How to plant horseradish in your garden
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Horseradish is one of the favorite spices of Russian cuisine. It not only gives an original note to the taste of meat and fish dishes, sauces and marinades, but is also rich in various vitamins. Any gardener can grow horseradish, even a beginner.
How to plant horseradish on the site
Horseradish is a vegetable plant related to perennial herbs. It has powerful, well-developed rhizomes and large oblong leaves. Differs in excellent winter hardiness, drought resistance and general vitality, therefore it is grown both in European and Asian countries. Often, gardeners grow non-selective (folk) varieties of horseradish (Suzdal, Valkovsky, Latvian, Rostovsky), although there are also cultural varieties - Atlant and Tolpukhovsky, which are distinguished by a softer taste and less tendency to spread over the site.
Horseradish leaves and rhizomes contain:
- phytoncides and essential oils with bactericidal action;
- vitamin C (up to 0.2 g per 100 g);
- allyl mustard oil (used in cooking and traditional medicine);
- vitamins of group B and PP;
- a large amount of carotene (115 mg per 100 g).
Horseradish rhizomes not only improve the taste of various dishes, but also contain many useful substances
It is not difficult to plant and grow horseradish: it is very unpretentious and hardy - so much so that many consider it a malicious weed and try to keep it out of the garden. True, this vegetable turns into a weed if it is improperly looked after. Horseradish can stay in one place for 10–12 years, but it is advisable to dig out the rhizomes 1–2 years after planting, otherwise the plant runs wild, the roots branch out and go into the depths, so its removal becomes very difficult.
The vegetable is grown most often in the open field, but you can do it in a greenhouse if you need to accelerate its ripening.
Despite the sufficient resistance to shading, horseradish still does not like strong shade, so you need to choose a place for it in the garden away from dense tree or shrub plantations. Many gardeners recommend planting a vegetable along the fence.
Planting dates: summer and winter
Horseradish has so much vitality that it can be planted at almost any time of the year:
- plant cuttings in the spring, when the soil has already thawed (the second half of April is considered the best time). With strong recurrent frosts, the cuttings may not take root, so you need to wait for the time when the soil temperature is above +5 aboutFROM;
- plant a plant in autumn (second decade of September - mid-October for central Russia). Frost should be 12-14 days. If the fall is dry, the planting will need to be watered. As a rule, plants take root well and tolerate winter well;
- throughout the summer, you can both plant and transplant horseradish. It is advisable to choose a cloudy day and how to water the plantings to facilitate rooting. If the weather is very hot and dry, it is better to refrain from planting horseradish in the summer;
Horseradish can be planted and replanted even in summer in the absence of drought
- planting horseradish before winter is possible in late October - early November. To do this, in the first half of October, you need to clear the soil of weeds and plant debris, then dig it deeply. Cuttings should be deepened deeper than during spring planting (3-4 cm) in order to protect them from frost.
Planting horseradish cuttings
Horseradish rarely produces seeds, so most often it is propagated by cuttings, which are actually pieces of roots.
Site selection and soil preparation
Before planting horseradish on your site, you need to choose the right place for it. It is advisable to plant the plant in the sun or in partial shade. The soil must have high moisture and air permeability. In principle, horseradish can develop on any soils, but on heavy clay soils it forms bitter and tough, lignified roots, and on sandy soils it turns out tasteless. To obtain good quality rhizomes, you need to plant the plant on fertile black soil, loam, sandy loam or drained peatlands enriched with organic fertilizers.
Good soil for horseradish is black soil.
It is good to plant horseradish where tomatoes, potatoes and other vegetables used to grow.
It is necessary to prepare the soil in advance: for example, for spring planting, the soil is prepared in the fall. The procedure is as follows:
- In the selected area, weeds are removed, organic fertilizers are scattered and dug up.
- In the spring, shortly before planting, another shallow digging is carried out with the introduction of mineral or organic fertilizers:
- potassium and ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, which are mixed in equal proportions - a dose of 30 g / m2;
- a bucket of peat and sand on clay soils, as well as 10–12 kg of manure for each square meter;
- 0.4-0.5 kg / m2 ash with increased soil acidity.
Harvesting and storage of cuttings
Horseradish cuttings can be easily prepared by yourself. For this:
- When digging in autumn, one-year growth should be cut off from large rhizomes.
