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Mycorrhizae in agriculture: what they are and why they are important

Mycorrhizae in agriculture: what they are and why they are important


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Are you curious to find out what they are thereand mycorrhizae and how can they be used to improve the quality of your crops? In this article we reveal all the curiosities about how to use them. Let's go!

What are mycorrhizae?

As a first step it is important to identify what is meant by the term mycorrhiza, that is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a plant defined as superior.

The fundamental aspect of this symbiosis is that tmutual advantage and benefits for the two bodies. The benefits can be both nutritional and not only.

In detail, mycorrhiza occurs when a specific fungus colonizes the root system of another plant and manages to establish a relationship with this that we have precisely defined symbiotic.

Classification of mycorrhizae

The mycorrhizae are basically divided into two broad categories: ectomycorrhizae is endomycorrhizae.

Specifically, the praises are more important for our analysis, since the ectomycorizzes are able to colonize a few species of plants.

In detail, these manage to come into contact only with the conifers and broad-leaved trees, of little importance within agriculture.

Among the most famous commendations it is important to mention i truffles which in fact form a real mantle in the immediate vicinity of the plant roots. We have told you about truffles in this article: Growing truffles: how to do it and what are the secrets of excellent production

On the contrary, endomycorrhizae are personally involved within agricultural crops and for this reason they are the ones we focus on the most because of their primary importance.

The substantial and inevitable difference with respect to ectomycorizzes consists in the introduction into the tissues of organisms without forming any type of external mantle.

Land endomycorrhizae can also penetrate the cortical part of the root without ever being able to enter the central cylinder. Their action comes into close contact with the cells, managing to invade all those spaces defined as intercellular.

Endomycorrhizae are much more famous and known, in fact there are more than 150 species, it is no coincidence that these are able to colonize more than 95% of all species of plant origin.

We certainly consider them more important than ectomicorizze because these actively affect the species developed in agriculture. Among these we certainly find theand fruit trees and very extensive crops For example corn and soy, extremely widespread in our country.

Why are mycorrhias important in agriculture?

After analyzing specifically what they are and how they are classified, it is important to understand their use and why they are considered extremely important in agriculture.

First of all the mycorrhizae are fundamental since they are able to absorb from the soil substances and nourishment, as well as water.

The mycorrhized plants are also stronger and more predisposed to face environmental stress.

Another advantage gained by mycorrhized plants is the ability to eliminate the presence of toxic metals in the soil and they are also able to protect the plant from fungi and any nematodes. Also the tolerance to climatic changes turns out to be considerably better.

A mycorrhized plant is certainly more predisposed to fight the water stress, also managing to transfer nutrients from dead plants to living ones.

Without a shadow of a doubt, the plants that have grown in an environment rich in mycorrhias are able to produce more rich and nutritious.

But the benefits didn't stop there. Furthermore, mycorrhizae improve the soil structure e the latter will certainly be more oxygenated, less prone to erosion.

Now you will surely know how to answer the question of what mycorrhizae are and thus start using them in your garden or in your crops.

Do you think the information in this article is incomplete or inaccurate? Send us a report to help us improve!



The ladybugs, belonging to the order of Coccinellidae, They are small beetles present in all areas of the world in approx 6,000 different species. They are very small in size, with almost imperceptible measures, come on 6 to 10 mm. They have a "shield", or the back, of red color, with two black spots right on it. They have always been used inbiological agriculture because their essential nourishment is constituted by those "enemy" insects of our garden. Two above all? Larvae and ... aphids!

Ladybirds insects are “tireless” beetles: they are characterized by their efficiency and their voracity.

Ladybirds aphids

Aphids are tiny insects with parasitic action whose presence on some genera varies depending on the plant "hit". In agriculture it is common for roses and roses to attack pomegranates, while in a simple context ornamental cultivation it is easy to "find" them on those plants in conditions that are somewhat lacking in maintenance, such as cases of excessive humidity or those of exposure too sunny.

However, the aphids they are not a major problem. Of course, from an ornamental point of view they "invade" stems and foliage, but it is good to eradicate them for that white and sticky substance they produce, honeydew. Which favors the development and habitat of pathogens or insects (white fly in the first place) that can seriously lead the affected variety to rapid decay.

