Cyclops or Giants - Greek mythology and Latin mythology
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Cyclopes in the forge of Hephaestus - Ancient relief
The Cyclops were giants with only one eye placed in the center of the forehead. They were sons, some of Urano and of Geea, others of Poseidone and Amphitrite and of others.
Some of them are known by name: Bronte, Sterope, Arge, Piracmone and the most famous Polyphemus. Immediately after their birth they were thrown by their father Uranonel Tartarus because he feared that they wanted to deprive him of his dominion of the universe, but soon after they were released by their mother.
They worked with Efeston in his workshops on the slopes of Mount Etna and on the island of Lemnos and contributed to building the helmet of Ad which had the particularity of making it invisible when it was worn; the trident of Poseidon which had the power to agitate or calm the waters of the sea and many others. But their main activity was to create the lightnings of Zeus.
Louvre Palace - Paris
They were all killed by Apollo to avenge the death of his son Asclepius at the hands of Zeus.
According to Homer (Odyssey, IX, 134-147) the Cyclops were, on the other hand, rough and uncivil giants.
"(...) And of the lofty Cyclops,
Who live without laws, we were in sight,
These, leaving every thought to the gods,
Neither branch or seed por, nor soglion gleba
With the ploughshare break; but it all comes
Not sown, not planted or plowed:
The barley, the wheat and the joyful vine,
Which is loaded with large grapes, to which Jupiter
With timely rain it educates and grows,
Laws do not have, no gatherings, in which
Consult among them: of the sublime mountains
Dwelling on the tops, or in hollow caverns;
Over the wife each reigns and over the children;
Neither one to the other as much or as much as he looks ".
Palazzo Farnese - Rome
«(...) Those grabbing the sharp pole and in the middle
The conficcaron of the eye; and me above
Raising my feet, moving it around.
And as when that ship table
The pinned drill hits and punches ....
The eye around the stump squeaks and sizzles.
Screamed the Cyclops, he put himself terribly,
And the cavern boomed as much as we did
Here and there we scattered in fear ».
Blindness of the Cyclops Polyphemus
Villa of Tiberius - Sperlogna (Rome)
- 1 Genealogy
- 2 Mythology
- 3 Genealogy (Hesiod)
- 4 Diffusion of the cult
- 5 Ancient literary presences
- 6 Iconography
- 7 Notes
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 Related items
- 10 Other projects
- 11 External links
The twelve titans listed above are the first titans who, by mating in turn, will generate other children in turn defined as Titans.
In Hesiod's work, Theogony, he is the son and spouse of Gaea (the Earth Mother). Other poems and stories make him the son of Aether (the upper Heaven), without his mother's name being revealed to us in this tradition dating back to the Titanomachy. Most likely the latter was Emera (the personification of the Day). According to the Orphic theogony, Uranus and Gaea are two children of the Night.
He put the Cyclops in chains throwing them, as they were born, in Tartarus (the entrails of Gaea) and prevented the other children from coming to light . According to some authors the reason for this refusal would lie in their "monstrosity" , while according to others it is the evident fear of being ousted by them.
Gaea, repelled by her husband's act, persuaded the Titans to attack her father and gave Cronus a scythe she had made. So Uranus, taken by surprise by his son just as he was about to rejoin Gaea, was emasculated. Her genitals were thrown into the sea near Cyprus and from the sea foam formed Aphrodite was born, while the drops of blood that fell on the ground fertilized the earth one last time, giving life to the Erinyes, the Giants and the Melie Nymphs. Dethroned Uranus, the Titans unearthed the brothers who had been thrown into Tartarus and handed over power to Cronus.
The site of this mutilation was located in different parts of the Mediterranean: usually it is identified with Capo Drepano (in fact drepanon in Greek means "sickle") sometimes this place is placed on the island of the Phaeacians, which would have been the sickle of Cronus thrown into the sea and rooted in that place (and in fact it was said that the Phaeacians were born from the blood of the god) finally some they placed it in Sicily, more precisely in Messina (the ancient Zancle, another Greek noun meaning "sickle") or in Trapani (the ancient Drepanon). In any case, Sicily - fertilized by the god's blood - would therefore have become a particularly fertile land. [without source]
A different tradition is reported by Diodorus Siculus regarding this god. He would have been the first king of the Atlas, a very pious and just people, who lived on the shores of the ocean. He would have taught them to cultivate the earth, to live civilly and would have invented the calendar according to the movement of the stars. Upon his death he would be rendered great divine honors and having been a great astronomer, over time, he was identified with Heaven.
In this tradition, 45 children are attributed to Uranus, 18 had by Tite (later identified with Gaia), and precisely for this reason called Titans. His daughters were Basileia ("the Queen"), later Cybele, and Rhea, nicknamed Pandora. The beautiful Basileia succeeded the throne of her father and married her brother Iperione, from whom she had Elio and Selene (or the Sun and the Moon). Diodorus also mentions Atlas and Cronus as sons of Uranus. Plato also puts Ocean and Thetis in it.
The heterogeneity of the genealogy of Uranus is due to the fact that it is a mixture of many legends and tales, but above all a symbolic interpretation of learned cosmogonies so Uranus has practically no part in the Hellenic myths.
However, Hesiod retains the memory of two prophecies, jointly attributed, to Uranus and to Gaia: first, the one who warned Cronus that his reign would end after he was conquered by one of his sons.
Then, the prophecy made to Zeus, which warned him against the son he would have from Meti (the "Prudence", or in the negative sense, "the Perfidy"). Just by obeying this prophecy he swallowed Meti, with the consequence that Athena would then be born from the head of Zeus.
Finally, Philo of Byblos brings us back a Syrian legend of Uranus and Cronus.
Giants, Titans and Cyclops: the extinct "races" of mythology
Not only the Bible, but also Buddhist and Mayan texts refer to primordial beings who were once rulers of the Earth. A very widespread myth and perhaps not devoid of scientific appeals. As some archaeological discoveries and theories on "gigantism" have shown
Giants, Titans and Cyclops: the extinct "races" of mythology
Francisco Goya - Saturn devours his children (1821-1823) Prado museum, Madrid - Wikipedia, public domain
The presence of beings with an extraordinary stature, endowed, among other things, with an exceptional strength, is easily identifiable in a flood of myths, starting with the classic one of the universal deluge.
To begin with, as a rabbinic writing of the 5th century AD says. before the Ark departed, the giant named Og managed to cling to a boat's rope ladder. He was the last of the giants, king of Bashan (a town east of the Jordan River) and the Bible also speaks of him.
If we listen to Greek mythology the Titans (this term identified, with precision, a race of giants with a truly wild aspect like the Cyclops and Hecatonchirs, they are the children of the sky god Uranus, conceived with the goddess of the earth Gaia , the universal mother of classical mythology) lived inside the caves and, a peculiarity in common with the Cyclops, they had only one eye. You will certainly remember what Ulysses had to challenge at a certain stage of his wanderings. The ancient chronicles describe them as undisputed rulers of the earth in the past and, one day, they decided to rebel against the gods and men: we cannot be sure about the reason for the dispute, probably this semi-divine race became aware of being able to usurp the power from the hands of divinity.
For this reason the gods decided to punish this pretext arrogance: hence, among the punishments imposed, also the deluge of ancient memory.
The Titans, defeated, were replaced by the Giants, born from the blood gushing from a wound of Uranus, castrated by their son Cronus, the youngest among them. Cronus, to become a great king, devoured the children of his sister Rhea, but, thanks to a stratagem, Zeus was saved and, over time, assumed the rank of an unworthy father.
The Giants (the word derives from the Sanskrit term g’ant-u meaning "animal") as far as we know, they tried in every way, in vain, to avenge their predecessors: for this reason they too are described perpetually in revolt against the gods.
The Sons of Elohim
As we will see, according to other mythological tales, the Giants inhabited the Earth thousands of years before our era.
The birth of this race can be traced back to the time when some gods decided to mate with humans.
In this regard, what is contained in two passages of Genesis is eloquent: "When men began to multiply on Earth and their daughters were born, the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful and took as many wives as they wanted (6, 1-2) ""There were giants on Earth in those times - and even after - when the sons of God joined the daughters of men and they bore them children: these are the heroes of antiquity, famous men (6.4)».
The terms "sons of God" and "giants" are nothing more than the adopted and accepted translation of the term Nephilim, present in the Hebrew Bible: it should be noted that, similarly to what has already been done for some expressions in other pages, Nephilim it should instead be translated, correctly, in "those who had descended", or "sons of Elohim" descended on Earth, where Elohim, incredibly, is the plural form of the Hebrew singular El, Ilu or Eloah: therefore it means Gods!
At least this is the interpretation of a large group of scholars who, outside the classical schemes, have ventured into the translation of the cuneiform texts of the Sumerian civilization, then analyzing the contents of the sacred book of Christians.
To be precise, the term "Elohim" appears thirty times in Genesis and, even, 2,570 times throughout the Bible. For completeness of information, the term Eloah appears forty times in the Book of Job.
Nephilim coincidentally translates as the term Annunaki of Sumerian mythology (Annunaki, in fact, it means "those who descended from heaven to Earth").
The Zeus of Otricoli - marble - Roman copy of a 4th century Greek original - Vatican Museums - Wikipedia, public domain
The myths tell us, in fact, how this race rebelled against the gods. Here, then, are the giants who try to climb Mount Olympus (in Nordic mythology Olympus is transformed into the city of Asgard) or Typhon who steals his lightning from Jupiter, then recovered thanks to the intervention of the human Cadmus who, with the power of his music, he managed to put the giant to sleep.
