart of any garden composition is precisely the green color, even if it often remains just a background for rarer and more colorful shades. The richness of green colors and the amazing structure of the leaves, thanks to which the ferns acquire their restrained beauty, only emphasizes the grace of the silhouette and is the very decorative basis on which the mystery of ferns is based.
The leaves, or rather the frond of the fern, are surprisingly complex. They are as mesmerizing as the filigree work of a jeweler-artist. Fern leaves are twice pinnately dissected or thrice pinnately dissected, while each frond consists of individual leaves, divided into the smallest and often openwork lobes.
The beauty of wai begins to unfold already from the moment when the leaves slowly and effectively unfold from the fluffy buds like snails, but all the majesty and mystery of these plants is revealed in full only when they unfold to their full length.
Among the ferns, there are species, such as the bristle-bearing mnogoryadnik, in which the leaves do not die off completely for the winter, but remain until the moment when new fronds appear in the spring. And rare, but no less impressive evergreen ferns, such as all Blehnums, do not lose their beauty even in winter gardens.
Garden ferns differ in almost all parameters, except for the growing conditions they require. The vast majority of members of this family adore nutritious moist soil, shading and humid air.
Ferns in the garden landscape. © Amanda Slater
Variety of garden ferns
In the fern family, there are plants not only of very different colors, but also of various sizes. These ancient relict cultures are represented in ornamental gardening by both formidable giants and tiny, surprisingly graceful and lacy plants. Moreover, each fern has a unique personality, stands out both against the background of other garden plants and against the background of its fellows.
The maidenhair is stop-shaped. © eggandi Common ostrich. © mywoodlandgarden Common bracken. © Wholesale Nursery
Among the most impressive ferns, the recognized favorite is common bracken, a real giant with huge fronds, which in adulthood reaches two meters in height. The rather large ones make no less impression. maidenhair foot and thyroid, even if their size is inferior to the bracken. They effectively spread their leaves, creating stunningly beautiful thickets.
In the shrimp, the triangular, pointed form of frond only emphasizes the grace of the plant itself, enhances the massiveness of the clumps, and the maidenhair in the garden is completely similar to ordinary herbaceous perennials in terms of growth density. The foot maidenhair is difficult to confuse with other ferns precisely because of the unusual dense curtains. Its narrow and light fronds with a dark central vein are lucidly arranged in the bushes, forming a kind of easily recognizable spheres and multi-tiered clumps, which from afar are difficult to classify as ferns.
Among the ferns, there are also such plants that attract, first of all, with their original color. Elegant shititnik krasnosorusovy with its not very large fronds, which differ from most of the scabies in shape, it seems covered with rust or bronze bloom. In this fern, rounded leaves in the lobes only emphasize the shape and classic lines of the wai, making the plant seem like an ancient giant.
The multiserial is bristle-bearing. © 99roots Skolopendrovy kostenets. © Archie Young Female kochedyzhnik. © John Tulloc
With an amazing density of location, wai became famous as an exemplary representative of the family multirower bristle-bearing... This fern with leaves that look like an open palm amazes with almost perfect symmetry, graceful but almost straight wai lines and striking lace with a massive silhouette.
Leaves blehnum spiky seem like quaint miniature green staircases. Erect, with narrow sparse leaves and lobes, they seem to strive upward and create steps, look amazingly impressive in the shade. This fern has an extravagant shape complemented by a bright, luminous color.
One of the most graceful and colorful ferns common ostrich it stands out for its practically patterned patterns of bushes, created by fancifully arranged wide fronds and an amazing shade of iridescent green "forest" color.
Red-horned shtitnik. © stauden-poltermann Derbyanka spiky, or Blehnum spiky. © echinops garden
Among the most unusual garden ferns are also female kochedyzhnik... Like all other kochedzhniks, this fern looks delicate and surprisingly elegant, thanks to the densely arranged leaves in the fronds, it seems feathery and somewhat resembles palm trees. The bushes of the kochedyzhnik are neat, almost symmetrical. Today, kochedzhniki with purple and silver color are especially popular.
