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16 best wine grape varieties

16 best wine grape varieties


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Some gardeners manage to make wine from almost every available grape variety. However, the technology of wine production involves the use of certain varieties of culture, filled with a whole bunch of aromas. The most popular white and blue wine varieties are discussed in this article.

The best wine grape varieties

The grapes from which juices and wine are made are called technical. The characteristic of the bunches looks modest in comparison with the table species:

  • medium to small size with densely packed fruits;
  • the average weight of the hand is 120-150 grams;
  • high content of juice (75-85% by weight of the berry);
  • the sugar content exceeds 18%.

Wine grapes bear fruit well and consistently. This is facilitated by the increased resistance of plants to fungal infections and pest attacks. Next, we will find out which variety is best suited for winemaking.

The best white varieties for winemaking

Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a world-famous technical grade of Western European origin. It is not possible to thoroughly find out the pedigree, but there is an opinion that the variety appeared thanks to the crossing of Pinot noir and Gue blanc.

Berries are processed to produce wines with different flavor notes and fruity aromas. Also, part of the harvest is annually sent for the manufacture of wine materials, which are subsequently used as a champagne flavor enhancer.

Brief characteristics of the plant:

  • the bush is medium-sized, although strong-growing lashes are also found;
  • the growing season lasts 130-140 days;
  • flowers are bisexual, which ensures good pollination;
  • conical clusters are loose, weight reaches 900-1000 grams;
  • white-green berries are set off with a golden tint;
  • fruit shape - rounded slightly elongated;
  • grape weight - 12-15 gr., each contains 2-3 seeds;
  • sugar content - 18% with an acidity of 8-12 g / l;
  • yield - 8-12 t / ha;
  • the culture is frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to minus 20 °.

Chardonnay tolerates drought, with an excess of humid environment, the fruits can rot. Resistance to mildew and powdery mildew is moderate.

Bianca

Wine material from Bianchi has an unrivaled taste with notes of vanilla and almonds. For the production of table, semi-sweet and other wines, blending with other juices with a low sugar content is used. This helps to avoid the sweetness that is characteristic of this grape.

The grape was bred in Hungary, the parents are Villars Blanc and Chasselas Bouvier.

Brief characteristics of the plant:

  • early ripening, growing season - 110-120 days;
  • medium-sized bush;
  • cylindrical brushes, weight 90-120 gr .;
  • fruits are small and medium, weight 1.5 gr .;
  • the shape of the berries is round, slightly elongated, the color is greenish-yellow;
  • the skin is thin, the taste is harmonious, filled with a bouquet of aromas;
  • the crop does not lose its presentation on the vine after the onset of full maturity;
  • sugar content - 20-28% with an acidity of 7-9 g / l;
  • there is a high resistance to mildew, gray rot, oidium, tolerance to phylloxera;
  • frost resistance - up to minus 27 °.

Muscat

Medium-early ripening muscat with a growing season of 130-140 days. Muscat is one of the oldest varieties originating from Syria, Arabia and Egypt. The peculiarity of the culture is the ability to accumulate a high level of sugar (up to 25% with an acidity of 6.5-7 g / l).

A brief description of:

  • medium-sized bush;
  • the weight of a conical bunch is 100-450 grams;
  • berries sit tightly on the brush, the weight of one is on average 4 grams;
  • the taste is saturated with nutmeg;
  • yield - 66-109 c / ha;
  • disease resistance is low.

Excellent marketability and taste outweighs poor survival in adverse climatic conditions. Grapes immediately react to a lack of moisture and its excess, is not resistant to low temperatures, and requires potassium dressing.

Sauvignon Blanc

The variety was obtained by crossing Chenin Blanc and Taminer. Thanks to its excellent taste, balance of sugar and acid, grapes are recognized all over the world. The peculiarity of the culture is the timely harvest. When overripe, the berry loses its properties and taste, becomes unsuitable for winemaking.

A brief description of:

  • growing season 130-135 days;
  • bushes are medium-sized, but powerful enough with a developed root system;
  • clusters of small size, weight is 75-120 grams;
  • the berry is small, the color is greenish-white with a waxy coating (each contains 2-3 seeds);
  • low yield;
  • sugar content - 18-23% with an acidity of 6.7-11 g / l.