Of course, it is already necessary to make some distinctions so as not to fall into confusion. Due to the effect of the distortion, some myths in fact borrow elements from others. This is the case, for example, of Gog and Magog, the two giants of the Bible that we find inserted in British mythology to symbolize the power of those people: in fact, these and other titans are defeated by the local hero Brute (also probably a giant!) only the two are kept alive but to be turned into stone and placed at the entrance of the winner's palace, on the Thames. Just a bad end ...
The messengers sent by Moses to the Promised Land (Canaan), as the Bible says in the Book of Numbers (13, 32-33), returned saying that they had met the sons of Anak: "…the country that we crossed to explore it is a country that devours its inhabitants all the people we have noticed there are people of tall stature we have seen the giants, sons of Anak, of the race of giants, in front of which we seemed to be like locusts and so we must have seemed to them».
Caravaggio - David with the Head of Goliath - Wikipedia, public domain
Even the duel between David and Goliath leaves no room for other interpretations. The Bible, in Deuteronomy, continues to refer to the giants when he speaks of the five-meter long iron bed that was found in Rabbath, near the sons of Ammon: therefore, the bed of a giant king by now disappeared.
They are also spoken of in Buddhist mythology where the giants are connected to the Brahmin myth of the "whipping of the sea of milk".
In "Popol Vuh"The giants are mythological beings (like the titans) who fight, with gods and men, a sort of Greek titanomachy: in mythology Maya in fact the twins Hunahpù and Ixbalanqué, the first Ahau (lords of the Corn civilization headed by Xibalbà) fight with the giants in the war of the Camè. The giants, defeated, are identified in the Copan Atlases.
But almost all the texts contained in the sacred book of Christians and Jews, in particular the Old Testament, as we have seen, speak of this race of gigantic men.
Back in time
Using the testimony of some historians, we can try to identify a time period where, in all likelihood, the deities are to be placed and, of course, the giants to follow, given that their stories intersect amiably.
However, it is not easy to allocate, with precision, all the divinities of our ancestral past, also because it is already difficult to argue that these, like the giants, really existed.
Let's try to understand something and we do it by calling to our aid the few reports we have available.
The historian Berosus (he was also a Babylonian priest, consecrated to Marduk, who copied the famous List of kings, dating back to 2100 BC and containing the history of his people since creation) tells, in his writings, of ten mythical Babylonian kings who reigned before the flood: in all, according to his opinion, it would go back 432 thousand years. In this regard, the similarities with the Bible, which speaks of 10 ancestors before the flood, are amazing as this list speaks of 10 "primitive" Kings. The fantastic age of these characters is also similar. But even after the flood, according to the reports of the Babylonians, we note a dynasty of rulers who, although passed off as historical characters, are to be considered gods or demigods, given that only those of the 1st dynasty - 23 in all -, held in power for 24,510 years!
Don't be afraid of these figures. Today we are used to measuring time starting from the assumption that the Earth takes a year to orbit the Sun and that the months are twelve like the cycles of the Moon. Keep in mind, however, that until 1543 (with Copernicus as the watershed) it was believed that the Sun revolved around our planet!
Still, the Sumerians were right at least 4,500 years ago. A nice puzzle!
This is why we cannot exclude that, in the past, the ancients used other methods to note the passage of time. Think of the biblical age of many prophets and beyond: for example, according to the Hindu doctrine, a 24-hour earth day corresponds to 8,640 million years of Brahma.
THE Sumerians, for their part, for the List of Kings they used the Sar as a unit of measurement, corresponding to 3,600 earth years, the time taken by the planet Nibiru (where their gods allegedly came from) to complete the elliptical orbit outside and inside our solar system.
Just to confuse your ideas further: starting from the assertions of two well-known scientists, Von Braun and Einsten, it was hypothesized that a crew flying in space for a thousand light years would return to Earth after about 26 years, but on our planet they would have passed, in the meantime, a good two thousand years!
The Austrian Helfsen, a well-known ufologist, has taken up these theories, especially that of the relativity of time, and, in turn, has proposed an interesting study: considering the uniform acceleration and braking (halfway) of a ship space, has postulated that inside a spacecraft, traveling at a speed slightly slower than the speed of light, time would pass more slowly than the starting planet. Therefore, according to the scholar, this difference in years would tend to expand enormously with the passage of time, while up to ten years there would be no significant changes.
Returning to us, the historian Manetho, referring to us of the disputes between Horus and Set in Egypt, placed the dispute 13,500 years before Menes, the initial king of the reunited lands.
Viracocha, a deity from Inca mythology. Wikipedia - Public domain
To get more temporal information on this, we must now take a leap to the New Continent. In South America the creation of the world can be traced back to the figure of Viracocha (the deity of the Incas is remembered with the name of Kukulcan or Quetzalcoatl for the Toltecs, the Maya and the Aztecs, but always the same person): the legends narrate that, after a deluge lasting about sixty days, this supreme being descended on one of the two islands on Lake Titicaca ( which in the language of the Aymarà, the indigenous Peruvians, means "Lake of the puma and the sacred fish" and "Womb of humanity": Titi in fact translates into "puma" while Caca is the name of a fish of the area, remembered in legends rooms that tell of the creation and the flood) and gave life, after various unsuccessful attempts, to the human race by molding clay and blowing the breath of life into it. Having done this, he moved to Tiahuanaco (literally means "Place where lands and waters meet" but can also be translated into "Land under the water of God", "The city of the Sun and water" and "The eternal city. water ") which is about twenty-five kilometers from the aforementioned lake.
For the natives the city was built in one night, after the flood, by the gods or by the giants.
According to the studies carried out on mythological texts, it is possible to date the appearance of the god around 3100 BC. and the archaeological excavations at Tiahuanaco faithfully confirm this date, in fact, the oldest layer of the town dates back to 3130 BC.
Having made this necessary digression, in order to find a right temporal placement for the extinct race of giants, as well as leverage the myth of the flood, we must take into consideration the tales of the Maya, as always precise and maniacal in handing down some useful dating, slaves as well. 'were of their calendar and consequently of the time: it is known that the Maya, as well as the Toltecs and the Aztecs, built temples and pyramids at precise intervals, every five, ten or twenty years.
Well, the facts concerning, closely, the giants, are placed in the era of the Fourth Sun, the one that ended with the transformation of men into fish: it seems to understand that the human species was saved from the waters thanks to something similar to an ark.
This period corresponds to the Pleistocene and, consequently, to the period of the last glaciation, that is to say about twelve thousand years ago.
Where is the evidence?
Apart from the numerous accounts of the first European explorers, who arrived in the New Continent, we note, from then on, a succession of extraordinary discoveries, which science has often intended to ridicule if not to keep silent.
To tell the truth, over the last hundred years, there have been numerous full-blown cases of fraud by unscrupulous people or simple pranksters (a bit like what happens today with crop circles), but this does not it means that all other findings are to be labeled as false.
Here, for obvious reasons of space and in order not to overly bore the reader, we have intended to choose only a few, to be considered indicative of the topic.
In 1577, in Switzerland, the remains of what could have been a man five meters and eighty centimeters tall came to light.
At the beginning of the last century, in France, in the locality of Glozel, in addition to out-of-the-ordinary human bones and skulls, large handprints as well as artifacts and jewelry were found especially for use by some gigantic being. The discovery, made by chance by Emile Frendin, dates back precisely to March 1924. In this locality, later called "camp of the dead", numerous graphic signs were also found engraved on terracotta tablets: a sort of alphabet, in short. The first intervention was carried out by an amateur archaeologist, the doctor Antonin Morlet: three thousand finds unearthed, still preserved today at the Glozel Museum. What was found at the site was subjected to analysis several times in the seventies of the last century: with the thermoluminescence method (on the ceramics and on the vases, as they have undergone a cooking process) and carbon 14 (for the bones, as they contain organic substances) : the results were controversial but the carbon 14 technique highlighted, in some cases, a dating beyond all logic (in fact, we spoke of 17,000 years earlier) and therefore not accepted by the scientific community. In fact, further investigations, also ordered by the French government, allowed other scholars to affirm that the bones found were introduced into the site at a later time. In the following years, clear attempts at counterfeiting were also discovered, so much so as to further discredit what had initially emerged. Today, no archaeologist, for fear of compromising his reputation, is willing to confront Glozel's riddle. Even in Morocco, in Agadir, tools were found that, theoretically, only men with a height of four meters could lift: in fact, they weighed up to eight kilograms each and were used for hunting.
A few years later, in the Havai Supai Canyon, the men of the Donnehey scientific expedition discovered a rock carving of a tyrannosaurus which, according to the Indians, is the work of giants.
In 1943, on an island in the Aleutians, military engineers found bones and skulls which, in proportion, must have belonged to men seven meters tall!
Faithful to the stories that told of very tall men who had inhabited, in the distant past, the areas now marked on maps as Sahara, Cameroon and Niger, some expeditions made amazing discoveries: in the thirties of the last century, they actually found the traces of the gigantic Sao. The most profitable expedition was the one led by anthropologist / ethnologist Marcel Griaule and the Lebeuf spouses (Jean Paul and his wife Annie Masson Detournet, both ethnologists), in the years from 1936 to 1939, which involved the area of Chad. Here, graves of unusual dimensions were found as well as bronze jewels depicting hybrids completely different from our race. Today, apparently, the notes and results of this expedition are nowhere to be found.