Continuous leaves or dense curliness attracts a miniature and somewhat restrained fern in colors centipede... Small and very original, it puts surprisingly cheerful accents in the compositions. Seemingly fused fronds in curly bushes are especially good in rockeries, conquer with their quantity and accuracy, unusual beauty.
Ferns in the garden landscape. © Michelle Gervais
Winning partners for star garden ferns
In order for ferns to become the perfect basis for garden compositions and successfully fit into the company of classic garden perennials, they need to find a worthy accompaniment. Traditionally, ferns are combined with decorative deciduous plants, which, however, are not limited to the range of partners suitable for these reserved aristocrats.
Blooming large-leaved plants will add surprising contrasts to the composition with the most spectacular garden ferns. For large ferns, such as bracken or maidenhair, it is best to pick up an escort of badan, astilba, rogers, host, fanny kirengeshoma.
Medium-sized ferns perfectly emphasize the beauty of flowering rhododendrons, they are successfully complemented by rugs made of oak anemone, comfortable host bushes. In such a company, fern greens, iridescent in different tones, will seem even more luxurious.
But the company of no other plant will make the beauty of the ferns unfold to the fullest extent than planting at least one fern that is different in color and shape next to it. Mixing different types of these amazing plants seems to enhance the decorativeness of each and reveal the beauty of greenery to an even greater extent.
Life above water
Saintpaulia ( Saintpaulia) , who prefer moist air, but do not like constantly "wet feet", settled in a large pallet on evenly poured small pebbles. The pallet contains 7 pots with colorful violets. Colors can be combined.
When the assortment permits (violets somehow live all the time with me - some appear, others go to friends and to work), I make blue-white or violet-pink combinations. When not blooming, I put variegated compositions in the middle to revive them.
It is very convenient to water from a pallet. I just pour water on the surface of the pebbles, and then they themselves decide who to drink how much.
This option greatly facilitates the care of violets, and space is saved - dozens of pots can be placed in several large pallets. And they look quite interesting: a sort of blooming bunch.
Catalog of indoor plants for 2014 (page 8)
|Due to the large volume, this material is located on several pages: |
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. 4. Mussaenda philippica White, family Madder. WITH WHITE INCREASED CUPLES. - 500 p. (cash on delivery)
. Japanese medlar (Eriobotrya japonica) - an evergreen tree with fruits that are very similar in taste and appearance to apricot fruits! But the fruits of the medlar are collected in large clusters (more than 10 pieces in one cluster), juicy, fragrant. The pulp has a sweet or slightly sweet and sour taste. They are easily formed from self-pollination, and trees grown even from seeds can bear fruit as early as the fifth year, which makes it possible to grow medlar at home. Moreover, this plant is very beautiful. - 550 p. (cash on delivery)
Nematantus gregarius Variegatum (family Gesneriaceae) - see separate directory "Gesnerievye"
. Legcarp (podocarpus)
. 1. N. large-leaved - thin long leaves. Good as an ampelnik! - 350 p.
. 2.N. Small-leaved podocarpus gracilior or afrocarpus grcilior – African fern pine. A very beautiful graceful coniferous tree with short, harsh thin leaves. - 350 p.
Nolina A young plant with a “bottle” diameter of 2-3 cm - 170 p. With an ungrown bottle -100 p.
. African oxalis
. 1.O. luteola – large pale yellow flowers. The underside and edges of the leaves are very dark red. Ideal for container growing. - 800 p.
. 2.O. compessa « Pom - Pon "- a very rare terry form from yellow compressa . Each cluster of perfectly double flowers forms a round, bright yellow pompom. There are only a few terry oxalis, this is one of the best! - 800 p.
. 3.O. palmifrons (palmate) - original miniature plant. It is prized for its unusual leaf shape. The round, gray-green leaves look like a fan unfolded 360 degrees. It blooms reluctantly, with white flowers turning pink at the end of flowering. - 800 p.
Oleander (cash on delivery)
1. Oleander Peruvian, yellow. - 500 p.
2. Oleander graceful ( elegantissimum ) - white fragrant flowers! - 500 p.
European olive – 260 p. (cash on delivery only)
Orthosyphon ( Orthosyphon cilliatum ALBA ) Is a beautiful flowering bush with very unusual and decorative crested white flowers with longest cilia in each flower! - 250 p.