The culture shows weak resistance to powdery mildew and gray mold, tolerance to mildew. In growing conditions with high humidity, shedding of flowers is noted. Soils are preferable with the content of clayey interlayers, as well as gravel and sandy inclusions.

Riesling

The variety, donated by nature itself, is considered the king in winemaking. High-quality wines are made from berries with excellent taste, which are filled with different notes and shades.

A brief description of:

  • growing season - 140-150 days;
  • dense clusters, weight 80-100 gr.;
  • berries are yellow-green with a bluish tinge, weight 1.3-1.5 g., rounded shape;
  • the skin is dense, but thin;
  • frost resistance up to minus 20 °;
  • full ripening of fruits occurs in October-November;
  • sugar content 18% with acidity 9-11 g / l;
  • disease resistance is low.

Fruiting grapes on different soils, but land with lime content is more acceptable.

Pinot Blanc

The representative of the Pinot family is characterized by multifaceted taste, it is used to make still, sparkling and dessert wines. Burgundy is the birthplace of the plant, but today almost all European countries and other regions can boast of high yields.

A brief description of:

  • growing season - 140-150 days;
  • clusters of medium density weighing 85-150 grams;
  • berries of a round shape, yellow-green color, weight 1.4-1.7 g;
  • the average sugar content reaches 20%.

The peculiarity of the variety lies in the low content of acid and aromatic substances, as a result of which Pinot Blanc is recommended for making wine, which should be consumed by young people.

What are the best varieties for red wine

Pinot noir

Black fruitful grapes ripen in 141-151 days. There is no reliable information about the origin, but Traminer and Pinot Meunier are considered the likely parents. The bush is medium-sized with an unusual color of the lower leaves (green with a red tint). The flowers are bisexual, there are no problems with pollination. A bunch of small sizes, weighing 66-120 grams, the shape is often cylindrical. The berry has a pleasant taste, colorless juice, balanced sugar content. Its shape is round, the color is dark blue.

The yield of Pinot Noir is 50-60 c / ha. The plant is vulnerable to phylloxera, tolerance to gray rot, powdery mildew is manifested.

Grapes develop poorly on flat and low relief.

Saperavi

A very old Georgian grape variety with dark blue berries. Saperavi vegetation period is 150-160 days, harvesting begins in late September - early October. The bush is beautifully hung with wide-conical bunches with small grapes, the weight of one is 90-100 gr. The berry is very juicy with a harmonious taste, its weight barely exceeds 1 g. Each contains 2-3 seeds.

The plant has a weak resistance to mildew, oidium, at high humidity it is affected by gray rot. In comparison with other varieties, it is less likely to be damaged by a leafworm.

The yield of Saperavi is 90-110 kg / ha. The culture is frost-resistant, survives the winter without shelter at a temperature not exceeding -20 °.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon berries are very juicy with a balanced taste, shaded by a hint of currant. The variety was bred in France, but is now cultivated in many countries of the world. Technical ripeness occurs in 143-165 days. The bunch has the shape of a cylinder, the weight is 70-80 grams. Each berry contains 1-3 seeds. The skin is dark blue in color of medium density, which ensures good preservation and transportability of the fruit.

Productivity - 55-60 c / ha. There is an increased resistance of the culture to mildew and gray rot. In comparison with other varieties, it resists phylloxera, leafworm attacks better.

Cabernet Franc

Technical ripeness occurs in 145-160 days. The unusual taste of berries is filled with different notes, in which raspberries and blackberries are felt. Cylindrical bunches have a dark blue color, the weight does not exceed 70-90 grams. The yield is low (35-40 c / ha), but this is compensated by the good resistance of the plant to mildew, phylloxera.

Merlot

The Merlot variety was bred in France, the intended parents are Cabernet Franc, crossed with Magdalene and Noir de Charente. Bunches of medium size and density, have a dark blue color with a characteristic waxy bloom, weighing 110-150 grams. The taste is balanced with a touch of nightshade.

The grapes ripen in 152-164 days. The plant shows average resistance to powdery mildew, phylloxera, mildew. Frost resistance - up to minus 15-17 °.

Sangiovese

Italian thermophilic technical grape with a vegetation period of 145-160 days... The bushes are medium-sized, the flowers are bisexual, the clusters are cylindrical of medium density, weighing up to 100 grams. There are many clones that have slightly different parameters of the berries (0.7 - 1.3 grams). The flavor of the fruit, saturated with different notes, adds sophistication to any drink.