Marcel Graule (1898-1956), among other things, is the same who first introduced us to something more about the Dogon: in fact, he was at the head of several expeditions in the African continent, from 1931 to 1946, between which one (which is remembered as the Dakar-Djibouti Mission ) in which he studied the incredible cosmology of that people.
Around those years, the Dutch scholar Ralph Koengswald also found something interesting: molar teeth six times larger than normal.
Finally, to finish this brief overview, in the fifties of the last century Pei Wenchung, while he was inside a cave of Lingheng in Kwansi, found a jaw that, in size, could fit in well with Koengsward's teeth, so much so that both attributed the belonging to the "gigantopitecus".
How to explain the phenomenon
Gigantism can, today, be scientifically explained by the occurrence of two factors, to be considered combined with each other: a decrease in the force of gravity of the Earth and a greater attraction caused by other satellites orbiting around our planet, in every way different from the Moon. today.
The presence, in ancient times, of several satellites in orbit around the Earth and in progressive approach, therefore with great influences on the gravitational field, could have favored the abnormal growth of fauna, flora and human beings themselves, for the simple consequence of a lightening of the weight, which among other things would also explain the attainment of considerable age by our ancestors (those, to be clear, that we also read in the Bible) because it would drastically reduce the usury to which every living organism is subject.
One of these satellites, according to the theory advocated by the scholar Hans Horbiger (a bizarre engineer who lived in the nineteenth century who studied at the Vienna School of Technology and worked as a designer of steam engines) shattered, giving life to a set of fragments which, after crossing the sky, fell ruinously on our planet. What our ancestors saw, looking up, was nothing more than a great "serpent of fire", a definition that makes the event well and that we encounter in almost all the stories handed down to us. With the drastic decrease in attraction, the era of giants would also end.
Be that as it may, Horbiger was nothing more than a self-taught lover of astronomy and, specifically, of the history and evolution of the cosmos. His studies led him to affirm that the Moon had had a very precise meaning in ancient legends and that the Earth, in its slow evolution, had counted several satellites that periodically crashed on the planet causing catastrophes of enormous proportions. Horbiger found traces of gigantism not only in some human skeletons but also in the flora and fauna. However, the theories advocated by the scholar, which mimic the ancient myths of recurring cycles, are still in stark contrast to the dictates of science.
Speaking of gigantism, we cannot help but bring up, as a cause, a possible rise in the levels of cosmic rays.
In periods in which the activity of the Sun is more intense (in the circumstance there is also the correlated phenomenon of sunspots, which constitute a formidable barrier against cosmic rays: in the periods of greatest intensity of solar activity, in fact, there is the production of many ions that go to thicken in what is called the Van Allen belt) a notable increase in the human cultural aspect can be observed, with the simultaneous birth of great civilizations or movements of thought.
Conversely, in the presence of a low activity of the Sun, with the protection that weakens considerably and allows cosmic radiation to hit the Earth, there is an inevitable decline in activities on our planet, accompanied by a considerable decrease in births.
In short, the activities of the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field, interacting with each other periodically, are able to influence, even heavily, our existence.
Basically, cosmic rays, acting on genes and chromosomes, could also cause mutations, so as to justify the appearance, for the flora and fauna, of new species while for the human race we would have to consider, in fact, the phenomenon of gigantism….
The origin of the Cyclops
The Cyclops are characterized on a literary level, in the Homeric and later poems, by greed and cruelty, and they were famous man-eaters. They work for Hephaestus (Greek Ἥφαιστος), the god of fire, and live near volcanoes. Many historians agree in identifying the geographical area that gave Homer the inspiration in Sicily and, more specifically, Etna would have been the volcano that housed their infernal laboratories, the seat of their workshops and the ideal place for their herds of animals.
Below, proto-Attic amphora from 650 BC. with the scene of Ulysses blinding the Cyclops:
Image shared via Wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 license
The idea behind the myth of the Cyclops, that is a man with one eye, can have multiple origins, but there are two main historical bases in which the roots of the myth lie.
The first is that the Cyclops would be none other than ancient blacksmiths, who came to Sicily from the East, who constantly wore a patch on their left eye to protect it from the sparks of iron working. They were historically active from the fourth millennium BC, and several archaeological evidence has been found confirming the working of metals in the caves of the Aeolian islands. The blacksmiths also had a circular tattoo on their forehead, which identified their profession and represented a tribute to the God they revered, the Sun.
A second hypothesis, which could not exclude a mixture with the first, identifies in the skulls of Dwarf elephants, which populated the entire Mediterranean until the end of the Pleistocene, about 11,800 years ago, the origin of the myth of a giant being with one eye. The skulls of these elephants, found in many caves in Sicily but also in Malta, Cyprus, Crete, Sardinia and in the Cyclades, have a huge central hole, which today we know to be functional to the trunk but which, probably, by the ancient inhabitants of those places he was mistaken for the eye of the Cyclops. This solution to the enigma was suggested in 1914 by the Austrian paleontologist Othenio Abel, who found some skulls and bone remains during his studies.
Below, dwarf elephant skull at the Verona Museum. Photograph by Ghedoghedo shared with Creative Commons license via Wikipedia:
Below, Dwarf Elephant of Malta. photograph by Hamelin de Guettelet shared under a Creative Commons license via Wikipedia:
Is it possible that Homer and the ancients thought that those skulls, scattered throughout Greece and Sicily or Sardinia, had belonged to huge one-eyed human beings?
Or that the authors thought that the ancient blacksmiths of the island, transformed into humans, were once endowed with only one eye and only then assumed a humanoid form?
Probably the answer to this question is destined to remain in the graves of those who imagined a world of gods and men, of giants and wizards, of sea monsters and heroes, a world that has fascinated humanity for over two millennia and that it finds its origins in the inhabitants and animals of those legendary places, which have become the protagonists and the stage of a timeless mythology.
Photograph by Giovanni dall’Orto shared with a Creative Commons license via Wikipedia:
Below, the scene of the island of the Cyclops taken from Mario Camerini's Peplum with Kirk Douglas from 1954:
I am an editor specializing in the dissemination of culture in digital format, founder of Vanilla Magazine. I don't wear a tie or designer clothes, and I keep my hair short so I don't have to comb it. It's not my fault, they drew me that way.
The myths and legends that dot the long march of humanity, from prehistoric times to modern post-industrial society, have often involved beings that are infinitely small or invisible (elves, goblins, trolls) or infinitely large (Giants, Cyclops).
The Cyclops Polyphemus, of pure Italic lineage, is just one of the many belonging to the race of giants, with its subspecies and kinships, which have populated myths and legends since ancient times.
It is interesting to note how these myths, even in their fantasy and sometimes manifest irrationality, are rooted in the human being as expressions of ancestral events, as if man had tried to make some otherwise inexplicable phenomena rationally understandable. In addition to representing a "parallel dimension", the myth is then configured as an expression of one of the most eminently human qualities: fantasy, the power to dream and create, and in some way to replace the Creative Force in which every man believes.
The forces of the Earth, in the imagination of the ancients, assumed faces and bodies one of the most used was that of the Giants. They appear in myths now as enemies of the Gods, now as a disappearing race, now as the body from which life itself originates.
Travelers sometimes boasted of having seen them, and in their tales they reported incredible adventures. The skulls of the elephants, whitened by time, made one think of huge beings with only one eye socket. and they were the Cyclops, companions of Polyphemus.
They were Giants, first sons of the Gods.
"The figure of the Giants was probably born from multiple original representations", assumes the writer and science popularizer Ernst Probst. According to him, the source is to be found "in the very different criteria of measurement that existed then, in seeing in unusual phenomena of nature the manifestation of creatures of exceptional strength (it was thought that the defeated opponent had superhuman proportions: such conceptions had their own role in the stories of dragons), perhaps also in hallucinations due to drug use ". And again: "Almost every country once had its national Giant, which almost always went back to the discovery of elephant bones, whose true nature was unknown."
Among the numerous myths, we will now focus on those concerning the "giants" born in a limited geographical area, the Mediterranean basin.
Generally speaking of the Mediterranean, one thinks only of the Greek and Roman civilizations, with their vast mythical repertoires, Roman mythology is however the result of the mixture between the Greek and the Italic and Etruscan ones, and more back in time it is not excluded that one of the most ancient singers of the Greek myth, Hesiod, in the middle of the 7th century BC, was influenced by the Mycenaean or Persian cultures, to name but a couple, as we will see later in connection with one of his most famous texts, the Theogony.
Among the ancient Italic peoples, in the epoch prior to the advent of Rome, there was for example a particular etymology: "Volcanus, Volkanus or Vulcanus" is believed to be of Indo-European origin, and was associated with a divinity related to volcanic fire, if it is true that his cult preserved one of the main centers in Pozzuoli, in the Campi Flegrei (a place that we will meet, not surprisingly, in one of the most important myths, the Titanomachy), according to what the Greek geographer Strabo (64 BC - 21 AD). The Romans inherited this cult from the Etruscans and ended up identifying this divinity with the Greek god Hephaestus. In particular, in Rome the cult of Vulcan assumed great importance during the monarchical age, so much so that Servius Tullius - one of the last kings - was considered a direct descendant of this god.