1. Dendrobium-phalaenopsis Bright deep purple with a white eye in the center. Large. - 500 p.
2. Dendrobium-phalaenopsis Purple large flowers. - 500 p. - temporarily not.
3. Dendrobium noble Large purple flowers with a wide white throat, frilled petals. Lip: center - white, then a bright yellow center, then a wide purple border. Impressive! Like a "tower of flowers"! - 500 p.
4. Dendrobium noble Bouquet, white, like wax, fringed flowers. - 500 p.
5 Dendrobium noble Sailor Boy « Pinky » An adorable delicate variety. The tips of the snow-white petals are painted with lilac-pink tones. - 500 p.
6 Dendrobium noble Sturdust « H & R » Unusual hybrid with "soft" stems resembling a reed, the appearance of which is determined by the influence of the species D. Unicum. Very bright lush bloom - hot orange flowers with a dark red mesh on the lip! - 650 p.
5. Epidendrum "Ballerina" Small yellow flowers "upside down". Very unpretentious. - 350 rubles.
6. Scorched oncidium (sphacelatum) - medium-sized flowers with a bright yellow lip. On the upper petals on a yellow background, a red-burgundy pattern. - not
7. Ludisia (hemaria) (from the group "precious"), compact. Olive black velvet. There are bright crimson veins on it. - 350 p.
8. Ludisia (hemaria) " Red Velvet » The color is similar to the previous variety, but the variety is much larger, leaves with sharply pointed ends. - 350 p.
9. Ludisia (hemaria) " Green Velvet » The variety is large. Leaves of green velvet with gold veins. - 350 p.
10. Makodes Petola (from the "precious" group). Compact bush. Beautiful foliage! On dark olive velvet, golden-green thin thick mesh.
11. Cymbidium Light pink. The lip is covered with a solid crimson speck. - 620 p.
12. Cymbidium Large yellow flowers. - 620 p.
13. Cymbidium " Tonto ’ s Target » Warm bright yellow flowers with a maroon lip. - 620 p.
14. Brassavola nodose The flower is large, white with pale pale pink. - 650 p. (cash on delivery)
15. Cattleya - medium-sized bright yellow flower with burgundy speck inside. - 350 p.
16. Cattleya - small flowers, bright burgundy, a little cream. - 350 p.
17. Cattleya - very beautiful large flowers, three inner petals with corrugated edges. On a snow-white background in the center of the petals along a bright large yellow spot, more on the lip. There are bright purple prints on the tips of the petals, on the lip there are more. Very smart! - 1200 p.
18. Cattleya - very beautiful large flowers, three inner petals with corrugated edges. The flower is snow-white, there are barely noticeable lemon tides in the center of the petals, brighter on the lip. At the end of the lip there is a large dark purple print on ½ the surface of the petal. The white fringe is clearly defined. Occasionally, pale purple imprints appear on the top petals. - not
19. Cattleya - large flowers with white petals, with a pale pink blush. Lilac lip. - 700 p.
Note: in the presence of planting material Wanda Blue and Wanda Violet (by agreement).
. Paulownia felt (Paulownia tomentosa), Adam's tree, family Norichnikovs - spectacular, beautiful and unusual tree or a bush with giant (up to 50cm in diameter) heart-shaped or weakly lobed leaves, pubescent with light hairs, which is why they have a grayish-green color and a felt surface. Bluish-purple bell-shaped flowers are collected in large paniculate inflorescences located at the ends of the branches. - 500 p.
Holly (Osmanthus, ilex), Denmark - beautiful jagged glossy foliage, many small white flowers, after which the whole plant is decorated with large red berries. In Europe, it is a tradition to decorate a house for Christmas from evil spirits.
1.P. the leaves are rounded, the denticles along the edges are very small, almost do not prick. - 200 p.