Syrah

The variety is resistant to cold and high temperatures, but does not tolerate strong winds and drought. Taste qualities meet the requirements for technical varieties of grapes, however, it cannot boast of a high yield (30 c / ha). The juice of the fruits of mature plants is saturated with a beautiful dark purple hue and density. Fruit ripening period is 145-158 days. The weight of a broad-conical bunch is within 80-120 gr.

Syrah is very capricious to weather conditions and requires a lot of light and heat.

Carmenere

The grape belongs to the old French varieties with a growing season of 152-165 days. Currently, it is widely cultivated mainly in Chile, it is considered the pride of the country. The bushes of the plant are vigorous, the bunch can be in the form of a cylinder, wide-conical and shapeless, weight is 75-100 grams.

A medium-sized berry barely weighs 1 g, but the pulp is very tasty, sweet, but without sugary. The beautiful dark purple color makes it possible to produce wines from pink to dark in color.

Carmenere is very sensitive to weather conditions, cold, shows low resistance to diseases. However, the grapes survived the phylloxer.

Mourvedre

A late-ripening plant native to Spain. The bushes are well developed, have a strong vine and root system. Leaves are medium in size with a characteristic three-lobed shape. Dark blue berries are often rounded, but can take on a slightly oval shape, the parameters are average. Productivity with low watering is up to 60 kg / ha, but with regular irrigation it can significantly increase. The bunches are formed in the form of a cone or cylinder, the berries are tightly pressed against each other.

The culture has a weak resistance to fungal infections, but it tolerates prolonged drought rather tolerably, and high requirements are not imposed on the type of soil when planting.

Grenache

A versatile variety, but most often the fruit is used to make grapes and juice. The variety is one of the most abundant on the planet due to the versatility of the vine. The grapes are very thermophilic, easily tolerate drought and heat. There are also no high requirements for the soil when planting seedlings. Productivity in dry conditions is high - up to 20 kg / ha. Features of berries: low acidity, juiciness, ruby ​​color, rich aroma.

Each variety has unique qualities that give the wine a unique shade and aroma. Before choosing a variety, it is necessary to clarify the compatibility of the wine material with juices of other varieties, then at home you can create an exquisite drink, and most importantly - an exclusive one, the taste of which will remain in your memory for a long time.


Grape varieties for white wine

White wine is less dense and rich, it has less tannins, and the taste is softer than that of red. We will tell you which varieties are better to pay attention to!

Chardonnay

The most popular and most versatile European variety for all occasions. It is suitable for making wines with different fruity and floral notes, and is also used to improve the taste of champagne.

Bianca

Wine from Bianca has slightly almond and vanilla notes. And if you need something less cloying, the variety goes well with other savory ones in blends.

Aligote

The French variety is good for table wines, blends, champagne and high quality juices. Its berries are immediately distinguished by a yellow-green color with dark dots.

Sauvignon blanc

A very harmonious and balanced variety, not overly demanding. But it is fundamentally important to harvest on time, otherwise it will lose its qualities.

Muscat

One of the most ancient varieties was grown in Egypt and Syria. The high sugar content and excellent taste outweigh its capriciousness and whimsical weather conditions.


The best varieties of spring flowering spirits

Spireas blooming in spring usually do it amicably on the shoots of the previous year. And after they fade, they are cut off.

Spirea gray Grefsheim

A beautifully flowering deciduous shrub. It is easily recognizable by its numerous beautifully drooping arched branches. This variety is very unpretentious. Blooms continuously every year. The branched part of the bush is spreading. The diameter and height of the bush reaches 1.5–2 m. This variety of spirea is often used in single plantings. And also it coexists well with other plants. Excellent hedges are formed from it.

This variety blooms in May-June. The size of the flowers is 1cm. They are snow-white, located on developed pedicels of the same length. Shoots are very densely covered with them. When dissolved, the leaves are dark green, and with the arrival of autumn they turn yellow. On the underside of the leaves, down is observed. Spiraea gray Grefsheim is undemanding to the soil, grows on any cultivated garden soils.

According to reviews, this variety has good frost resistance, but in severe winters, young shoots sometimes freeze. The plant loves the sun and reacts normally to drought. The bushes are easy to trim. The flowering period is about 45 days. This variety is hybrid and therefore does not propagate with seeds. The life span of the plant reaches 30 years. Bushes can suffer from spider mites.