- Cuttings should be 20–25 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm in diameter; all lateral processes and branches should be cut off.
- From above, the cutting must be cut at an angle of 90 °, and the bottom - obliquely, so as not to confuse the upper and lower parts during planting.
- The cuttings must be tied in a bunch and placed in a cellar, sprinkled with slightly moistened sand or sawdust, or dug in the garden until spring.
Strong moisture in the substrate can provoke premature root germination.
To prepare root cuttings from horseradish rhizomes, even pieces of 20-25 cm long are cut
You can prepare the material for planting in the spring when the soil has thawed. Such cuttings should be quickly planted in a permanent place.
The author successfully uses the lazy horseradish breeding method. Considering the unique viability of the plant, during the autumn digging of horseradish, you can simply take extra small roots or pieces of roots (at least 8–10 cm long and at least 1 cm thick) and immediately plant them in a new place, deepening by 5–6 cm. watering usually even such cuttings root successfully and after 2 years give usable rhizomes.
Preparing cuttings for planting
In the spring, pieces of roots begin to prepare for planting:
- For 12-15 days, the cuttings are moved to a place with a higher temperature and covered with damp cloth or a layer of peat to ensure germination.
- As soon as the cuttings germinate, all eyes in the middle part are blinded. To do this, a handle is rubbed with a piece of burlap, a coarse mitten or the blunt side of a knife blade, leaving only the upper and lower parts for the development of the roots and leaf outlet of the kidney.
Sprouted horseradish cuttings blind all eyes
Germination can also be carried out by digging in the cuttings in a greenhouse (placed at an angle, oblique cut down).
Cuttings prepared in this way can be planted in the ground.
Video: preparation of planting material - horseradish cuttings
If you do not have your own planting material, buy a large horseradish rhizome, cut into pieces (3-5 cm in length) and plant in the ground in April. By autumn, the planted segments give a young growth, which will serve as planting material.
Another type of planting material are apical buds located at the end of the main shoot or lateral process, which are cut off with a piece of rhizome (2-3 cm).
Apical buds are indicated by the number 6, the same ones wake up along the upper edge of each cutting
They can be prepared in winter, as the buds hatch even on the rhizomes stored in the refrigerator.
The sequence of actions is as follows:
- The material is placed in a container with a fertile substrate and watered until roots appear.
- Then transfer each plant to a separate glass or pot.
After the formation of roots, pieces of horseradish root with apical buds are planted in a pot
- Remove excess leaves so that no more than two outlets remain. This is required in order to provoke root growth.
- Prepared plants are planted in a permanent place, like cuttings, in April.
Planting horseradish in open ground
When planting horseradish cuttings in open ground, it is advisable to use a planting peg. With its help, an inclined (30–45 about) indentation of the desired length.
They pierce the soil with a planting peg to plant the horseradish stalk at the right angle
The planting process consists of the following steps:
- A horseradish root is immersed in the recess made with a planting peg, directing it with an oblique cut down. Plants are planted in rows with a row spacing of 0.7–0.8 m and an interval between adjacent bushes in a row of 30–40 cm.
When planting, the upper and lower ends of the cutting should not be confused, but should be planted at a slope, immersing the apical bud by 4–5 cm
- The apical bud is sprinkled with soil 3-5 cm.
- For fast rooting, the soil is lightly compacted with the foot.
As a rule, there are 4-6 plants per square meter.
Video: planting horseradish
Planting horseradish seeds
Horseradish bushes bloom in the second year of life, but usually seeds are not formed or appear in very small quantities. Therefore, seed propagation is rare.
Horseradish gives very pleasant fragrant flowers, but almost no seeds
If you have collected or bought horseradish seeds, you can use them to grow a vegetable. Horseradish from seeds is grown, like any other winter-hardy crop. There is no need to carry out processing and stratification of seeds, and no preliminary cultivation of seedlings is required. Sowing can be carried out directly into the ground in spring or before winter. The soil must be prepared in advance in the same way as for planting cuttings.
If desired, you can treat horseradish seeds with a growth stimulator, for example, Energen, before planting. For this, 1 ml of the drug is dissolved in 50 ml of water and the seeds are soaked for 6–20 hours.
Horseradish planting methods
Horseradish can be planted in the following ways:
- on a raised bed,
- in a bucket or barrel,
- into a sleeve made of polyethylene film.