Their insecticidal action

On the market they can be buy small larvae of ladybugs, and their use is exclusively ... insecticide! These, in fact, once reached it adult stage, are able to "annihilate" even more than one hundred aphids a day, eliminating in a very short time a problem common to all lovers of pure and simple gardening.

This use of them should not worry, on the contrary. It is all covered in the integrated biological pest management: that is, the use of antagonistic insects against those that are the animals for us ... most harmful. Just "deposit" the ladybugs on the damaged variety and wait for the best results in a very short time.


WHAT ARE RENEWABLE ENERGIES AND WHAT ARE THEY?

We often hear about renewable energies, but not everyone is clear what the meaning of these words is.

Every day we use fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) and their derivatives: these forms of energy are not infinite and will soon run out, mainly due to the increasing and often excessive use. Let's think about what would happen if we could no longer power our cars, home heaters or power plants. The world would stop.

For this reason, new forms of energy are sought, which can be exploited relentlessly, i.e. energies that can be renewed over time in order to be able to reuse them. The renewable energies we are using nowadays are: wind, marine, hydroelectric, geothermal, solar and biomass.

Wind energy is the one that uses the thrust of air currents to move wind turbines, which in turn drive turbines that generate electricity.

Marine energy and hydroelectric power work the same way, but exploit the currents of the seas and rivers.

If we think of windmills and water mills, we realize that these types of energy had already been exploited by our ancestors, to transform them into mechanical energy, to make certain heavy jobs easier.

Geothermal energy exploits the heat of the Earth. As it is difficult to transport, it is used locally, ie to power the structures close to the geothermal power plant.

Solar energy has been exploited for a short time, but with great results, as photovoltaic panels, which can be installed on the roofs of any building or on land exposed to the sun, are enough to absorb the energy of the sun and transform it into electricity.

Finally, energy derived from biomass, i.e. from organic waste, is one of the best methods for disposing of all waste from food production, agriculture, fishing, forestry, etc.

Many countries are looking for new forms of "green" energy, to avoid pollution of the planet, and renewables.


Biostimulants for your garden. What are they and why are they safe and easy to use?

Substances that, applied in small quantities, help plant growth, biostimulants are safe formulations, easy to use and able to help prevent plant problems

Although used for about 20 years in agriculture (but were also used in the past, albeit in different forms), biostimulant products are formulated innovative for the care of greenery at an amateur level. These are nourishing and strengthening substances, which in the basic formula contain amino acids of organic origin to stimulate the vital processes in horticultural, fruit and ornamental plants, improving their resistance to adversity. For this reason, Adama Casa e Giardino has chosen to offer them, also addressing them to those involved in home gardening, terrace, garden, vegetable garden and orchard.

How do biostimulants work?

Biostimulants intervene at the level of plant metabolism, inducing greater strength in the plant and accentuating the possibility of development are very important in the key moments (rooting, early stages of development, production of buds, fruit enlargement). They also make plants less sensitive to environmental problems, adverse weather conditions and parasites (diseases, insects, bacteria and viruses). They do not carry out an insecticidal action but rather a preventive action, stimulating the reactions of the plants and creating a lower predisposition to infestations.

How and how much to use biostimulants

The biostimulants proposed by Adama Casa and Giardino have liquid formulations that are very easy and safe to use. Some are allowed in organic farming and in any case they can all be used both on ornamental, horticultural and fruit plants, in the different specific formulations for different categories of plants. To view the products, click here.

When it is the climate that creates problems

"There are no more seasons" is a phrase that is often heard and which is unfortunately true. Climate change brings very strong weather adversities, capable of creating difficulties for plants. To strengthen them against the stresses caused by rain, frost, hail, excess or water shortage, it helps Adama House and Garden - K-Esir, biostimulant with a specific action, which favors the overcoming of stress, nourishes and strengthens even the most delicate phases of the life of each plant.

Adama Home and Garden - K-Esir is an innovative biostimulant based on fluid hydrolyzed animal epithelium, allowed in organic farming. The particular composition improves vigor, increases flowering and also acts on the size and color of the fruit. Excellent for ornamental, vegetable and fruit plants, even in pots.


WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF MICORRIZE

by GermoglioVerde Published on 2 April 2020 Updated on 9 March 2021

After analyzing specifically what mycorrhizae are and how they are classified, it is important to understand their use and why they are considered extremely important in agriculture.

  • First of all the mycorrhizae are fundamental since they are able to absorb from the soil substances and nourishment, as well as water.
  • The mycorrhized plants are also stronger and more predisposed to face environmental stress.
  • Another advantage acquired by mycorrhized plants is the ability to eliminate the presence of toxic metals in the soil and are also able to protect the plant from fungi and any nematodes. Tolerance to climatic changes is also significantly better.
  • A mycorrhized plant is certainly more predisposed to combat water stress, also managing to transfer nutrients from dead plants to living ones.
  • Without a doubt, the plants that have developed in an environment rich in mycorrhias are able to produce richer and more nutritious products.
  • But the benefits didn't stop there. Mycorrhizae also improve the structure of the soil and the latter will certainly be more oxygenated, less prone to erosion

THE BENEFITS OF THE ROOT SYSTEM OF THE PLANT

Thanks to mycorrhization, there is a significant increase in the root system of the plant (both real and supplementary). Consequently, this brings frequent advantages and benefits:

  • Increased water absorption and storage capacity.
  • High absorption of nutritional elements already present in the soil or in those added.
  • Greater tolerance to stress: such as eg. from transplantation, drought, thermal, etc ..
  • Preventive induction of self-defense present in plants.
  • Restoration of soil microbial biodiversity, an integral part of fertility.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF A MICORRIZED PLANT

The positive effects of mycorrhizae on plants are numerous.

  • The main one is the increase in the capacity of absorption of nutrients minerals and water from the soil.
    The expansion of the external mycelium of the fungus beyond the rhizosphere is the main reason for this effect, since it allows the achievement of nutrients outside the area of ​​action of the roots.

The creation of this particular microenvironment that is created in the rhizosphere, generates an antagonistic activity by subtracting space from the root pathogens which allows the plant to be healthier.

The increase in the absorption capacity of nutrients it is due to the establishment of a further absorption apparatus for the plant (network of extra-radical hyphae) which possesses a higher capacity for "exploitation" of the soil (Figure). The extra-radical hyphae, having a diameter smaller than that of the fine roots, are able to penetrate into small pores and also develop over greater distances, overcoming any areas poor in nutrients. This improves the absorption of all nutrients and water.

In particular, the mycorrhizal symbiosis favors the absorption of macro (P, N, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Fe), elements that are transported to the arbuscule level and from this transferred to the plant.

WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS FOR THE FIELD

The exchange of nutrients put in place by the mycorrhiza process is grafted into a process of symbiotic agriculture, which makes the soil and crops particularly fertile, bringing the following benefits:

1) FOR THE PLANT

  • Strengthening of the root system even up to 800 times thanks to mycorrhizal and filamentous fungi.
  • Greater availability of nutrients and microelements also for the action of the P.G.P.R. (growth-promoting bacteria of the rhizosphere).
  • Conferment of a greater vigor and rusticity to the plant due to the more nutrition.
  • Sustenance of the plant in the presence of abiotic stress such as water.
  • Stimulation of the plant through the endogenous production of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins.

2) FOR THE SOIL

  • Soil structure modification, such as: through the production of bacterial polysaccharides.
  • Restoration of soil biodiversity through the establishment of a beneficial and selected microflora, specific to the rhizosphere.
  • Contrast to the so-called "reimplantation syndrome" restoring the microbial "complexity", often reduced by the massive use of fungicides and fumigants.
  • Soil enrichment of organic substance thanks to the contribution of the life cycle of microorganisms (relevant starting from the 3rd year).
  • Increased microbial viability already present in the soil.

3) FOR PREVENTION

  • Prevention (to broad spectrum) of the most widespread radical diseases thanks to the antagonism of the microbial consortium with the pathogens for the occupation of the microbiological niche.
  • Increased mechanical strength of root tissues (such as: lignification and suberification of cell walls).
  • Induction of systemic resistance through the up regulation and down regulation or even the disappearance of specific genes.
  • Reduction of the incidence of diseases iatrogenic (those derived from the improper use of agro-drugs or phyto-toxic substances).
  • Active response to the increasingly frequent "immuno-compression"Of plants due to the inoculation of a renewed microbial flora.