Dignity

  • flowering period is about 45 days
  • unpretentious plant
  • grows on almost any soil
  • is going through pruning well enough
  • the bush lives up to 30 years
  • good winter hardiness.

Disadvantages

Spirea Arguta

An ornamental hybrid shrub obtained by crossing the Thunberg spirea and multiflorous. The stems of an adult plant can reach 2 m. The branches can spread up to 3 m in diameter. The dense curtain of the crowns of this variety of spirea makes an excellent hedge. This plant also looks impressive in single plantings. The bushes of this spirea are harmoniously combined with conifers.

The leaves are narrow, lanceolate, with numerous sharp notches. Their color is dark green. The branches of the Argut spirea are thin, arcuate. In the last week of May, white flowers appear on them. They usually have 5 petals, and the diameter of the buds is 8 mm.The flowers are fluffy due to the large number of stamens. During lush flowering, the leaves are almost invisible. And the branches sag under the weight of the inflorescences.

In the reviews, gardeners note that the bush of this variety of spirea develops slowly. For a year, the size of the stems increases by only 10-20 cm. And yet the bush needs pruning. Spirea Arguta grows on any soil. But for better development of the bush, it is advisable to add fertilizer to the pit when planting. The shrub is unpretentious, withstands temperatures down to -40 ° C degrees. It has good resistance to major diseases.

Dignity

  • beautiful bush
  • graceful white flowers
  • tolerates temperature drop well
  • undemanding to soil composition
  • good immunity against diseases.

Disadvantages

Spirea Wangutta

This variety of spirea blooms profusely and looks very beautiful. The height of the shrub and its diameter can reach 2 m. The branched part of the plant is spreading, the stems are curved, arched, forming cascades. It is actively used for single landings. In groups with other plants, it also looks very good. For a year, the shrub grows 20 cm in height and width. He begins to bloom from 2 years of age.

The shape of the leaves resembles an egg. From above they have a dark green color, and from below they have a bluish bloom. In autumn, they turn reddish-purple and remain so until falling off in early October. The flowers reach 1 cm in diameter. They have a snow-white color and form inflorescences - umbrellas. Covering the entire bush tightly, they create the appearance of an avalanche. Flowering begins in the first weeks of June.

Landscape designers and gardeners speak very well of this variety. They like that this shrub is very easy to care for. This variety, unlike most spirits, even tolerates calcareous soils. Flowering continues for 4 weeks. The plant feels great in direct sunlight, but it can also tolerate partial shade. If the ends of the shoots freeze during the winter, then in the spring they are removed.

Dignity

  • profuse flowering
  • cascading crowns
  • can even grow on calcareous soils
  • blooms for 4 weeks
  • unpretentious shrub to care for.

Disadvantages

Spirea Thunberg

The shrub looks very graceful and attractive. Light brown shoots rush up and then fall to the ground. Branches and leaves at the top form a dome. The height and width of the plant reaches 1.5-1.8 m. Landscape designers often use this variety in their compositions. Spirea Thunberg makes an excellent hedge that absorbs dust and smog from the roadways.

The leaflets are linear (length - 2.5 cm, width - 0.6 cm), have small denticles along the edge. Their color is pale green, close to yellow. By autumn, they acquire a golden color and do not crumble for a long time. The buds are pink and the flowers are white. They have 5 petals and visually resemble stars. They form many inflorescences, reaching a diameter of 2-3 cm. They usually bloom in early spring.

According to reviews, the Spirea Thunberg bush has an average growth rate. But if you plant this plant in the shade, then the correct shape of the crown, resembling a ball, will be lost. It will become lopsided. For the harmonious development of the shrub, the lighting must be uniform. Spirea Thunberg is able to withstand temperatures as low as -20 ° C. But with more severe frosts, freezing of the ends of the shoots is possible.

Dignity

  • the bush has graceful leaves
  • beautiful, abundant flowering
  • medium cold resistance
  • great for hedges.

Disadvantages

Spirea Nippon Snowmound

Of the spirits blooming in spring, this one is one of the most spectacular. It is a wide spreading shrub. Its height can be 1.5-2 m. The crown reaches 2-3 m in diameter. Its branches are curved, arched. In a year, the shrub grows by 25 cm. This variety of spirea looks great in combination with other crops on lawns, forest edges, as well as along park roads.