In turn, the Greeks derived the myth of Hephaestus from the peoples settled in Asia Minor and in the Cyclades islands, therefore from a source other than the Italic one of the god Vulcan.It is well known, in fact, that the Middle Eastern peoples had to do with the eruptions of the volcanoes of the Cyclades and Anatolia.
The dominant feature of the Mediterranean area, therefore, is this sort of mythological syncretism which finds its raison d'etre in one of the fundamental characteristics of the peoples living in the area: the always lively desire to explore the unknown. Homer's work in this sense is its emblem.
The journey, the displacement, is the privileged activity of these peoples, of the Greek one in particular, travels mainly for commercial purposes, to open more advantageous and safer routes, and to find virgin markets where they can sell their products: nothing new, in bottom. Sea voyages took place mainly between the spring and summer seasons, and in any case it was rare that we departed from the coast so it happened that, during navigation, with one eye you touched the immensity of the waters, but with the other you remained attached to Mother Earth. At this point, it is necessary to consider a dominant "geological" factor of the Mediterranean basin: the presence of primary (above all) and secondary volcanic events. Between the fourteenth and seventh centuries BC it is believed that such phenomena should have occurred in greater numbers and entities than today.
The combination of visual navigation and volcanoes must have produced in the sailors' imagination the belief in the existence of Giants, enormous living beings whose eyes were mistaken for those enormous fires that burned on the coasts. Unfortunately, due to the syncretism and cultural stratifications that have occurred over the centuries, it is not possible to cast a unitary glance on the overall mythological panorama of the time: it is enough to mention the case of the almost unknown Mycenaean civilization, which was replaced by the much more famous of the Greeks. It is certain that in all Mediterranean cultures there are references to specific cults that can be correlated to the primordial one of underground fire: among the various examples there are that of the Roman Vestals, or of the ancient goddess Hestia in the Greek pantheon, then passed into the Roman one precisely as Vesta .
Zeus, also belonging to the lineage of giants, was the first example of a cosmic revolutionary, in his fight against his despotic parent, Cronus.
The Mediterranean mythological panorama is closely linked to the theme of "fire", understood as an irrepressible force, which can be creative or destructive: among the most famous myths we can insert the destruction of Atlantis, the war between the Giants and Zeus, Prometheus who he steals fire from the gods to give it to men, the Cyclops Polyphemus and Ulysses, the Forge of Vulcan, Zeus' blacksmith, Avernus and the door to the Underworld, a living myth even at the time of Dante's Comedy!
In the Greek area there is a legend in which the link between volcanic events and Giants is reflected: the one that tells of the Giant Talo. This monster is mentioned above all in the Argonautics, an epic poem written by Apollonio Rodio (290 - 260 BC) in the Hellenistic age in an attempt to revitalize a genre by now dying. We are in the course of the return journey of the Argonauts Jason has already achieved his goal, recovering the golden fleece, and has managed to seduce the sorceress Medea (seduction was a theme dear to the Hellenistic culture) when, near Crete , stands in front of his ship (the Argo) an immense bronze Giant, Talo precisely. The life force of the latter resides in a single vein that runs from the head to the ankle, where a kind of plug is located. The Giant tries to detach some rocks to be thrown at the Argo, but Medea manages, with her magical arts, to provoke evil visions, which make him lose his balance in the fall, the ankle is scratched, causing the vein to break so that the blood begins to gush out. Talus crashes dead on the shore.
Apollonius uses the myth as a simple narrative cue (also a legacy of the Hellenistic culture) but the information regarding Talus are numerous, and generally attributable to volcanic events: the Giant manifested precisely this "volcanic" constitution by throwing boulders at intruders, burning them, red-hot and holding them in a deadly embrace, and he himself had washes instead of blood.
In mythology there are various stories related to Talus: for the sake of information it must be added that, in addition to a bronze Giant, in other versions it was handed down that it was a bull manufactured or given to Minos by the god Hephaestus, to guard Crete. The myth tells that he toured the island three times a day, or that he visited the villages of Crete three times a year, carrying bronze tablets with the laws engraved on them.There is a link between Giant and gloomy oppression, which it would strengthen the hypothesis that in the collective imagination of the time Talos was the personification of the volcano of Santorini, whose explosion is believed to have had devastating consequences for the Cretan civilization. Still another version tells that Talus, in the guise of an iron giant built by Hephaestus, was placed by Zeus to guard Crete when he left the nymph Europa there.
Always remaining in the narrow Hellenic context, dealing with Giants one cannot be silent about one of the texts on which most of the myths concerning them are based: the Theogony. It is presented in the traditional form of the time, the poem, and is composed of 1022 epic hexameters: with this work Hesiod tries to order the immensity of the traditional and popular material that has circulated since the dawn of time about the generation of the gods and the origin of the Universe. To give an example of the diversity that could be found in the myths, it is enough to remember that for Hesiod the couple of generating divinities is represented by Gaea and Uranus - an obligatory choice for those wishing to present a rational arrangement of the mythological material as a better couple than Earth / Sky? - while for Homer, (who, from some passages of the Iliad, seems to be aware of things relating to the gods that he does not seem to have had any interest in dealing with in his narration), this couple is represented by Ocean and Thetis. Therefore, in every author who was preparing to deal with mythological topics (and surely there will be many whose works are lost) we notice an extreme freedom in choosing or omitting facts and characters.
The definition of Herodotus (480 - 430 BC ca) "prтtoi heuretaм" dedicated to Hesiod and Homer, which translated almost sounds like "first discoverers" [of things related to the gods], should be taken with a grain of salt. In fact, the progress of the studies and the most recent archaeological discoveries have made it possible to understand what huge amount of cosmological material there was behind Hesiod, material dating back mostly to previous civilizations and different from the Greek one (that of the Near East for example) , and then passed into Hellenic civilization for that syncretism phenomenon already mentioned above. It must be remembered that Hesiod himself was the son of a settler who had lived for a long time in Cuma, a city overlooking the coast of Asia Minor. Mycenaean culture.
It is interesting to observe how, in the Theogony, Hesiod in a certain way "classified" the Giants in various lineages, all descendants of the couple Uranus-Gaea. The two first procreated the Titans: "the deep Ocean, and Coio, Crio, Giapиto , Mnemтsine, Tиmide, Rhea, Hyperion, Thea, the amiable Tytis, and Phoebe with the golden garland "and the most important of them," the strongest Cronus. Of shrewd advice, of all children the most terrible and of terrible anger burned against his father ". The reason for so much hatred is soon said, and Hesiod himself tells us: "Uranus as they were born, he hid all of them already in the dark barriers of the Earth, he did not let them come to light".
The second lineage is that of the Cyclops (properly from the Greek kuklops = with the round eye): ". [Gaea] generated [the Cyclops] with a superb heart, Stirope, Bronte, and Arge with a very fierce heart: the thunder gave these to Jupiter, they fashioned the thunderbolt. only one eye had in the middle of the forehead and therefore had the name of Cyclops ". In the archaic age the mythographers in turn distinguished three lineages of Cyclops: the sons of Gea and Uranus, belonging to the first generation of giants, the "builders" Cyclops, creators of all those monuments present in Greece or Sicily formed by blocks of stone like this gigantic that were not believed to be the result of human activity (hence the "Cyclopean walls") finally, the "Sicilian" Cyclops, made famous by Greek literature, the Homeric one in particular (for example Polyphemus).
It was said that they occupied the hottest areas of Etna, the most inaccessible and remote caverns of Sicily and the Aeolian Islands, and that they were, under the orders of Hephaestus, the blacksmiths of the gods to whom they procured weapons. Regarding the connection of the Cyclops with fire, it must be added that in primitive Greece there was a sort of "guild" of master blacksmiths, who wore concentric circles tattooed on their foreheads, symbols of the Sun and fire. In the collective imagination, therefore, the symbol of the tattoo (which later became the only central eye) was thus indissolubly linked to the "fire".
It seems appropriate to highlight two important consequences linked to the myth of the Cyclops: in the first place, the "volcanic" relationship must be noted once again, since they lived in underground caves, where the blows of their anvils and their panting made the volcanoes grumble. of the area, while the fire of their forge reddened the summit of Etna. Furthermore, there is a close link between Cyclops and Nature that will be felt in a particular way in the Hellenistic age, when the imposing phenomenon of urbanization prompted authors such as Theocritus (315 - 260 BC) to rediscover the values of nature, albeit in a dreamy and idealized atmosphere (in short, far from that of Virgilian Georgics). To this author, for example, we owe an idyll centered on the figure of a Cyclops, in love with the beautiful Galatea, who nevertheless fails to conquer despite showing off all his "seductive" arts. consolidated, between the city and the natural world. The third lineage of giants, sons of Gaea and Uranus were the Hecatonchirs: ". Cotto, Gna, Briario, sons of supreme arrogance. To them a hundred hands sprouted from the tempers outside, indomitable, immense, fifty heads grew out of each one's shoulders."
In addition to the mythical version, it is also necessary to record the position taken by the so-called "evemerists", followers of the theory put forward by the philosopher Evemero di Messene (III BC): according to these, the gods were nothing but legendary men (how could they be, for the Romans, Muzio Scevola or the warrior Camilla) really existed and divinized by popular fame. According to this perspective, therefore, the Hecatonchirs were men who, in a very distant time, had occupied the city of Hecatonchiria and had brought their help to the inhabitants of Olympia (the Olympians) in the war to expel the Titans from the region.
