Cherry Baby: small, but remote
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The unpretentious variety of cherry Malyshka is grown both in garden plots and on farm lands due to abundant fruiting and compactness of the crown. Experienced gardeners of the Central Black Earth region and the Volga region are familiar with a fruitful and drought-resistant hybrid cherry variety.
Description of the variety
The varietal hybrid Malyshka was bred by the breeders of the Saratov Experimental Station in 1995 by crossing a hybrid of sweet cherry and cherry (Duke) and a cherry seedling Rannyaya.
Cherry Early is rather tall in comparison with bush varieties - up to 3 m, has no more than 2-3 inflorescences in the bud and the taste of the fruit, characteristic of sweet cherry. Cherry Duke ripens very early, stands out among other varieties with abundant fruiting even on the shoots of the last year, there are up to 10 inflorescences in one ovary. The berry is fleshy and very sweet. These qualities are perfectly combined in a hybrid plant.
The fruits have excellent taste, excellent transportability, the plant is drought-resistant, tolerates low temperatures well.
Important! The baby has another name - Saratov baby.
The hybrid has a stable yield (up to 25 kg per tree) in Central Russia and southern regions. Closer to the Urals and Transbaikalia, fruiting occurs later than in the Black Earth Region. As a result, 5–15 kg per plant ripens.
In the Far East and Siberia, thanks to the enthusiasm of gardeners, Malyshka brings crops up to 8, sometimes up to 12 kg per season. But for such a result, it will be necessary to correctly form the crown in the stanza way, in which the branches grow horizontally and provide protection from cold weather and freezing.
The hybrid combines the specific vegetative traits and taste of cherry and sweet cherry. It looks like a medium-sized dwarf tree, reaching 2–2.5 m. The spherical crown is easy to form and does not require copious pruning in the spring. The plant begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year. The fruits ripen early, in mid or late June (depending on the region).
Advantages of the baby hybrid:
- drought resistant;
- does not require frequent and regular feeding;
- gives a stable harvest both in hot and damp summers.
If the site does not dispose for planting several cherry trees, the Saratov baby should not be planted. Cherry will not bear fruit without pollinators. This is the main disadvantage of the variety - it is self-fertile, for the formation of fruits, cross-pollination is required (pollinating varieties should be planted nearby, for example, Turgenevka cherry or Lyubskaya). The drupe is not firmly attached to the peduncle, the berries may shatter when fully ripe - another minus of the hybrid.
Malyshka cherries are suitable for both freezing and preservation
The harvest will be rich, and the berry will pick up enough sugar content if a sunny place without drafts is chosen for planting, there is no close occurrence of groundwater. The Malyshka does not like clay and poor sandy soil. In the event of a boggy area, the plant will die.
Planting cherry varieties Malyshka
For planting, choose a sunny place protected from the winds on the west or south side of the garden. Should not be planted in low-lying areas where moisture accumulates, or on slopes exposed to drafts. The composition of the soil is preferable sandy loam with the addition of humus, rather breathable and loose, the best option for cherries is neutral acidity.
The tree will feel as comfortable as possible:
- on fertile, not heavy soil with a layer of humus;
- when the groundwater is at least 1.5 m;
- at a distance from other fruit crops not less than 1.5–2 m;
- next to buildings that will protect the cherry from the winds.
Protecting the fruit tree is especially important in the spring-winter period and in the first year of planting.
The site for planting is prepared in advance, even in the fall it is dug up, mixing the soil with organic fertilizing - rotted droppings or cow dung. 1 m2 you will need 3 buckets of organic matter, which will completely decompose over the winter. Also add 100 g of phosphate rock or superphosphate and 100 g of potash fertilizers. Nitrogen-containing preparations are not applied before planting.
For planting, select strong seedlings with a powerful root system, check the roots for rot, which must be removed in time. Sapling age - no more than 2 years. Usually this plant is about 1 m high with mature wood.
Practicing spring and autumn planting of cherries. The optimal timing depends on the climate. In the southern regions, trees are planted in open ground in mid-autumn before the onset of frost, in the temperate climate of the middle zone - in September. In Siberia and the Urals, cherries are planted in the spring so that the trees take root by winter.
Video: planting cherries in the fall
If the seedling is purchased in the fall, and it is planned to plant it in the spring, they do the digging before winter... To do this, prepare a furrow with a depth of 0.5 m in the area where snow is retained. The southern wall of the groove is made at an inclination of 30–40 ° and a seedling is placed in it, well spreading the roots. The branches should face south. The ground is watered abundantly and the root system is sprinkled to the side shoots. Well-rammed soil is covered with sawdust or pine needles to protect it from frost and mice, and later covered with snow. The plant is dug up when the threat of frost has passed and a permanent place has been prepared.