The leaves (2-4 cm long) are oval in shape. Their color changes from dark green to red in the fall. White flowers have some yellowness. They are quite large, and their inflorescences form scutes. They are strewn with shoots of the second year. Flowering begins in early summer and lasts 2-3 weeks. At the end of this period, it is recommended to carry out a timely haircut.

Gardeners in the reviews note that Spirea Nippon Snowmound is resistant to frost, disease, and urban conditions. It has no special requirements for the constituents of the soil. Spirea of ​​this variety propagates by seeds or special parts of the plant used for vegetation. Due to its abundant flowering and beautiful thin branches, it attracts attention both near and at a distance.

Dignity

  • the bushes look attractive and spectacular
  • flowering lasts 3-4 weeks
  • likes direct sunlight
  • tolerates temperature drop well
  • lends itself well to pruning.

Disadvantages

Spirea oak-leaved

The homeland of this variety is considered to be the middle zone of Russia. It is a fairly tall (up to 2 m) shrub. It has long stems, which are strewn with a large number of inflorescences, from which they bend beautifully to the ground. The collection of branches and leaves at the top of the plant forms a rounded shape. This variety is actively used to form hedges. Landscape designers appreciate this spirea for its lush bloom and graceful foliage.

The leaves have an oblong ovoid shape. They are spiky with large denticles along the edge. Their length reaches 5 cm. From above they are green, and from below they are gray-gray. In autumn, the foliage acquires an even, yellow color. The flowers are white, reaching a diameter of 1.5 cm. They form half-spherical inflorescences. This variety begins to bloom in early May. This process lasts a little over three weeks.

According to reviews, this plant tolerates midwinter well. But in severe frosts, it needs wrapping. The shrub develops more harmoniously on rich soils than on poor ones. Grows well in open sunlight or partial shade. After pruning, the crown recovers fairly quickly. The plant can be attacked by common pests of garden crops: aphids, leaf rollers, spider mites.

Dignity

  • lush bloom
  • graceful foliage
  • quickly restores the crown after pruning
  • blooms for 25 days.

Disadvantages

Spirea crenate

This variety of spirits has a rather rare degree of distribution. It is a shrub whose height is usually about 1 m. The upper part of the bush is branched, loose, resembling a wide oval or cone in shape. The branches grow straight. They are angularly ribbed and have a brownish-red color. Stems are brown, not particularly ribbed. At first they have downy hair, and then they become naked.

This spirea differs from others due to the characteristic crenate edge of the leaf and the three main veins present below. The flowers have a white-yellow color. They are collected in scute inflorescences. The average flowering time is 20 days. Typically, this period occurs in late spring and early summer.

There are mostly positive reviews about this variety of spirea. Gardeners note that the plant tolerates temperatures as low as -23 ° C. Also, it is not harmed by aridity and weak soil composition. It feels quite comfortable in partial shade, but develops more harmoniously with sufficient lighting. Belongs to the varieties protected in reserves.

Dignity

  • characteristic crenate edge of the leaf
  • tolerates temperatures as low as -23 ° C
  • unpretentious and hardy
  • blooms from late spring to early summer.

Disadvantages


Top 15 rating according to KP

Moscow suburbs

Rochefort K

A very early grape, intended exclusively for food. His bunches are solid, weighing on average 520 g. The berries are large, 8 g each, oval in shape, red-gray in color. They are fleshy and taste with hints of nutmeg. The tasters give him 9.7 points! This is one of the most delicious varieties.

But it has drawbacks: small grapes come across in the bunches, average frost resistance and diseases are affected in an average degree. But for the sake of taste, he can be forgiven a lot.

Recommended for all regions.

Bogotyanovsky

Diseases are moderately affected.

Recommended for all regions.

In memory of the teacher

Refers to very early varieties, and also for food, that is, table. The bunches are large, 650 g each, but some gain 815 g. The berries are very large, dark red with a transition to purple, fleshy with a nutmeg tint. Sugar - 18.2%, acids - 5.1%. Assessment of the look and taste - 8.95 points.

Diseases are moderately affected.

Recommended for all regions.

Long awaited

It is not known what the authors of the variety had in mind, but you will not have to wait long for the harvest - it is very early. Exclusively for food. The bunches are weighty, weighing 780 g. The berries are large, ovoid, yellow in color, fleshy. Sugar - 15.4%, acids - 5.8%. Assessment of tasters - 8.6 points.