Obviously, it was not long in accusing those who supported the theses of this real "philosophy of history" as proponents of atheism.
The state of equilibrium between these three lineages was broken by the most enterprising Titan, Cronus, who allied himself with his mother Gea (desperate for the fate of her children) against her father Uranus.
Gaea offered him the instrument: "I generated the essence of the ashen iron, a great scythe." But the vengeful and punitive spirit was all of Cronus: "O mother, I promise you to accomplish the feat, which is nothing of my sad father. 'it matters: for he was the first to turn his mind to our damage ". The rebellion of Cronus marks the beginning of that immense struggle that takes the name of "Titanomachy", a war fought between successive generations of Giants (Uranus, Cronus, Zeus) for the conquest of power over the Universe. The dethronement of Uranus took place in a very bloody way: with the scythe produced by the mother, Cronus castrated his father, letting the genitals fall into the sea (and from here the famous myth of Venus born from the sea foam begins).
All the violence and cruelty of Cronus devouring one of his sons, in a work of Goya.
After having precipitated the brothers Cyclops and Hecatonchiri into the Underworld, and having joined with his sister Rhea, Cronus obtained full power we are in the midst of the second generation of Giants. Soon, however, Cronus fell into the bad practice of devouring his own children, led to this by the prediction of his parents - custodians of wisdom and knowledge - that he was destined to be deposed by a son in his turn: ". Earth, from Uranus shining with stars, which was destined for him to succumb to his own son. " In this way, as Rhea begat her children, Cronus "swallowed her up, as each from the sacred womb on the knees of his mother fell.", And this was the end of Hestias, Demeter, Hera and Hades. In a patriarchal society, such as the Greek one at the time, the fear of being ousted by one's children must have been very much felt, so much so as to have produced a mythology centered precisely on this "practice". In more recent times the theme has been effectively treated by Goya through a fresco painted in the terminal phase of his career, in the "Quinta del Deaf": I am referring to "Saturn devouring one of his sons" (1821 - 1823), exhibited now at the Prado museum in Madrid. This fresco has been recognized by critics as an emblem of despair and the darkest bestiality of power that does not hesitate to perform the most vile act for a parent to maintain dominance.
With the birth of Zeus came the moment of the final showdown and the deployment of the third generation of Giants. Rhea, about to give birth to Zeus, the last of her children, at the suggestion of her parents Gaea and Uranus fled to Crete, where she gave birth later presented to Cronus a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly devoured without realizing the deception . In this regard, Hesiod tells us: ". They agreed together what was marked by Fate. They sent her to Litto, among the rich people of Crete. [Rhea] hid him in an inaccessible cave, with his hands, under the most holy terrestrial ravines. a large stone wrapped in swaddling clothes, he handed it to the great Uranis [son of Uranus]. with his hands he took it, thrust it into his belly, nor did it pass through his mind [that] his invictor had remained immune from harm son, who soon had to tame him with his strong hands. "
This is how the third generation of Giants originates, the one that will have the most fame in Greek mythology: the Olympic lineage. Soon, in fact, the Titanomachy entered its hardest and most violent phase, the clash between Zeus and the allies Cyclops and Hecatonchirs, freed from the prison into which their brother had thrown them ("of his benefit then they were always mindful") against Cronus joined the Titans brothers. The myth tells that Atlas and his brother Menetius teamed up with Cronus (the "time", obvious enemy of the immortal gods) and the other Titans in their war against the Olympian gods. For his part, Zeus, through a potion, induced Cronus to vomit his previously devoured children, who became his strongest allies.
"And Jupiter did not restrain his fury, but immediately his heart was filled with negro bile and he showed all his strength" says Hesiod. The fight lasted ten years, and finally saw Zeus and his allies win according to the response of an oracle, who had predicted that he would be victorious if he freed the brothers of Cronus - Cyclops and Hecatonchiri - imprisoned in Tartarus.
Also in this myth a link with volcanic events is recognizable, just think of the way in which Zeus and his men fought: ". As many as three hundred boulders threw from the vigorous fists always more and more dense, they cover the Titans with the shadow of the blows.", terribly similar to a volcanic explosion. Furthermore, the myth tells that the decisive battle took place in the sky above the aforementioned volcanic area of Campi Flegrei. The fact that the natural events, which at the time lashed the Mediterranean area, did not diminish over time, is probably linked to the last test that the Olympians had to endure. The myth continues by narrating, in fact, the birth of 24 new Giants, children of the Earth, near Phlegra, in Thrace (an area not coincidentally characterized by the presence of vast igneous expanses) who would once again have given the assault to the sky of the gods, for take revenge on Zeus.
Each of these giants was defeated and buried alive under the boulders thrown by Zeus or some other Olympian god. The most evident link with volcanic activity can be seen by observing the places where these giants were buried: Tifone or Enceladus in Etna, Tifeo in Ischia, others under the Campi Flegrei.
So even in the "Titanomachy", one of the most famous and important myths linked to the Giants, the link between legend and volcanic activity can be glimpsed, evident in the way of facing the battle (with the launch of boulders and burning embers) or in the choice of key places, devastated by volcanic cataclysms.
To be precise, there is also a different version of the myth, elaborated according to Orphic interpretations, following which we witness a subsequent reconciliation between Zeus and Cronus, with the latter taking on the role of a good and magnanimous king.
In the Latin context, Cronus passed as Saturn (a typically Italic divinity, which is also linked to a particular archaic meter of Latinity, the Saturnian in fact) with its own importance: it was customary, in fact, to place the throne of Saturn in the Capitol, as a good omen. , believed to be a direct work of Romulus.
Among the Celts and in Nordic legends the findings of the action of the Giants, rather than elephant bones, were probably linked to the existence of dolmens, or to the activity of natural elements (only exceptional beings could represent the work of the forces that move the earth).
The mythical figure of the giants survives and is enriched even in the Middle Ages. In the image we see King Arthur in an epic battle against a representative of this race.
In Ireland an entire area, the Giant's Causeway, is believed to have been built by the legendary Giant Finn MacCool to allow a Scottish Giant, Benandonner, to reach the land of Ireland and challenge him. According to other sources, Finn would have built the bridge to reach his beloved woman across the sea. A series of long basalt columns rises from the ground, along the coast, and seems to tend towards distant lands. The area, created by a chain of volcanic eruptions and by the erosion of the sea over millions of years, is still a destination for tourists.
Even in the Edda, the Nordic saga par excellence that was written down in the early Middle Ages, we find the presence of the Giants. The Nordic Giants are similar for some profiles to the Titans of the Mediterranean legends (for example they are also connected to the fire element), for others they are more similar to the Trolls.
The beginning of time is marked by the birth of two beings, one of which is Ymir the Giant. From Ymir descend a race of giants, and only later the race of men. Between men and giants, wicked by nature, a struggle is born, won by the former and their gods. From the body of Ymir, Odin and his brothers create the world: from the flesh the earth, from the blood the sea and rivers, from the bones the mountains, from the hair the trees, from the skull the celestial vault and from the brain the clouds.
The relationship between men and Giants is rarely as peaceful as the ancient gods (Zeus, Odin) so the heroes of Breton and Scottish legends face the Giants as enemies, defeating them more often with cunning than with force. In Scotland, two Giants of Loch Shiel are duped by a man: with the excuse of determining who is the strongest among them, they are convinced to throw the rocks of a glen, a piece of land, as far as possible. Fools then end up getting lost forever at the ends of the world, once the time has come to retrieve them, leaving men with an exceptionally rock-free field.
Behind the construction of the major stone circles there are legends of Giants: in front of those colossal boulders driven into the ground, one wondered what enormous forces were able to erect these works. The Stonehenge circle itself is called the "dance of the giants".
The Bible also often speaks of Giants. In "Deuteronomy" the Jews, having arrived in the Promised Land, find in Rabbath the iron bed of a missing Giant, "it was nine cubits long and four wide.", Or they meet them: "we saw the giants, the sons of Anak descending from the giants and in our eyes we were in front of them like crickets - and in their eyes we were like crickets ". In Genesis 4,1.4: "at that time there were Giants on earth and later when the sons of God joined the daughters of men and had children, these sons became powerful men and were famous heroes in ancient times".
Undoubtedly the most famous among the biblical Giants is Goliath, and his story becomes the symbol of the victory of good over evil, of cunning over violent force. Although not as famous, Og is another of the Giants mentioned in the Bible worthy of mention. Moses defeats it during the conquest of Canaan, and according to Jewish mythology it was one of the many antediluvian Giants, the only one to survive the flood because the water barely reached his knees.
Another biblical episode narrates that a lineage of Giants, descendants of Anak, lived in the surroundings of Hebron: the Anakites. Three of Anak's sons (Achiman, Sesai, and Talmai) panicked the Israelites on their way to the Promised Land.
Probably from these Giants take the name those who in the Greek world were revered as a lineage of gods and ancient kings, the anachi.
In Austria and Germany the Giants move in forests, caves and woods. Aimone, for example, was a giant who lived near the headwaters of the Rhine. When he collided with a fellow named Tirso, who lived in the Inn valley, he killed him. The local inhabitants did not like this, so much so that Aimone was forced to make amends for his misdeed by facing a monstrous creature that ravaged the area.