2.P. variegated form. White-green to almost white. - 400 p. (cash on delivery only)
3.P. form of variegated On a light green background, yellow splashes, specks, mosaic. - 350 p. (cash on delivery only)
4.P. form of variegated The green center is framed by a wide yellow, deeply carved border on both sides. - 400 p. (cash on delivery only)
Pandorea Climbing shrub with opposite pinnately dissected bright green shiny leaves. Grows quickly, blooms willingly, unpretentious.
1. Pan. jasmine Liana. The leaves are a bit like the leaves of ampelous jasmine. Fragrant large tender lilac flowers-bells with a white center and veins, corrugated edges. - 200 p.
2. Pan. jasmine Power of Beauty » Fragrant flowers, deep pink, with a purple heart. - 400 p.
3. Pan. jasmine Ruby Bells » Bouquets of fragrant drooping tubular flowers, red with a creamy neck. - 600 p.
4. Pan. jasmine Southern Bells » Bouquets of fragrant large tubular flowers with wide rounded petals, pale pink with a yellow throat and dark pink prints. - 400 p.
5. Pan. jasmine Lady Di » alba Very pleasant and delicate aroma. Willingly blooms in a bouquet! Large snow-white bells with a yellow throat. - 400 p.
6. Pan. jasmine variegated Bright green foliage with a wide creamy yellow edge. Bouquets of large tubular flowers with wide petals. The flowers are white with a bright crimson spot in the neck. - 400 p.
. Papaya (melon tree) - 500 p.
1. Asplenium breeding, cultivar "Crocodyllus" - leaves of medium size, light green, without gloss. The network of brown veins creates an uneven surface and the effect of crocodile skin. - 300 p.
. 2. Asplenium daucifolium (carrot-leaved or viviparous) - very beautiful delicate thin foliage! - 300 p.
. 3. Asplenium daucifolium « Fern » - dill leaves! Leaves are short petiolate, 40-60 cm long, narrow linear segments 0.5-1 cm long and 1 mm wide. Delicate delicate greens! - 300 p.
4. Davallia - a fern with shaggy legs, grows in a thick curtain, leaves are graceful cut openwork. - 200 p.
. 5. Drinaria var. ( drynaria quercifolia var .) – 1500 RUB (fall)
6. Centipede leaflet ( phyllitis scolopendrium ), the variety " Ramosa Cristata » - very beautiful: leaves in a ruffle form absolutely curly bush! - 450 p.
7. Nephrolepis high (exaltata) "Rooseveltii" - luxurious, lush, very delicate variety, large with wide, fringed-dissected segments along the edge. - 250 p.
8. Nephrolepis high (exaltata) "Teddy" Medium size, lush and fluffy due to pinnately dissected wavy segments. - 250 p.
9. Nephrolepis cordifolia "Green Fantasy", compact . It looks like a dense bush sticking up. Narrow fronds with small closely-sitting round (1 cm in diameter) leaves. - 250 p.
10. Platycerium two-forked (Grande), "Deer horn". - 300 p.
11. Polypodium P . Aureum mandaianum - the most beautiful variety of this species! With blue-green leaves and wavy edges. 400 p. (temporarily not)
12. Xiphoid pteris ( ensiformis ) « Evergemiensis », Compact. Graceful light green foliage with silvery. - 300 p.
Jasmine variegated nightshade ( Solanum jasminoides aureovar .) Beautiful pinnately dissected bright yellow-green leaves! Liana. Can be shaped with a bush. - 250 p.
1.coriacea (leathery) Large, elongated in width in the form of a rhombus, the leaves are similar to a bat, with a spectacular painted color. The variety is exclusively decorative. Stands out from all! The flowers are small, inconspicuous. For lovers of the unusual! - 200 p.
2.aurantia (golden), compact. The leaves are small, similar in shape to oak leaves. The flowers are large, golden orange, the stamens are purple. 300 p.
3. citrina Large soft rough very textured quilted leaves of a beautiful shape. Bright yellow flowers with pointed narrow petals. Smart, effective. - 250 p.