He needs shelter in the winter. Diseases are moderately affected.

Recommended for all regions.

Middle lane

Cubattik

Very early, for dining purposes, and besides, raisins, that is, pitted. His bunches are very large, weighing 705 g. Berries are medium in size, dark red-violet in color, fleshy. Sugar - 17%, acids - 5%. The tasters give him a score of 9.73 points - this is the second place among the conventionally northern varieties.

Diseases are moderately susceptible.

Recommended for all regions.

Gourmet Krainova

Another very early variety, it manages to yield a harvest even in a short summer. Dining room, that is, for eating. The bunches are large, 520 g each, but some are up to 1.3 kg! The berries are very large, pleasant pink in color, fleshy. Sugar 15.6%, acids 4.9%. Taste and appearance - 9.1 points.

This variety needs shelter for the winter. Diseases are affected at an average level.

Recommended for all regions.

Early white

Ripens early for eating. The bunches are large, 540 g. The berries are also not inferior, 5.5 g each, greenish-yellow in color. Professionals assess the taste as simple, but give it a fairly high mark - 8.9 points.

Relatively resistant to mildew, moderately resistant to gray mold and powdery mildew.

Recommended for all regions.

Chrysolite

Medium-early ripening variety, table variety - to enjoy fresh berries. The bunches are solid, about 600 g each. The berries are also large, of a delicate green-yellow color. The pulp is fleshy with hints of nutmeg. Sugar - 17.3%, acids - 6.1%. Tasting score 8.6 points.

Hibernates with shelter. Diseases are affected in a moderate degree.

Recommended for all regions.

Siberia

Libya K

From a group of very early varieties. For food. The bunches are large, about 570 g. The berries are large, an average of 8.3 g, with a pink color. The pulp is fleshy, with a nutmeg aroma. The tasters gave him 9.8 points - the maximum score for northern varieties!

What is especially pleasant is the frost-resistant variety. Diseases and pests are moderately affected.

Recommended for all regions.

Amur breakthrough

Its ripening period is medium, the variety is universal - it can be used both for food and for wine. Its clusters are large, about 300 g. The berries are massive, dark purple with juicy and fleshy pulp. Sugar in them - 24%, acids - 7%. Assessment of appearance and taste - 8.6 points.

High frost resistance. Diseases are very weakly affected.

Recommended for all regions.

Lucy red

Very early and versatile - can be used both fresh and on wine. His bunches are large, 400 g each. Berries are large, red in color with juicy fleshy pulp and nutmeg tint in taste. Each berry contains only one seed. Sugar - 21%, acids - 5%. Assessment of tasters - 8.6 points.

High frost resistance. It is very weakly susceptible to disease.

Recommended for all regions.

Ural

Anyuta

Early variety for fresh food. The bunches are decent in size, weighing about 600 g, but some are real giants, 1.3 kg each. The berries are very large, pink, fleshy. Sugar in berries - 16.9%, acids - 6.6%. The tasters gave him 9 points.

It is susceptible to disease in an average degree.

Recommended for all regions.

Unlight's Gift

Ripens very early, canteen. The bunches are massive, 630 g. The berries are very large, dark red-violet, fleshy, with a touch of nutmeg in the taste. Sugar - 19%, acids - 4.6%. Tasters' verdict - 8.9 points.

Diseases are moderately affected.

Recommended for all regions.

Anniversary Novocherkassk

Ripens very early. Dining room. Well, the bunches are very large, 800 g each - and these are average values, there are also larger ones. The berries are large, pink, fleshy. Sugar - 18.1%, acids - 6.5%. Assessment of taste and visual perception - 8.6 points.

Recommended for all regions.


Some of the best grape varieties in Russia

There are more than a thousand excellent early, middle and late grape varieties, the purpose of which is the most varied - some are good as a dessert, others for wine and preservation, some table and technical varieties are universal.

Video: the best grape varieties (with a short description)

The best grape varieties for the Moscow region and St. Petersburg

Unstable temperatures, rainy summers in the Moscow region and possible prolonged return frosts - these factors are always taken into account when choosing a grape variety. Therefore, more often in the garden plots near Moscow, early varieties grow - white-fruited Tason, Krasa Severa, Yubiley Novocherkassky, Rusven and the relatively early blue Athos.