Bayernkonigsloch (den of the Bavarian king), a town located in the north of Tyrol, according to some local legends owes its name to the Giants who took care of guarding "the entrance to the emperor's pavilions". Many legends tell of Riibezahl, the genius of the Mount of Giants, who helped travelers but took revenge without mercy on those who dared to mock him.
In the Rhine sagas the Giants are very numerous.
A Giant named Tannchel would have blown up the rocks that stagnated the waters of the Rhine in the Black Forest area.
Finally, medieval chronicles tell that the emperor Maximilian himself defeated the last Giant of the Odenwald, in a tournament held in the city of Worms, located on the west bank of the Rhine. In medieval times a particularly large and tall man could only think about the characters of the myth.
There is no area of the known world in which the Giants have not played some role.
Gimmicks in the growth of the character, or explanation of inexplicable phenomena, these legends arise everywhere, even in Latin America (some scholars speak about a real race, theorising its existence. Somewhere).
The Giant therefore seems to respond to a human need, that of giving nature a rational face similar to the human one. An archetype therefore, a myth to explain what is not or was not possible to explain.
Text reproduced with the authorization of Terre di Confine editorial staff and appeared in issue 2, January 2006, of the magazine
Copyright © 2006-2021 Gianluca Turconi - All rights reserved.
Polyphemus, the Cyclops who met Ulysses on his return to Ithaca
In theOdyssey of Homer, Ulysses finds himself in a cave together with his companions was none other than the house of Polyphemus, the giant Cyclops son of Poseidon and the nymph Toosa, man-eater that the protagonist tricks around to save himself.
"Here a man had a lair, a monster,Odyssey - Homer
What flocks grazed, alone, on the sidelines,
And he didn't mix with the others,
But he only lived, he had an unjust soul.
It was a giant monster and it didn't look like it
To a man who eats bread, but with a wild peak
D’eccelsi monti, which appears isolated from the others. "
However, we find Polyphemus mentioned in other works by important authors in history, just think of Theocritus, which describes the giant as a good and friendly soul. Or Ovid in "Aci and Galatea“, Where Polyphemus - in love with Galatea - kills Aci with a boulder. It's still Euripides and his work “Il Cyclops“, In which he quotes the story told by Homer.
Greek mythology monsters
Dictionary of Monsters of Greek Mythology
- Dictionary of Monsters of Greek Mythology. List of subject areas of the dictionary of monsters: Dictionary: Full Index A-G: Full Index H-Z: Nordic Monsters: Monsters from Greek mythology: Vampires: Biblical Monsters: Fairyland: Sea creatures: A. Argo Harpies. B. Briareus. C. Charybdis Cecrops Centaurs Cerberus Chimera Chiron Cyclops. D.
- Monsters also serve to enhance some characteristics of the heroes who fight them. "We think of Theseus when he defeats the Minotaur, a Greek monster that had the body of a man and the head of a bull, locked inside a labyrinth - explains Montali -
- The Sphinx of Greek mythology is a typical example of a monster as a supernatural and hybrid creature, symbol and personification of the enigma Monsters belonging to this type have characteristics which, contrary to the laws of nature and physics, should logically be impossible
Pages in category Creatures of Greek Mythology This category contains the following 16 pages, out of a total of 16 Greek Mythology: Divinity Home>>>>>> Mortals>> Locations Family Tree Request List Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. It begins. We will obviously focus on monsters close to us, linked to Greek, Roman and Nordic mythology, but we certainly cannot help but make forays into the culture of the United States of America or into that (now universal) that cinema and role-playing games helped to create and spread all over the world Mythological winged monsters - Solutions for crosswords and crosswords. Search - Advanced Words. Research - Definition. Search There are 1 matches for your search. Click on a word to get its definition. Greek mythology. Mermaids were mythical creatures, whose beautiful songs lured sailors to their deaths by causing their ships to fall into rocks. Sirens. Customize this example * More options Start my free trial Le.
Harpies (Greek Mythology) In Greek mythology the Harpies, daughters of Taumante and Electra,> were winged monsters represented with the female face and the body of a vulture Discover the history and mythology of the Harps Monsters of the mythology Greek (Sirens) I. Nella mythology Greek they were daughters of Acheloos, born from the drops of blood that fell from his wounds when Heracles broke his horn, or born to him by Sterope
Mythological monsters: what they are for and why they do them
- Sea monsters legendary or mentioned in mythologies and religious texts. Whale-island Carcino and Ozena in Greek mythology Cirein-cròin, from Scottish Galician mythology Coinchenn, from whose bones Gáe Bulg is made in Celtic mythology Curruid, the sea monster that killed Coinchenn Iku-Turso in Finnish Krake mythology
- Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of Greek myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. The Greek myths were collected in cycles that concern the different areas of the Hellenic world . The only unifying element is the composition of the Greek pantheon, consisting of a hierarchy of divine figures.
- Harpies Deities of Greek mythology. They were originally imagined as winged women, then as monsters with the head, torso and arms of a woman, the rest of a bird. Hesiod knows two of them: Aello, "storm", and Ocipete, "she who flies swiftly", daughters, with Iris, of Taumante and Electra. In other authors there are three, with Celenus, the "obscure". garden of the Hesperides, then in the.
- Greek mythology is full of fantastic creatures. Legends tell the stories of heroes and gods, as well as the monsters that surround them. Eight of those monsters are described here. Cerberus. The Hades hound is sometimes shown with two heads and various body parts, but the most familiar form is the three-headed Cerberus
- The top 10 monsters of Greek mythology! I want to clarify that this ranking is based on my personal tastes, therefore it is normal that there are divas ..
- The Mythological Monsters App is suitable for children and teenagers aged 9 to 99. The App is divided into 9 sections that tell the stories of as many monsters from Greek mythology
- Greek mythology has some distinctive features: the gods display human likeness and feelings and, unlike ancient religions such as Hinduism or Judaism, it does not contain.
Monster - Wikipeds
By Greek mythology we mean all the myths and legends that belong to the ancient Greeks, in which we talk about their gods and heroes, what is the nature of the world and its origins, as well as the meaning of their cults and rites. Due to its characteristics it was part of the religion of ancient Greece. Greek Mythology To be precise, this set of stories from its origin to a phase. Visit eBay to find a large selection of Greek mythology monsters. Discover the best offers, immediately at home, in complete safety
Category: Creatures of Greek mythology - Wikipeds
- Greek mythology deals with the study of myths that explain the origin of the world and expose the life and adventures of gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines and mythological creatures typical of ancient Greece. These tales were initially composed and disseminated in an oral poetic and compositional form, while they have come down to us mainly through the written texts of the.
- With monsters: The Greek monsters with snakes instead of hair Monsters of fairy tales The monsters awaken Him Mythical monsters that had snakes instead of hair The terrifying monsters of fairy tales. With three: It has three great kingdoms Scolpì The three Graces There are three for each season Frederick author of Three meters above the sky The three virtues of the Holy Spirit The school from which maître comes.
- Greek - Greek mythology: here is an excursus on the most important divinities and myths belonging to the religious culture of ancient Greece Odyssey: summary Book 12 Epic - Homer - Book 12, ver. 148-249, of the Odyssey: summary, text and commentary of Odysseus' encounter with the Sirens, the island of the Sun and the shipwreck of Scylla and Caridd
- Cyclops. In classical mythology, the Cyclops were humanoid giants with one eye, children of Uranus and Gaea. The cyclops is a figure born in Greek mythology whose main peculiarity is the presence of a single eye positioned centrally, just below the forehead
Monsters - Greek Mythology
- In Greek mythology, one of the six male titans, the last son of Uranus and Gaea. The first children of his parents were the hecatonchirs, monsters with a hundred hands and fifty heads, which Uranus had locked up in a secret place
- (Greek Hýdra Latin Hydra) .Fabulous monster of Greek mythology: daughter of Echidna and Typhon, she was a water snake with seven or more heads that, when cut, grew back and lived in the marsh of Lerna. It constituted an image of the aquatic element, in the its chaotic aspect and therefore dangerous towards the cosmos
- Harpies Deities of Greek mythology. They were originally imagined as winged women, then as monsters with the head, torso and arms of a woman, the rest of a bird. Hesiod knows two of them: Aello, "storm", and Ocipete, "she who flies swiftly", daughters, with Iris, of Taumante and Electra. In other authors are Read Tutt
- Or the Monsters section of Greek mythology which brings together the enormous quantity of repugnant and monstrous beings that the clear Greek civilization has produced and which are, to us heirs of classical culture, well known. As the dictionary grows, it is logical that the sections will grow in number as well
- The Chimera (from the Greek, Chimaira from the Latin, Chimaera) in Greek mythology is a fabulous monster, represented with the body and head of a lion, a second goat head protruding from the back and a snake in place of the tail. Among the representations, in heraldry, however, the fabulous monster is represented with the head of a woman or a lion, the body of a goat or an eagle and a snake's tail.
Monsters from Greek mythology (Charybdis) Sea monster from Greek mythology. In the Odyssey (XII, 101 et seq.) It is said that she lived invisibly under a rock dominated by a wild fig, in front of the rock of Scilla The Harpies had also generated Flogeo and Arpago, the horses of the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) , sons of Zeus and Leda and therefore brothers of Helen and Clytemnestra .. The most famous myth concerning the Harpies is linked to the story of Phineus, a king of Thrace with the gift of divination. It is said that Phineus had provoked the wrath of the gods , who instructed the Harpies to punish him Three mythological monsters Su arria: Stoicism was an important philosophical current of ancient Greece, whose conduct of. continue On artemide: Among the main divinities of classical mythology, the goddess Diana was revered by the ancient Romans as. On haruspices: Since the most remote civilizations, yes.