The tree is buried in the ground at an angle and insulated
In spring, cherries are planted in late March - early April, when the snow has melted and the threat of frost has passed... Before planting, the roots are carefully examined and dried and rotten ones are removed, then the seedling is dipped into a bucket of water and a growth stimulator (for example, Kornevin). The roots will be saturated with water for about 3-4 hours.
- A hole about 60 cm deep and 80 cm wide is dug out in advance, 1-2 weeks in advance, so that the earth settles a little. It is not recommended to deepen the roots too much, as this will slow down the process of cherry development, and too shallow planting will lead to drying out of the root system and a lack of nutrients.
- Experienced gardeners recommend dipping the root system of the seedling in a mixture of clay and manure, and letting it dry for 10-15 minutes. A supporting wooden peg is installed in the center of the planting pit. The roots are straightened down and to the sides, the trunk should be located perpendicular to the ground and at the same time remain on the north side of the support.
- The planting soil is mixed with organic and mineral fertilizers: about 10 kg of rotted manure or chicken droppings are combined with 500 g of wood ash, thoroughly mixed and 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride are added. Mineral additives are mixed with the lower layer of the soil mixture; after the seedling is placed in the hole, sprinkle its roots on top with a soil mixture with the rest of the additives.
Fragile roots are gently straightened
- The top layer of earth in the hole is compacted, the young tree is tied to a support. The neck of the trunk is left at a height of 3-4 cm from the surface of the soil, over time the earth in the hole will settle and the seedling will sink.
Cherries should sit firmly and tightly in the ground
The cherry is watered abundantly, making a groove for moisture. The soil in the hole should be below the ground level of the site, then the precipitation will accumulate in the root space and be absorbed.
The surface of the root circle is mulched with sawdust or dry straw to help retain moisture and prevent crust formation. The next watering will be required during the setting and ripening of fruits, and during dry summer, you will have to water the tree 2-3 more times with an interval of 2 weeks.
Agrotechnics includes standard activities:
- top dressing;
- weeding and loosening;
- pest control.
Despite the fact that the variety is drought tolerant, periodic watering is required the first time after planting for better rooting, on dry, hot days in the height of summer, when the fruits are poured. If rainy days occur during the fruiting period, you need to water less often, but be sure to loosen the soil and remove weeds in the near-stem circle.
To enrich the root system with oxygen and moisture, the soil around the trunk is carefully weeded and loosened
Mulching the trunk circle with hay, sawdust, pine and spruce needles has a beneficial effect on the growth and retention of moisture. It is recommended to raise the mulch and loosen the soil 2-3 times per season, this prevents various insects from accumulating and prevents waterlogging of the soil around the tree.
Periodic top dressing is also very important for proper tree growth. Both organic and mineral fertilizers, selected according to the season and depending on the age of the tree, are useful. The first feedings in the spring include nitrogen. It can be urea or ammonium nitrate. Before the foliage bloom, root dressing is carried out, therefore, the microelements are dissolved in water (10-15 g per 10-liter bucket) and water the soil near the trunk.
After watering the near-trunk circle with dissolved mineral fertilizers, gardeners are advised to water it again (1-2 buckets of water) so that the solution is better distributed in the soil.
It is recommended to apply nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers twice a season.
Organic fertilization is recommended after flowering. One of the options is rotted compost, which is spread over the surface of the earth. Manure or chicken droppings diluted with water, with the addition of wood ash, enhances the growth of shoots and greatly increases the number of ovaries. The composition is obtained by diluting manure or chicken droppings by one third with settled water. The mixture is infused for 7-10 days. The resulting infusion is diluted (1 liter per bucket of water) and watered at the rate of 10 liters, sweep by 1 m2.
Another option for both root and foliar feeding is complex preparations purchased in specialized stores.... They are processed and fed cherries according to the instructions. Fertilizers are applied for digging or in liquid form in the trunk circle. After fruiting, the Baby is fed with nitrogen fertilizers with organic matter (rotted manure or green fertilizer). After harvesting, liming is beneficial to reduce the acidity of the soil. In the autumn period, dry potassium-phosphorus fertilizers are applied, scattering them around the entire perimeter of tree growth, followed by digging the soil to a depth of at least 10 cm. In the fall, nitrogen-containing preparations are excluded.