In the damp temperate continental climate of St. Petersburg, a fruitful table hybrid in Memory of Dombkovskaya with dark blue fruits, early ripe Laura with large milk-green berries, Aleshenkin, Harold, Libya, Druzhba are safely cultivated.

Resistant to diseases and low temperatures White maxi are distinguished by white-green large berries with sourness and fruity aroma. Of the technical varieties, gardeners near Moscow and St. Petersburg choose the uncompromising variety Lydia.

Video: the best grape varieties for the Moscow region and St. Petersburg

The best grape varieties for growing in Siberia and the Urals

Siberian gardeners practice the cultivation of frost-resistant early-ripening grape varieties - Tason, Timur, white-fruited Tukai Rochefort, Super extra, White miracle, Cardinal and Codryanka with purple bunches, Delight, White giant are also popular. For winemaking, no doubt, Isobella and Lydia. The berries of Sharov's selection never fail: Sharova's Muscat and Sharov's Riddle.

Photo gallery: grape varieties for cultivation in Siberia

The White Giant variety grows well in Novokuznetsk and Krasnoyarsk A hybrid of Siberian selection Sharov's Riddle Early ripe hybrid Muscat Sharov

Video: the best grape varieties for the Urals and Siberia


What is the difference between a wine grape and a table one

Since grapes are a dessert, the focus is on the flavor and amount of sugar. Table varieties are initially larger in size, the clusters are large, the berries are fleshy, the sugar concentration reaches 17%. Such berries are very tasty, although sometimes they come across with sourness, but they should all be sweet.

The technical grade from which the wine is made

Wine varieties are considered technical and are not intended for fresh consumption, but for making wine. Here, importance is attached not to the size of the brushes and berries, but to the sugar concentration, which should be at least 20%, to the abundance of dyes and estrogens, which add astringency to the wine and dictate its taste.

If you take table grapes for making wine, the only thing that it will impart to the drink is sweetness, but there will be no astringency and no color, even when it comes to white. In addition, the yield of wine varieties is always lower with an equal planting area. For home use, summer residents in most cases use table varieties that can both have a snack and make wine from leftovers. On an industrial scale, the canteen will never go for wine.

Of course, the best grape varieties for wine grow in the southern regions, since high solar activity speeds up metabolism, berries gain taste and aroma faster. In the northern regions, it is also possible to grow wine varieties, but then it is recommended to carry out a double pruning of the vine, so that no more than 2 brushes remain on one. If this is not done, the berries will be small and absolutely tasteless, more precisely sour, which is categorically unsuitable for wine.

VIDEO: Technical grape varieties for wine

The best grape varieties for central Russia

There are more than a hundred different varieties that can be grown in the middle lane, but of them we will single out only 5 main ones, which are consistently popular and have a rich taste.

Arcadia

The undisputed leader among table varieties, suitable for both home and industrial cultivation. Large brushes weighing up to 2.5 kg. The taste is bright, sweet, very juicy. It is included in the category of the best varieties due to its universal survival rate, high yield and unpretentious care.

Delight

Also a variety of early ripening, which is distinguished by its colossal resistance to pests and diseases. It takes root perfectly, especially if it is well insulated in the first year of planting. Fruiting occurs in the 5th year, the yield is high, the clusters are relatively large, the weight of each reaches 500-700 grams, the berries are juicy, fleshy, the taste is sweet. The sugar concentration is 15%.

White kishmish

A sample of the best wine grape varieties, which also perfectly "took root" on the table. Not only wine is made from raisins, but also raisins. The berries are sweet, juicy, pitted, fleshy, soft and transparent peel. High sugar concentration - 17% and excellent keeping quality. Even fresh, such a product is stored for about a month.

Lady fingers

Perhaps the most famous variety, famous not so much for its taste as for its appearance. But the taste of the berries is also excellent - sweet with a slight hint of sourness, fleshy, very juicy. The brushes are large - up to 1 kg, belongs to the early-ripening variety, but even in the south, the crop can be harvested only in the middle of summer.

The best yielding grape varieties

This indicator, we repeat, applies not only to table, but also to wine varieties, since the volume of the batch directly depends on this.

Pleven

It ripens early, is distinguished by a very large amount of yield, and this does not depend on the fertility of the soil. The brushes are medium, the berries are almost all the same size (caliber). The first brushes can be removed at the end of June, and it is practically not damaged by insects, even aphids, but requires careful pruning. The more accurately and efficiently it is carried out, the better and larger the harvest will be next year.