Sea monsters therefore fall into this particular category. Let's see the main 6 sea monsters of which there is a trace in the literature. Kraken A Giant Squid Sculpture (Source Photo Pixabay) The Kraken is a legendary creature belonging to Scandinavian mythology Greek mythology for children. The most beautiful tales of Greek mythology, specially adapted for children. Introducing children to the wonderful world of the first superheroes, where they will find irresistible stories of gods, monsters and demigods Greek Mythology: Divinity Home>>>>>> Mortals>> Places Family Tree Request List Introduction to religion. Prerequisite: I don't want to be too serious or talkative. Mythology is told in too complicated a way, therefore, here I tell you the myths and legends like.
In ancient Greece, Oedipus is a character from Greek mythology, who showed great gymnastic skills, like any other mythological hero, but his history is full of misfortunes and unrest. The story of Edip SYMBOLOGY «Archetypes of Greek Mythology» Home >> Synthesis >> Archetypes of Greek Mythology. Each people of the planet has its own mythology which constitutes the symbolic representation of universal psychic archetypes, focused on the specific characteristics of that particular civilization. For us Western Europeans - especially in the Mediterranean area - the. The infernal monsters of pagan mythology The first monster deriving from pagan mythology we meet is Charon (canto 3 ° vv. 82-99 / 109-110), the ferryman of Hell, already present in Virgil's Aeneid, his task is to transport the new dead from one bank to the other of the Acheron river that separates the hereafter from the hereafter
the mythology of ancient greece has wonderful and very beautiful stories. but it also has terrible and interesting monsters. Link instagram cosplayer: https: // instagram .. As part of Greek mythology, Medusa, which in ancient Greek means guardian or protector, was a chronic monster woman, with the ability to turn those who dared to look her in the eye into stone. Medusa was beheaded by Perseus, who later used her as a weapon, until she handed her over to the goddess Athena to put her on the shield, the aegis Echidna is the mother of monsters.Yes, everyone would like a woman so tender that they can only conceive horrible creatures that eat people. He was not very sociable, in fact he stayed all the time in a cave in the Peloponnese, the monster of the seas - A minor and primordial deity of Greek mythology, Ceto is the daughter of Gaea and Pont
Monsters and Legendary Creatures - La Tela Ner
- Fabulous figures of Greek mythology, of gigantic stature and equipped with only one eye located in the middle of the forehead. In the Odyssey they are a collectivity of giants despising the gods, who live in caves in an almost natural state and anthropophagi are shepherds and their leader is Polyphemus, son.
- Greek Mythology: Divinity Home>>>>>> Mortals>> Places Family Tree Request List Mermaids. Sorry, but I haven't found any decent pictures for mermaids so I prefer to do without. Why? Because I keep finding beautiful fish-girls. Too bad it's only one.
- > Greek mythology: the origin and rise of Zeus. Greek mythology: the origin and rise of Zeus. Print. , the three Cyclops, the one-eyed giants and the three Centimani (or Hecatonchiri), monsters with a hundred arms and fifty heads that spat fire. The strength of Cyclops and Centimani, however, frightened Uranus, who felt himself.
Cerberus, the three-headed dog. The three-headed creature of the mythology Greek guarding the kingdom of the dead. Although perhaps best known for his presence in the Hell of the Divine Comedy, in a role not unlike the classic one, Cerberus is a creature of the mythology Greek, generated by the union of Echidna and Typhon. His genealogy includes a large number of highly respected siblings. give them the brute forces of the world: deformed giants, disproportionate monsters and the infinite symbols of good and evil. As the generations unfold, the raz-12 Legends and tragedies of Greek mythology 15 calms the waves, comforts and reassures those who turn to her There are loves, adventures, intrigues, prodigies, monsters. There are journeys to the end of the world and love stories that defy even death. Everything that still today fascinates us and moves us when we read a novel or watch a film, The great sagas of Greek mythology. Alessia Zuppelli - 01/07/2020 20:52. 5/5
Greek mythology: here is an excursus on the most important divinities and myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks Classical mythology: Greek and Roman. The cards of 700 myths. Summary of heroes and characters with names starting with the letters D and E Mythological monsters. Among the mythological monsters, we could find the name for our furry puppy. Among the best known Hydra of Lena, belonging to Greek mythology. A large 9-headed sea snake. The 2nd of the 12 labors of Hercules was precisely that of killing Hydra. Initially, every time Hercules detached a head, two were reborn. On his back, he returned to Greece from the land of the Gorgons and freed Andromeda. Greek mythology was so influential that it formed the basis of Roman myths. In the Greek Myths you will be exposed to the thrilling tales and the most fascinating legends of the cruel Titans, the Immortal gods and the heroes who formed the basis of the ancient Greek religion
WINGED MYTHOLOGICAL MONSTERS - 5 letters - Crosswords and words
- Greek Myths: Gods, Titans, Heroes and Monsters from Ancient Greece: Fascinating Stories and Legendary Tales of Greek Mythology. of the Art and History Foundation | 11 May 2020. 3.7 out of 5 stars 113. Flexible cover
- Sep 19, 2018 - Explore Marina Cappuccio's Greek Mythology board on Pinterest. View other ideas on Greek mythology, mythology, greece
- But Norse mythology gives us other gigantic sea monsters. For example, the Miðgarðsormr or Jörmungandr, son of Loki and a giantess, a giant snake that was captured in the sea of Jötunheimr, the land of giants, by Thor (who used a bull's head as a bait) and was then thrown into the sea of the our world, where it grew until it could encircle the whole world like a ring
Mermaids Of Greek Mythology Greek Guide To Monsters
- History and mythology of the Greek hero who defeated Medusa and reigned over Mycenae before being transformed into a constellation. The constellation of Perseus is named after the famous hero of Greek mythology. The myth of Perseus is one of the best known in the classical world
- ETRUSCANS. - In ancient times, two opposite theses were supported, both known to Dionisio d'Alicarnasso (I, 26,30), on the origins of the Etruscans, who for one thesis, indigenous, were autochthonous [. ] bas-reliefs) take us back to Greek mythology. However, we can consider as Campanari, now lost, and the two Tarquinianes of Tifone and Bruschi. . Common to all three quests
- ili: Uranus, Cronus, Zeus, Hephaestus, Athena, Venus, Hermes, Perseus and the Graces (2 pages in doc format) Page 1 of 2 1 Cat names - mythology Here are some names from mythology, Greek / Roman, Egyptian, Celtic and Mesopotamia
- Giants (Greek mythology) and Great Mother · Show more »Greek mythology. Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. New. Giants (Greek mythology) and Greek mythology · Show more »Olimp
- mythology Complex of the myths of a people, that is traditional fantastic narratives of deeds performed by divine figures or ancestors ([.] historically the parallels of the various m., highlighting how not all mythological motifs are found in all civilizations
- Large selection of Greek mythology-themed tank tops created by leading designers »Variety of sizes, colors and styles Order on Spreadshir
- Greek Myths: Gods, Titans, Heroes and Monsters from Ancient Greece: Fascinating Stories and Legendary Tales of Greek Mythology. of the Art and History Foundation | 11 May 2020. 3.8 out of 5 stars 109. Flexible cover
Greek mythology is not the only type in the genre many cultures from around the world have exquisite mythologies. Greek mythology consists of the polytheistic beliefs of the ancient Greeks. It begins with a creation myth, which explains how the earth was formed. Greek mythology and books on Greek myths allow us to discover a magical and fascinating world. Furthermore, along the Strait of Messina he will have to face the monsters Scilla, on the coasts of Calabria, and Cariddi on the Sicilian shore, while along the famous Riviera di Ulisse he will meet the sorceress Circe. Classical mythology: Greek and Roman. The cards of 700 myths. Summary of heroes and characters with names beginning with the letters T, U, V, X, Z Greek Myths: Gods, Titans, Heroes and Monsters from Ancient Greece: Fascinating Stories and Legendary Tales of Greek Mythology eBook: History, Fondazione Arte e: Amazon.co.uk: Kindle Stor
Names of Greek and Roman Mythology. Facebook. Twitter. E-mail. Among the most ancient stories that can be told, there are undoubtedly the fascinating events of the Greek and Roman gods: the gods were represented as human figures and had decidedly earthly passions. The tales of their loves ,. . of the Art and History Foundation | 11 May 2020. 3.8 out of 5 stars 119. Flexible cover Entering the beliefs of Roman mythology is a truly captivating task as it is the set of the most deeply rooted beliefs of ancient Rome, although it is important to note that this cultural contribution is almost split in two main parts, on the one hand we have the truly native rituals and myths of Rome and on the other hand is the so-called fusion with the Greek mythology that one is. Greek Mythology Japanese Mythology Roman Mythology Mythological Creatures Mythical Creatures Sea Monsters Scandinavian Mythology Symbols And Meanings Celtic Mythology World Mythology 5256 votes and 175039 views on Imgur: The magic of the Interne
Greek mythology is full of monsters that have destroyed lives. See what monsters like Cerberus, Hydra and others looked like and what Monsters and demons did. Hell (15th century ms.) Harpies - Caco - Charon - centaurs - Cerberus - Flegiàs - Furies - Geryon - giants - lion loin - Lucifer - she-wolf - Malacoda - Malebranche - Medusa - Minos - Minotaur Pluto / Pluto - Proserpina. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates Apr 22, 2017 - Explore the Mythology Monsters Board on Pinterest. View more ideas about mythology, mythological creatures, monsters
In Greek mythology, the harpies (lit. the kidnappers, from the Greek verb ἁρπάζειν harpazein, to kidnap) are monstrous creatures, with the face of a woman and the body of a bird. The origin of their myth must perhaps be traced back to a personification of the storm. "In the Strofadi islands of the Ionian Sea there were some monsters, the harpies The father-son conflict and the generational clash seen through the eyes of the symbols of Greek mythology: Narcissus, Icarus, Oedipus is therefore the symbol of those father-son relationships full of anguish, where destructive envy shows itself as an open conflict of Greek mythology. Here you will find a list of various characters - heroes and heroines, kings and queens, princes and princesses that appear in Greek mythology (practically all those who were not gods or goddesses). Click on their names to find out more (please be patient with me, there aren't many links for the moment) The cyclops (Greek: Κύκλωψ which means round eye) is a figure from Greek mythology. He is the descendant of an ancient race of giants, characterized by the presence of only one eye, even if this element seems to be after the first attestations, when the Cyclops were only people of large size from.