4) FOR HARVEST AND PRODUCTION

  • It contributes to the increase in fruit size for the greater nutrition that the plant is able to exploit.
  • It favors the anticipation of the interruption of the dormancy of the buds.
  • It supports the fruit set because the plant has sufficient resources to support a greater number of fruits.
  • Reduces failures for the preventive antagonistic action carried out by the saprophytic fungi present in the consortium.
  • It anticipates and evens out ripening.
  • Increase yields: o for a lower loss of plants and / or a greater specific weight and / or a greater number of fruits.
  • Greater uniformity in products collected thanks to the connection by the extra-radical mycelium of the different plants and the reallocation of resources between them.

5) FOR QUALITY

  • Prolongs shelf life due to the high presence of antioxidants.
  • Improve the texture of the fruit and optimizes their coloring.
  • Facilitates the accumulation of sugars and consequently the degree of brix.
  • Enhances the organoleptic characteristics for the increase of phenols

6) FOR HEALTH

  • Boost functional foods (those that have positive effects on the human body) and nutraceutical aspects (substances beneficial to health contained in them).
  • It reduces the residues of plant protection products.
  • It decreasesthe accumulation of nitrates and helps to keep the harvested products within the permitted limits.
  • Reducesthe environmental impact.

OTHER ADVANTAGES

  • Mycorrhizae increase stress tolerance, prevent root diseases, optimize the use of fertilizers, reclaim the soils, so they are indicated in the "tiredness" of the land.
  • Increased drought resistance and resistance to high salinity levels. Mycorrhizae also increase the tolerance of plants to conditions of limited water and salt stress, as a result of an increase in the hydraulic conductivity of the roots, an improvement in the regulation of stomata and cellular osmotic potential and a greater capacity for water extraction. for a higher contact surface of the hypha-root system with soil particles
  • Partial mechanical barrier effect against pathogenic fungi and some nematode species. In fact, it has been observed that root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi determines a physiological and biochemical change in the cells of the root system.

Several studies have shown that mycorrhization induces an increase in the production and accumulation of phenolic compounds in the cell walls of the roots. This determines a greater rigidity of the cell walls and a lower digestibility by the degradative enzymes of some fungal pathogens.

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Description

“I have no merit in being a vegetarian, I am a vegetarian from birth” But Margherita Hack has great merit: denouncing in these pages a barbarism that so often escapes us more or less voluntarily. Using science as always, he writes important words in defense of all animals, to shake consciences and make us reflect on the future.

Margherita Hack, the greatest living astronomer, deals here with a highly topical topic, accompanying it with personal experiences and quotes from great vegetarians in history, literature and art from Plutarch to Einstein, as well as Leonardo da Vinci himself.

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Book Details

publisher Dell'Altana Editions
Year of publication 2011
Format Book - Pages: 125 - 12x16,5cm
EAN13 9788886772518
You can find it in: Vegetarianism

Author

Margherita Hack (Florence, 1922 - Trieste, 2013) was a world-renowned astrophysicist, writer and intellectual, member of the most renowned physical and astronomical societies in the world. Since 2002 honorary president of the «Union of atheists and rationalist agnostics». She has published research works, university texts and popular books that have made her very popular both among the scientific community and among conventional literary criticism. She was also the first woman to direct an astronomical observatory in Italy, while carrying out the important business of. Continue reading Margherita Hack's Biography

When and how is it used?

You can use it on all plants in the ground and in pots. It is mainly used as an organic amendment of maintenance, at the time of transplant or during the repotting.

There are many products containing leonardite for sale online. We at mygreenhelp have selected two products that we believe to be of excellent quality. These are Geosan and Geostim, the first in granular formulation while the second concentrated liquid.

In the case of Geosan, the application is very simple, just distribute the organic fertilizer leonardite around the plant, taking care to bury it lightly or cover it with soil. For Geostim, the recommended application is via leaves, the product must therefore be diluted in water and sprayed on the plant tissues of the plant.


Video: Growing Mycorrhizal Fungi, Part One


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