4. Tricolor Variegated, with very beautiful multi-colored foliage: burgundy with a moray-silvery pattern. - 300 p.
5. Pinnatistipula Large purple flowers. - 400 p.
. Pachicormus multicolored (Pachycormus discolor), Elephant tree, family Sumakhovye - a unique representative of the family from Mexico! “Pachicormus” in translation from Greek means a thick trunk. This plant is also known as the elephant tree for its short, curved trunk, which splits into several powerful branches that diverge horizontally. The branches end in several short branches covered with a mass of red flowers. The brown, skin-like bark of this plant bursts and falls off every year so as not to interfere with growth. Pachicormus is a succulent plant. It is able to store a huge amount of moisture in the trunk and thickened roots and withstand the long dry period inherent in desert regions. The leaves are small, bloom immediately after the rainy season - in April, and by May they turn yellow and fall off. In June-August, pale pink or pinkish-red panicles of inflorescences begin to appear, and during this period pachicormus is visible from afar! - 600 RUB
Variegated pedilanthus Light green with white foliage. - 250 p.
PelargoniumNote: "Dwarf" - bush up to 20 cm
"Mini" - bush up to 10-15 cm
1. Arctic Princess , mini Densely double white flowers with pink blush spots. - 500 p.
2. Barnstondale, dwarf Densely double light cherry-pink flowers. - 250 p.
. 3. Brookside Betly , dwarf Double white flowers, sometimes pink blush, bright gold leaf with a rich brown zone in the middle. - 400 p.
. 4. Brookside Melody , miniature Terry white flowers with green, as they bloom, become milky white with a pink dusting. – 500 p.
. 5. Bulls eye Salmon - variegated variety. The foliage is dark chocolate in color, with a bright green border along the edge of the leaf. The flower is simple, large, very beautiful pale salmon color with light light strokes on the petals! The bush is compact, abundant flowering! Effectively! - 300 p.
Fern asplenium: how to grow it at home
Asplenium is one of the many fern species that is most commonly found in home gardening. Thanks to its unusual, exotic leaves, it has high decorative qualities and fits perfectly into any home interior. Asplenium cannot be called an unpretentious plant, but if you follow some agrotechnical recommendations, you can grow it in a greenhouse or apartment.
Secret ferns are ideal plants for a shady garden
Mysterious openwork fronds growing in the depths of the forest have always become the characters of various legends, mystical stories and fairy tales.
Long ago, a fern settled in the garden. Planting and caring for him requires certain conditions for placement and moisture, otherwise the forest dweller is not picky.
Many nationalities still believe that once a year, on the night of Ivan Kupala, an amazing flower still blooms, bringing happiness to those who see it, or indicate where the treasure is buried.
Alas, the lover of dense thickets does not bloom.
Because of the ability to reproduce by spores, the famous botanist Carl Linnaeus called ferns secret plants.
Where ferns are found in nature
They live in shady forests at the foot of tree trunks.
Some grow like epiphytes on the branches of large giants, get used to clinging to rock ledges, prefer wet banks of rivers and lakes, bog bogs, and even manage to perch on the walls of city buildings.
Ferns live everywhere, but their greatest variety is in the humid tropics and subtropics.
However, there are many species that grow in the temperate zone. Many of them are used in cultural cultivation. Among flower growers, they are known collectively as garden fern.
The oldest plants on the planet, ferns are extremely diverse and differ in their shapes, sizes, structural features and life cycle.
They don't have real leaves. What everyone calls leaves, it is more correct to call them flat-lined, or vayyas, which are a whole system of pagons located in one plane.
There are no flowers, they reproduce by spores or vegetatively - with the help of fragments of rhizome, frond, buds, aflebia (leaf-like processes at the base of frond) and other methods, in particular sexual reproduction in some varieties.
Spores, which are mistaken for fern seeds, are usually located on the underside of the frond.
Types of ferns grown in the garden
In temperate latitudes, plants with a short stem, immersed in the soil, are common. Above the surface of the soil, fronds, formed from the buds of the rhizome, unfold.
They are characterized by apical growth, and their main purpose is sporulation and photosynthesis.
The following garden species most willingly take root in the shady areas of the middle lane:
Ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris)
A graceful plant with airy fringes one and a half meters high and about 1 m in the circumference of the bush. Easily adapts to any conditions, picky about the composition of the soil, resistant to cold weather.
His only whim is the high moisture content of the soil.