Most often, horseradish is planted in high beds. This planting method is especially recommended for soils with a thin fertile layer or excessive moisture. The height of the beds should be 25-30 cm: with such a planting, the plants are not flooded with water during heavy rains and, moreover, it is easier to dig out rhizomes in the fall.
Planting horseradish on a raised bed is suitable for soils with a thin fertile layer or excessive moisture
Horseradish is planted in a bucket or barrel to limit its creeping around the garden. The difference between planting in a bucket and in a barrel is only in the number of plants that fit in these containers.
Grow horseradish in a barrel or bucket as follows:
- A nutrient mixture from compost or humus with soil is poured into an old bucket (barrel).
- The filled container is buried in the ground so that the sides rise above the surface by 2-3 cm. 2-3 rhizomes can be placed in each bucket, 5-6 in a barrel.
If you plant horseradish in a bucket, it will not creep over the site.
- In the fall, the container is removed and turned over to its side - while the roots are easily removed and remain intact.
Watering and feeding plants in a barrel or bucket in summer is carried out according to the general scheme.
Video: how to grow horseradish in a barrel
A sleeve made of thick (100 microns) polyethylene film also prevents the spread of horseradish over the area. The sleeve is chosen so that its diameter exceeds the thickness of the cutting by 4–5 times.
- The sleeve is filled with soil, a stalk is placed in it so that the upper end protrudes by 1–1.5 cm, and the lower end - by 2 cm.
- Then the sleeve is dug into the soil at an angle (30–35 °). The film prevents the plant from forming lateral branches, and during the autumn harvest, the rhizome is easily removed.
To get a good harvest, you need to properly care for the plantings:
- weed out the weeds,
- loosen the soil
- water and feed.
When the first shoots of horseradish appear, thinning should be carried out so that only the strongest shoots remain. In July, the rhizomes are dug up and all the lateral roots are cut off at a depth of 25 cm, then the roots are again covered with earth, compacted and watered properly.
Looseness of the soil is one of the main conditions for growing horseradish. In total, 3 loosening will be required over the summer:
- 7-8 days after disembarkation (depth 3-4 cm);
- then after germination of seedlings (depth 6–8 cm);
- then after another 12-14 days (by 10-12 cm).
Loosening must be done carefully so as not to damage the young roots.
Young plants are loosened with a rake, carefully so as not to damage the horseradish roots
Horseradish has good drought resistance, but watering is necessary for the rooting of cuttings. It is carried out at first every 7-10 days at the rate of 2-3 l / m2 (in dry weather, watering is more frequent). When the plants take root, they need to be watered only in the absence of precipitation (3-4 l / m2).
Fertilizers are optional - horseradish develops well without them. If desired, you can feed the plantings with complex fertilizers once a month (50 g per bucket of water).
Compatibility with other plants
Horseradish is a rather aggressive plant. He himself easily withstands the neighborhood of other plants, only tomatoes, beans and strawberries are undesirable for him. And it is also advisable not to plant horseradish near trees and shrubs, because tree roots will interfere with the extraction of horseradish rhizomes.
Fragrant herbs and potatoes are considered good neighbors for this vegetable. It is even recommended to plant horseradish next to the potatoes as a means to scare away the Colorado potato beetle. Rhubarb tolerates horseradish well, and for broccoli this plant is good as a precursor.
They can't stand the neighborhood of horseradish:
- sweet pepper;
- scorzonera (Spanish goat, or black root).
In general, it is best to plant a vegetable that is not sweeter than a radish, away from other plants - on the border of the plot or in the corner of the garden - and limit its ability to creep to the sides.
Reviews of gardeners about planting horseradish
Planting horseradish is not difficult. You just need to choose the right place so that the plant not only develops well itself, but also does not oppress other inhabitants of the garden. With the right care, you can get a bountiful harvest of this healthy, spicy vegetable every year.
Hello! My name is Maria, 40 years old. My main job is teaching technical subjects.
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When and how to properly plant a hydrangea seedling in the spring in open ground
Lush and solemn flowers are often used in bouquets, but their beauty is fleeting and fleeting. But when growing street shrubs in your garden, you can admire them for a long time! Reproduction of this culture is possible: by layering, dividing the bush, cuttings, and also from seeds (but growing a crop with seeds is too difficult and unpromising option). An ornamental flowering perennial shrub is unpretentious to grow.