Mythological, Fantastic and Magical Creatures History e
- Mythology for children is an engaging series of illustrated books dedicated to the most beautiful stories of all time, to be read and rediscovered while having fun with your children. A unique opportunity to take a magical journey through the ancient Greek and Roman myths to learn about the origins of our culture
- Cerberus is probably one of the most famous monsters in Greek mythology. Son of Typhon and Echidna, Cerberus is a giant mastiff with three heads that represent the past, present and future
- ò causing it to fall into the sea, where he changed it to u
Phrases on mythology: quotes and aphorisms on mythology from the archive of Frasi Celebri .it. Follow us on. but not in a rejection of the reality of the world of monsters in which it fell to live. We can consider them the pop version of Greek mythology .. Greek mythology. Stories of gods, goddesses, monsters and mortals, Book by Donna Jo Napoli. Free shipping for orders over 25 euros. Buy it on Libreriauniversitaria.it! Published by White Star, National Geographic Kids series, hardcover, November 2017, 9788854036130 Greek Medusa Monsters. 22 33 0. Mythological Pegasus. 22 23 0. Ancient Greek Coins. 39 31 0. Painting Oil Painting. 20 24 1. Ceres Antica Greco. 27 25 2. Ulysses Greek Mythology. 6 11 0. Hera Juno Ancient Greek. 5 10 1. Heracles Ancient Hercules. 5 4 1. Angelo Daedalus. 4 9 2. Ulysses Odysseus Ancient. 10 6 0. Sculpture Statue. 7 9 2. Greek God Helmet. 7. Feb 1, 2021 - Explore the S. C.P Mythologies / Divinity Board on Pinterest. View more ideas on Greek mythology, mythology, gods and goddesses
Visit eBay to find a large selection of Greek mythology. Discover the best offers, immediately at home, in complete safety Greek mythology Greek mythology: birth and characteristics. Greek - Guide - Birth and characteristics of Greek mythology: a corpus of narratives and legends concerning the belonging gods. . Greek mythology collects all the myths and classical legends descending from ancient Greece, concerning the gods and heroic characters with their beliefs and practices steeped in religiosity according to their worldview Monsters and heroes of the mythology Greek: Before Zeus shaped the fifth lineage, that of mortal men, there was an age of heroes, children of the gods.The war took them away, their quest for glory led them to undertake feats that were impossible to complete
Monsters and heroes of Greek mythology is a book edited by Serena Fiandro published by I Doni Delle Muse: buy on IBS at 9.35 € Oct 28, 2020 - Gods, heroes and myths of ancient Greece. View more ideas about Greek Mythology, Mythology, Ancient Greece For hundreds and hundreds of years Greek mythology has inspired art, from literature to painting. Lately, the Greek gods have also become popular protagonists of different tattoos, able to tell the story of the human condition: love, fear, courage and beauty are just some of the most relevant aspects, useful for being able to convey one's emotions.
Dictionary of Monsters of Greek Mythology (Sirene
- Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of Greek myths  belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. The Greek myths were collected in cycles concerning the different areas of the Hellenic world. The only unifying element is the composition of the Greek pantheon, consisting of a hierarchy of divine figures.
- In Greek mythology Uranus is the primordial god of the sky because this is his name, he and Gaia are the ancestors of most of the Greek gods, however there is no cult aimed primarily at him. Uranus is known in Greek mythology as the god of the sky made person, known in Roman mythology as Caelus. He was the son and husband of Gaia, mother earth
- Hippocampus (mythology) A Hippocampus is a legendary creature from Greek mythology. Hippocamps feature in Poseidon's procession, along with tritons, water dragons, and gigantic sea monsters. Description They are horses up to the belly, and their body ends with a fish tail
- The Minotaur in Greek mythology: history and meaning of the monster. One of the best known stories of Greek mythology is that of the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster
Sea monster - Wikipeds
23/02/2021 - Large motifs with impact graphics, geometric lines and labyrinths proposed in a wide range of colors. The number 25 fabric collection by Lelièvre Paris is inspired by ancient suggestions of Greek mythology, with references to a golden age of wealth and opulence. In Greek mythology they were instead called Erinyes and were three sisters: Aletto, Megera and Tisifone. They are also mentioned in the Inferno of the Divine Comedy as guardians of the city of Dis. Find definition: (or Partial word search) Contribute to the site Gorgons Gorgons are monsters of Greek mythology, they were daughters of Forco and Ceto and lived in the far west of the world known by the Greeks. Mythology They were three sisters, Steno, Euryale and Medusa. Gorgeous-looking, they had silver wings, hands with red enamel, and anyone who looked directly into their eyes was petrified. Over the centuries, Chinese culture has produced hundreds of legends about monsters, ghosts, demons and spirits. Let's see below some of the main demons of Chinese mythology Eco was a nymph of the woods and Greek mythology has handed down various legends about this nymph with a sweet character and a sweet voice, which instilled sweetness in the heart of those who listened to her. he tells of these legends that Echo was very fond of chatting with those he met on the road and that, precisely for this reason, Zeus instructed her to entertain his wife Hera while he did.
Greek mythology - Wikipeds
Enceladus (mythology) and Louis XIV of France · Show more »Greek mythology. Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. New. Enceladus (Mythology) and Greek Mythology · Show more »Pallene (Chalkidiki Greek Mythology: Gods, Heroes, Monsters and Stories - Greek Mythology Italian Edition 212. by Richard Michael Schlesinger. Paperback $ 25.97. Hardcover. $ 37.47. Paperback. $ 25.97. View All Available Formats & Editions Ship This Item - Qualifies for Free Shipping Buy.
Harpies in the Treccan Encyclopedia
Gods and demigods, heroes and monsters, all protagonists of the fantastic childhood of the flowering city on the shores of the Mediterranean. An explosion of genius and poetry that invests the great themes of human life and transforms them into myths of rigorous and dazzling Gods and demigods, heroes and monsters, all protagonists of the fantastic childhood of the flowering city on the shores of the Mediterranean Alcestis ( mythology) and Ancient Greek language · Show more »Greek mythology. Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. New. Alcestis (mythology) and Greek mythology cultural heritage of Latin civilization. In the late imperial period, moreover, Roman mythology was enriched with figures of oriental origin, such as the Persian Mithras. Larissa (mythology) and Larissa · Show more »Greek mythology. Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. New. Larissa (mythology) and Greek mythology · Show more »Pelasg
Mythical creatures: the monsters of Greek mythology
The Beast of Gévaudan (French: La Bête du Gévaudan) was a creature that terrorized the area of Gévaudan (today Lozère), in the central southern area of France between 1764 and 1767, killing and injuring hundreds of people and animals. Dec 9, 2016 - Explore Marina Cappuccio's Roman Mythology board on Pinterest. View other ideas about mythological creatures, mythology, satyr Story of a myth (Carocci 2010), The Greek tragedy. Origins, history, rebirths (Salerno Editrice 2010), Archipelago. Islands and myths of the Aegean Sea (Einaudi 2018).With Sonzogno he published the series of mythological narratives composed of Olympos (2011), Heroes (2013), The heroes of the Trojan war (2015) and Demons, monsters and wonders (2017) Mythology and astronomy. By importing their astronomical studies, the Greeks adapted the knowledge of their predecessors to their own mythological culture, after the exploration of the southern hemisphere had shown that part of the sky that had remained hidden until then.
TOP 10 MONSTERS of GREEK mythology! - # Mythical Curiosity
Greek Mythology - Book Greek Mythology - Book Stories of gods, goddesses, monsters and mortals Donna Jo Napoli. List price: € 16,90: Price: € 16,06: You save: € 0,84 (5%) Item not available Requested by 3 people. Notify me Not available. Giants (Greek mythology) and Mimas (mythology) · Show more »Greek mythology. Greek mythology was and is the collection and therefore the study of myths belonging to the religious culture of the ancient Greeks and concerning, in particular, their gods and heroes. New. Giants (Greek mythology) and Greek mythology · Show more »Monte Oss