He loves the shade more, in an open place it will grow shorter, and the fronds will be much lighter than that of an ostrich that grew under the canopy of trees.
In August, in the center of the rosette, forms sporophylls - brown, feathery and leathery.
Extremely frost-resistant species, it is not afraid of temperatures of 35 degrees below zero. Loves moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water.
The bush is rounded, pinnately dissected frond of light emerald color, incised along the edges, bending in an arc.
Female kochedyzhnik (Athyrium filix-femina)
An unpretentious view that will put up with even stagnant water.
Many varieties have been bred that differ in decorativeness, especially loved by LadyinRed flower growers - with red petioles and openwork dissected fronds.
However, in late summer or early autumn, after sporulation, they turn brown and look slightly decorative.
Japanese Cossack (Athyrium niponicum)
Well suited for mid-lane cultivation, loves moist, nutritious forest soil and shade, copes with low winter temperatures.
There are beautiful varieties of Metallica and Ursula’sRed, which have fronds with a silvery tint and purple veins.
Royal Osmunda (Osmunda regalis)
One of the most spectacular ferns with large, often almost two-meter leaves.
It is quite frost-resistant, but growers with experience in growing it are still advised to mulch the soil around it.
Osmunda requires regular watering, her spores, like the ostrich, quickly lose their germination, they must be sown only freshly harvested.
Bracken Fern (Pteridium aguillinum)
Differs in graceful double and triple-pinned fronds on long petioles, rigid, triangular-ovoid in shape.
The bracken is characterized by rapid growth, which turns into a disorderly cover.
The peculiarity of the plant is that the bags with spores are hidden in the wrapped edges of the leaves, and not like other ferns - they are simply attached from the bottom side. Used in food and folk medicine.
Scolopendrium leaflet (Phyllitis sclopendrium)
The popular synonym is "deer tongue". He has frond without dissection, which makes him different from other ferns.
It grows up to 50 cm, thermophilic, requires shelter for the winter.
Polystichum fern - several species from a numerous genus are grown in the garden - Brown (Polystichumbraunii), high-fruited (Polystichumacrostichoides), thorny (Polistichumaculeatum) and other herbaceous plants with leathery dense fronds growing from an obliquely growing rhizome. They are characterized by slow growth.
Ground cover ferns include several low and very showy plants:
Dryopteris Linnaeana (Dryopteris Linnaeana) - The root system of the fern is highly branched, intensively growing. Fronts are openwork, light green in color, triangular in outline, with double pinnately dissected lobes. Spores mature in June.
The plant is only 10-20 cm tall, withstands both frost and drought, but suffers greatly from direct sunlight, therefore it is planted only on the north side of buildings.
Hairy bone (Asplenium trichomanes) - the same low species as the previous one, growing no more than 20 cm in height. Prefers to grow in alkaline soil.
Fern centipede (Polypodium vulgare)
Forms a dense, beautiful canvas, which is often used for landscaping the roofs of high-rise buildings.
Floating salvinia (Salvinia natans)
The most common fern for water bodies is considered to be floating salvinia - an annual plant with pale green fronds, collected in pairs in whorls and drifting on the surface of the water. With the arrival of autumn, it sinks to the bottom, only spores winter.
Conditions for growing ferns in the garden
The most suitable place for perennials in the garden is a corner protected from direct rays on the north side of buildings located on an area where shade remains for most of the day.
Most of them do not like the sun, but if you ensure good watering, then in an open, illuminated place you can plant a female cochiner, osmunda, onokleu.
The mnogoryadnik, shititnik and telipteris absolutely do not tolerate bright lighting.
Ferns prefer light and nutritious garden soil that is constantly hydrated. They feel good near water bodies.
Slightly acidic soil is suitable for ostrich, kochedyzhnik, linnaeus, onoklei, male ferret, marsh telipteris, grows on swampy acidic soil.
Breeding features of ferns
Of all the possible methods in garden floriculture, reproduction by spores and division of overgrown bushes is usually used.
Growing fern from spores
Spores ripen in August - from yellowish-green to brown.
They look very small and delicate, they are incredibly afraid of drying out and sunlight.