In the south, pruning is carried out once, in the northern regions it is recommended to carry out it twice so that no more than 2 brushes remain on one vine, then the taste will be bright and sweet.

Elegant

The variety is early ripening, but is able to withstand even long-term frosts. The brushes are medium, the berries are elongated, the weight of one brush reaches 800 grams. To increase yields and increase sugar concentration, it is recommended to carry out radical pruning at the end of fruiting. After cutting the brushes, the berries retain their shape and structure for a long time, due to which this variety is most often grown for sale.

Outwardly it resembles Arcadia, but a sweeter, albeit less "prolific" culture. The berries are fleshy, the skin is of medium density and slightly crunchy when used. The variety itself is quite whimsical, it requires high-quality insulation before frost. Experts advise to wrap the vine in spandond or any other covering material, but do not use a film for this. Under it, the bark begins to rot and is eventually affected by pests.

Strashensky

One of the few varieties that can grow and give a good harvest even in conditions of absolute drought. Unpretentious to maintain, but requires radical pruning. The brushes are relatively large, the berries are sweet, dark saturated in color.

The best grape varieties for winemaking

Recall that these are technical varieties that bring a smaller harvest, the berries are also smaller in size, but the sugar concentration is much higher. Sugar, color, saturation are the main indicators by which winemakers choose raw materials.

Depending on the color of the berries, white, pink, red and black technical varieties are distinguished, from which, respectively, drinks are prepared.

Aligote

Contrary to the claim that grapes grow best in their original place, this French variety has been growing in Russia for more than 300 years and feels great. The main raw material for the preparation of dry white table wines, vintage champagne and blends.

Considering that age takes away the taste from the finished drink, Aligote is consumed only by young people, up to 5 years old.

Chardonnay

It is used as the main raw material for the preparation of dry wines and champagne. According to winemakers, this variety is so good that it is impossible to make a bad drink from it or somehow spoil it. House wines are just as often made from Chardonnay.

In cultivation, it is quite difficult, requires fertile soil, is susceptible to numerous diseases, but if you take care of it correctly, carry out radical pruning, insulate it for the winter, apply fertilizers, in particular, wood ash, then the harvest will be simply colossal.

White Muscat

It is the nutmeg that gives originality to the taste, thanks to which this variety got its name. Wine from these berries is strong, tart and very sweet. It is used as the main raw material for the preparation of dessert and sparkling wines.

It is not difficult to grow, but it is very “afraid” of even short-term frosts. Immediately after the entire harvest is completely removed, the bushes are first covered with spandond, and already wrapped up before the first frosts.

Cabernet Sauvignon

A very famous French variety cultivated in the Crimea. Table and dessert wines are made from it. Taste - tart, moderately saturated, age adds fullness to the bouquet. Recommended to be aged in oak barrels, which conveys velvety and delicate aftertaste.

Young Cabernet is practically not consumed, since the nightshade taste makes the drink rather coarse and does not allow the whole bouquet to open up. The age of 8 years is considered optimal for use, the ideal is from 10 and older.

Despite the fact that it is grown on an industrial scale in the Crimea, the survival rate and stability allows it to be planted even in Siberia and the Urals. The yield, of course, will be lower, but the richness of the taste can be fully felt. Moreover, Cabernet is considered to be one of the best grape varieties for the Moscow region, although it is not very suitable as a table one.

Pinot Noir

The most unpredictable variety, difficult to grow, but very rich in flavor. Homeland - Burgundy, was cultivated in the Crimea until 1985, when the so-called. "no alcohol law". At this time, almost all Crimean vineyards were cut down. To date, no more than 40% have been restored, but already now Pinot Noir is grown in volumes sufficient for the production of wine. Dessert wines, champagne and blends are made from it. It is consumed by both young and mature. Moreover, it is recommended to hold at least 10 years, so that you can feel the whole bouquet.

In Russia, you can grow different grapes (2017 are the best varieties on YouTube), the main thing is to provide high-quality care, insulation and pruning. This culture is quite whimsical and does not tolerate frost well, therefore, we also need to pay attention to insulation. For more information on leaving, see the video guidelines.

VIDEO: Taking care of grapes, shaping a grape bush in spring


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Comments:

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  2. Scrydan

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