Interesting fact! The Latin name Hydrangea (hydrangea) literally translates as "a vessel with water", the name is associated with the moisture-loving plant.
How to properly plant a cutting depends on whether we want to root it in water, a pot, or directly in the ground outside. If you choose water, then it is worth taking a well, if there is such an opportunity, or at least a few hours standing. There is an opinion that the water in the dishes should not be changed, you can only top up as it evaporates, let it turn green and ugly, but the roots are more likely to form in it than in clean and always fresh.Many flower growers advise, based on their experience, to close the upper part of the shoots that rise from the dishes with a bag or transparent film to create a kind of greenhouse, and place this whole structure in a room with a temperature of +22 - +25 degrees, to the light. In the absence of the proper amount of sun, a fluorescent lamp will do.
After 2 - 3 weeks, callus forms on the lower ends of the branches - a light thickening, from which new roots will soon grow. Simultaneously with the formation of roots, new shoots can grow from the upper buds, at first they will be red, then gradually they will acquire a normal green color. Some break off these new shoots and root them, but so the process of forming a new bush will be postponed, more likely it will turn out if you plant a rooted cutting in the ground.
When rooting in a pot, the cutting is placed on the sand-soil boundary with a lower oblique cut. The sand will prevent the stem from rotting when the humidity rises, and the newly formed roots will be able to deepen further and take nutrients from the soil. Rooting conditions for all methods are almost the same - temperature is approximately +22 - +25, periodic spraying, light and cover from above to create a greenhouse effect.
The same conditions must be created when rooting on the street. A small semblance of a greenhouse is built on the garden bed, installing wire arcs, covering them with polyethylene. Or you can simply cover with glass jars or cut plastic bottles. Sometimes the plants need to be ventilated. On the street they will have to be shaded from the sun so as not to burn and not create too high a temperature under the shelter.
Potatoes are used for rooting cuttings because they create ideal conditions for moisture and nutrition. You just need to take absolutely healthy specimens without the slightest signs of rotting, cut out all the eyes, make shallow (up to 2 cm) holes, insert the lower edges of the cuttings into them. Two-thirds of the potatoes are covered with earth, and under them it is advisable to organize a sandy substrate 5 cm thick. Above, you also need to make a greenhouse shelter from plastic wrap or cut plastic bottles. If the cuttings in potatoes are rooted on the street, then a narrow trench is specially dug for them along the width of the potato plus another 5 cm, a layer of sand not thinner than 5 cm is poured down, all this is covered with soil, light and permeable. And the top is covered with polyethylene, shaded from too bright sun.
There is another way to get the roots, it is called "burrito", because the cuttings are wrapped in several layers of wet newspaper, like a flatbread filling in this Mexican dish.
The newspaper must be absolutely wet so that it can be wrung out like a rag, the cuttings are folded in a bunch, wrapped in an envelope so that nothing sticks out of the newspaper anywhere. Then the whole package is placed in a bag. It periodically needs to be unfolded, moistened with a newspaper, and the condition of the cuttings should be checked. If rot appears on any of them, it must be removed. New shoots that have penetrated the newspaper may testify to the appearance of roots. Once the roots have grown, the cuttings can be planted in the ground.
Planting instructions for cuttings
If we consider how to plant horseradish in the spring, then it is better to do this using the cuttings technique. This crop is rarely planted with seeds. Cuttings are essentially small pieces of rhizomes.
How to plant horseradish in the spring, step by step instructions:
- Two weeks before planting, the cuttings need to be removed from the cellar, sorted out, and carefully revised. Sometimes mold grows in poorly ventilated cellars and fungal rot appears on the root. Such a stalk is not suitable for planting. All damaged areas must be trimmed.
- Cover the cuttings with a damp cloth for them to germinate. Then all active "eyes" must be blinded and left only above and below the cutting. They can be wiped with burlap or the dull side of a knife.
- It is better to plant in the ground using a peg, which makes a hole at an angle of 30-45 °.
- The root is neatly placed in the recess with an oblique cut down and sprinkled with earth on top to a height of up to 5 cm.
The garden should be watered moderately, not filled with water, so as not to provoke the development of root rot.