They are sown in containers filled with peat, and the crops are covered with glass on top, or the entire container is placed in a transparent plastic bag.
The substrate inside is constantly kept hydrated.
Shoots appear in 2 weeks or a month.
Young seedlings dive twice, grow for at least 2 years, and only then are transplanted into open ground.
Plants grown in this way are distinguished by powerful bushes and resistance to adverse environmental conditions.
Dividing the bush
Most garden ferns are propagated by rhizome fragments or by dividing the bush into several parts.
Rhizome segments are used with a length of 20-25 cm, they should have at least 2 buds.
Those species that have a short rhizome and rosette growth are divided in the event that small daughter rosettes have formed next to an adult specimen.
It is best to divide the bush in early spring in cool, cloudy weather, while the fronds have not yet unfolded.
Dug out the bush, cut it between the sockets with a sharp knife so that there are enough well-developed roots on each division.
Sprinkle the slices with cinnamon or crushed charcoal. After transplanting, the plants are well watered.
It is permissible to divide the bush in the fall at the beginning of September or even at the end of summer - in the last days of August.
The main thing is that the weather on the day of transfer and for several days after is cool.
Those ferns that grow only at one point of growth and do not form rosettes are propagated exclusively by spores.
Features of planting ferns in the garden
Having chosen a suitable place, the plant is planted in a shallow hole, commensurate with the root system of the plant.
Pits are placed at a distance of 30-50 cm from one another, guided by the estimated size of an adult perennial.
A mixture of peat, compost and sand, taken in equal amounts, is poured at the bottom of the hole.
The perennial is positioned so that the base of the frond is not too buried in the ground, well watered and sprinkled with earth dug from the hole.
Planting the fern is completed by mulching the soil around the plant to retain moisture with last year's dry foliage or pine needles.
Often from the lips of flower growers the question sounds - is it possible to plant a fern near the house.
Discarding all mystical warnings, experts boldly answer them - as much as necessary, only from the north side and in the shadows.
Similar doubts arise in connection with statements about the energy vampirism of the plant.
They arose due to the ability of the fern to absorb a lot of oxygen at night, therefore, in a living room where people sleep, you cannot put a pot with an indoor fern - the next morning a migraine will be provided.
However, this does not apply to garden ferns, because they grow in the open, and the amount of oxygen they absorb will not affect those around them.
Another question arises - how frequent can be a fern transplant. The less often the better.
Plants do not like to be disturbed by their root system, especially by dividing.
Powerful beautiful bushes are formed over several years, any interference in this process stops their development.
Top Tips for Outdoor Fern Care
The main care measures are associated with regular watering of the plants, especially in hot summer weather.
The amount of water is not particularly limited if the surrounding air is dry - the plants are also sprayed with spray nozzles for a hose or watering can.
Fern soil should be constantly moist.
After drying, it is carefully loosened so as not to catch the root system of the plant, weeds are removed.
At the beginning of the growing season, perennials are fed once every three weeks with complex mineral fertilizers, and organic matter is introduced in early spring.
Preparing the fern for winter consists in mulching the near-root space with peat, as well as covering with spruce branches or fallen leaves.
For frost-resistant species, it is enough to sprinkle the center of the bush with dry leaves, although many plants do without this.
Fern diseases and pests
The decorativeness of fern plantings is seriously spoiled by slugs and snails that live in a humid environment.
They are collected by hand, if the colony is numerous, metaldehyde preparations are scattered between the bushes.
A serious problem for plants is represented by bacterial and fungal infections that cause decay of rhizomes and, as a result, the death of the entire bush.
The appearance of brown spots on the fronds is a signal for immediate action.
Affected fronds are cut and burned, and the whole plant is treated with a fungicide, for example, "Maxim".
As a preventive measure for diseases, they try to water so that the stream of water does not fall into the center of the bush.
Ferns in garden design with other plants (photo)
Spectacular forest aliens bring the natural mystery of a virgin corner of nature to the atmosphere of any garden.
The plant looks great on the shore of a reservoir, along garden paths, in a tree-trunk circle, ideal for creating rutaria or rockeries, for decorating the northern shaded slopes of alpine hills.