Some rules for fertilization:
- fruit trees often have a deficiency of iron and nitrogen, so the plants are treated with copper sulfate and urea (urea) is added;
- feeding cherries with ash (1.5 kg per 1 m2) enriches the soil with microelements;
- the lack of calcium is compensated by chalk.
Another subtlety in caring for a hybrid is pruning, without which an annual bountiful harvest can hardly be expected. Immediately upon planting, the seedling is shortened and the skeletal shoots are cut off. In the 2nd year, excess shoots are cut off, if necessary, shortened by 1/3. It is important to immediately form the crown of the tree. If sanitary pruning is necessary, the entire branch is cut, and not its shoot. In cherries, fruit buds of the next year are formed on the shoots, so they cannot be cut off indiscriminately.
Seasonal pruning is shown after a constant average above zero temperature has been established:
- Most often, pruning is carried out in the spring at the end of March - at the beginning of April; excess, dry, diseased branches are removed.
- In summer, it is appropriate to prune branches as a result of strong thickening or when the first signs of disease appear.
- Autumn pruning is considered to be more sanitary, rotten, diseased and dry shoots are removed.
- Pruning branches is prohibited in winter.
Every 5 years, 4-year-old shoots are removed, since the number of ovaries on them decreases. This pruning will increase yields and reduce crown thickening. The old tree will grow back and bear fruit well.
Cherry Baby on a dwarf rootstock
A rootstock is a plant that has maternal roots with a grafted cuttings or a branch with a living bud, which improves the quality characteristics of both varieties.
The differences between the Baby on a dwarf rootstock and the seedling (self-rooted) seedling of the Baby are expressed in such advantages as:
- resistance to adverse environmental conditions;
- almost complete absence of root growth;
- genetic homogeneity of the stock.
A baby on a dwarf rootstock is capable of producing a harvest exceeding the entire green mass of a tree in volume - this distinguishes the variety from vigorous cherry hybrids. The rootstock also shortens the waiting time for the first harvest. Convenience of planting formation due to compactness and the possibility of effective irrigation and tree care also add advantages. In addition, the stock has a small root system, so groundwater is not afraid of it; and the small crown will not allow the branches to break under the weight of the berries.
A bonsai doesn't take up much space
Diseases and pests: the main ways to solve the problem
Despite the resistance of the variety to most of the known fungal and bacterial diseases, Malyshka is susceptible to anthracnose, it is attacked by cherry sawfly and aphids. Depending on the region where the culture grows, there are:
- clasterosporium disease;
- gum flow.
For prophylaxis, it is necessary to loosen the soil well 2-3 times a season in order to destroy the larvae and insects living in the trunk circle. In the fall, it is recommended to remove rotten foliage in time and remove branches that have affected areas on the bark.
Spraying is one of the methods of combating parasitic microorganisms on cherries:
- in the spring, they are treated before and after flowering with Bordeaux liquid and copper sulfate according to the instructions against scab and larvae of overwintered insects;
- autumn spraying should be carried out after leaf fall with iron-containing preparations and Inta-Vir - against larvae laid under the bark over the summer and putrefactive diseases.
The spraying schedule depends on weather and climate conditions. It should be remembered that frequent chemical treatments can also be harmful.
Cherry anthracnose can lead to a loss of 70% of the crop
Experienced gardeners know that whitewashing the bark of fruit trees is the prevention of diseases and protection from pests.... The procedure can be carried out before winter and spring. As a rule, they are whitewashed with lime, diluted with water, or homemade paint. To prepare such a solution, take 300 g of copper sulfate and 2 kg of lime or chalk, stir everything in 10 liters of water. Using a thick brush, the solution is generously applied to the bark of the trunk. For maximum effect, this is best done in dry weather.
To protect the tree from small rodents and hares, the trunk is wrapped in burlap or other breathable material.
A low cherry tree Malyshka makes a splash among gardeners thanks to a bountiful harvest under any circumstances. Fruiting will be regular if you choose the right planting site and plant other varieties of cherries nearby. A dwarf hybrid withstands up to 20 kg of berries.
Mena's name is Maria. By education - an accountant, by vocation - an artist and a mother. I love to travel and appreciate in people sincerity and reliability.
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Turgenevskaya cherry: variety description, photo + reviews
Cherry fruits are tasty, aromatic and very healthy. There are enough varieties of this culture. But among them there are those that gardeners prefer especially. These include Turgenevskaya cherry. Those who are just planning to plant cherry trees on their site should get to know this variety better - read the description and reviews about it, see a photo of the plant itself and its fruits.
The variety was bred at the end of the 20th century. The fruits are burgundy. It is a small tree. Its height is not more than 2.5 m. The set of branches and leaves form a pyramidal shape.
The plant looks more like a bush than a tree. Forms many fruits. The flowers are white.
Blooms in May. Cherries ripen in July. But in different regions, the timing may vary. They taste sweetish, slightly sour.
The mass of one fruit is up to 3.5 g. The seed is easily separated from the pulp. Productivity - up to 15 kg. Fruiting begins 3 years after planting. Grows up to 20 years.
- cold hardiness
- early ripening of cherries
- undemanding to soil moisture
Chocolate cherry is a young variety. Therefore, her seedlings are not very easy to find on sale. To grow it, you need to choose a well-lit part of the garden.
The tree must be pruned every year. You can water during flowering and fruit formation. They are fed only 3 years after planting... Then, once every 4 years.
Can be grown in any region of Russia.
According to gardeners:
Cherry Malyshka belongs to non-capricious varieties, but nevertheless, some care is simply necessary. Your efforts in the future will be the key to rich harvests for many years.
In the first year after planting, the soil under the cherries must be kept loose and constantly moist. In subsequent years, before the beginning of fruiting, the plant needs to be watered 3 times per season: at the end of June, at the end of July and during the period of leaf fall. Watering rate - 10 liters per bush. And the fruiting tree is moistened during the budding period, during the growth of the ovaries and in the fall, when the leaves begin to crumble. An adult baby bush already requires 15–20 liters of water.
Top dressing is applied to the near-trunk circle, more precisely, into a groove made along its perimeter. The diameter of the circle is equal to the diameter of the crown, the depth of the groove is 20–30 cm. This furrow is first watered: under a young cherry - 10 liters, under a fruiting one - 20 liters. When the water is absorbed, liquid or dry dressings are applied, humus or manure is laid and the soil is leveled.
Saratov baby grows and bears fruit well for 15-16 years. Seven-year-old cherries and older are fed after a year. Manure is applied every 4 years, lime every 5 years (400 g per plant).
Dosage and composition of fertilizers (table)
- in spring: 100-200 g of urea under a bush
- autumn: 100 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g of double superphosphate.
- in spring: 300 g of urea per trunk circle
- autumn: 150 g of potassium sulfate, 500 g of double superphosphate and 40 kg of manure.
Video: feeding an adult fruit tree
The variety is prone to crown thickening. If you do not prune every year, then long branches with buds only at the ends, illuminated by the sun, will grow on the Baby. The rest of the trunk will be completely bald. In order not to run the cherry to such an extent, you need to cut branches every spring that:
- grown near the ground, they are usually underdeveloped, short, curved, since little light penetrates to them
- interfere with each other: they cross, intertwine, rub, etc.
- interfere with you, for example, hang over paths, a neighbor's garden, etc.
We cut the branches into a ring, that is, at the trunk itself, if you leave a stump, it will dry out and fall off, forming a hollow. After such a pruning, the crown will become much less frequent. Now you can take a closer look at the branches of the second order, departing from the main, skeletal ones. It is necessary to remove those that grow into the crown or vertically upward.
We also cut out the root shoots. If the cherry is already old, sick, the bark is cracked, covered with moss, then it's time to think about a “substitute”. It can be one of the young plants that appeared as a shoot. Typically, these shoots take over all the properties of the mother plant. But it's better to be convinced of this, so let one of the shoots grow to the first berries. If they match the Malyshka variety in color, size and taste, cut down the old cherry.
Video: pruning young cherries
Preparing Baby for Winter
- In September, we loosen the trunk circle, apply fertilizers, do water-charging irrigation (10 liters for a young tree and 20 liters for a fruiting tree). Protecting the roots. In young cherries, they are very close to the soil surface and can freeze out. Therefore, we fill up the entire near-trunk circle, from the trunk to the periphery of the branches, with a layer of mulch 6–8 cm thick (foliage, sawdust, peat, grass, spruce branches, etc.).
- In October, we wrap the trunks from the ground and to a height of 1.5 m with burlap, any non-woven material, tie them with spruce branches, cover them with straw. We cover young seedlings entirely by tying the branches together.
- In winter, if there is an opportunity to visit the garden, we shovel snow to the Baby, trying to cover her completely with a snow cover. At the same time, we do not touch the branches, in the cold they become fragile.
The variety is winter-hardy, but it is better to take care of a safe winter than to make the Baby fight for survival on her own. The bark of cherries does tolerate frost, but the roots and buds can suffer in severe winters.