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Jerusalem artichoke: planting, outdoor care, harm and benefit, types and varieties, photo

Jerusalem artichoke: planting, outdoor care, harm and benefit, types and varieties, photo


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Garden plants

Plant Jerusalem artichoke (lat.Helianthus tuberosus), or Tuberous sunflower, is a species of herbaceous plants of the genus Sunflower of the family Astrovye. Jerusalem artichoke, bulba, earthen pear or drums are also known to the world of Jerusalem artichoke. The word "Jerusalem artichoke" comes from the name of a tribe of Indians who lived in the territory of modern Brazil - tupinamoas. Jerusalem artichoke was naturalized in Chile. The earthen pear came to Europe through England and France in the 16th century, and from the second half of the 19th century it began to be widely grown as a forage and food crop.
In the wild, Jerusalem artichoke can still be found in North America along roads and on wastelands, and in culture it grows all over the world, and in many countries, for example, in Japan, Switzerland and Australia, it is considered a weed, because it is unpretentious, frost resistance , productivity and adaptability to any conditions.

Planting and caring for Jerusalem artichoke

  • Landing: planting tubers in the ground - before winter, 2-3 weeks before frost.
  • Lighting: bright sunlight.
  • The soil: any neutral or slightly alkaline (6.0-7.5 pH), except for salt marshes and too heavy soils.
  • Watering: only during a prolonged drought. Water consumption - 10-15 liters for each plant.
  • Top dressing: mineral fertilizers - annually in the spring, organic - once every 2-3 years in the fall.
  • Reproduction: usually tubers or their parts with eyes, much less often the seed method is used.
  • Pests: slugs, bears, wireworms.
  • Diseases: white rot, alternaria or powdery mildew.

Read more about growing Jerusalem artichoke below.

Jerusalem artichoke plant - description

The ground Jerusalem artichoke pear has a powerful root system, on the underground stolons of which edible tubers of yellow, red, purple or white color are formed, resembling ginger root in appearance, and cabbage stalk or turnip to taste. The stem of Jerusalem artichoke is pubescent with short villi, strong and straight, reaching a height of 40 to 300 cm, at the top the stem branches. Jerusalem artichoke leaves petiolate, pubescent, serrate-toothed. The lower leaves are opposite, cordate-ovate, the upper leaves are alternate, lanceolate or oblong-ovate. Flowers-baskets up to 10 cm in diameter consist of middle tubular bisexual flowers of yellow color and from 10-15 sterile false-lingual marginal golden-yellow flowers. Jerusalem artichoke seed, ripening from August to September.

The earthen pear is cultivated on an industrial scale mainly in America, Russia and Asia, but Jerusalem artichoke has been grown in the country for many decades as a food product with medicinal properties. In terms of chemical composition, the plant resembles a potato, but in terms of nutritional value, it surpasses such a valuable vegetable as beets. Its tubers can be eaten raw as well as fried, boiled and stewed. Even compotes and tea are prepared from them.

Planting Jerusalem artichoke in open ground

When to plant Jerusalem artichoke in the ground

Jerusalem artichoke is grown both outdoors and in containers. In open ground, Jerusalem artichoke is planted before winter, 2-3 weeks before the onset of stable cold weather, or in the spring, when the ground warms up enough. In autumn, whole tubers are planted in the ground, and in spring they can be divided into several parts when planting. Choose a well-lit area for Jerusalem artichoke, where it will not shade other plants, since its stems reach a height of 3 m. It is best to plant Jerusalem artichoke around the perimeter of the garden or along the fence.

Jerusalem artichoke soil

Soil for Jerusalem artichoke should be slightly alkaline or neutral - pH in the range of 6.0-7.5 units. The culture is not picky about the composition of the soil, it grows well on any soil, except for too heavy and saline soils. For winter planting, the site is prepared in two to three weeks, but even if you decide to plant Jerusalem artichoke in the spring, you still need to prepare the site for it in the fall.

The soil is dug to the depth of the shovel bayonet with the addition of compost. If you plant Jerusalem artichoke in the spring, do not break large clods of earth for the winter. Do this before spring. Phosphate-potassium fertilizers must be applied at planting.

Then you can plant Jerusalem artichoke

The best predecessors for Jerusalem artichoke are potatoes, cabbage and cucumbers.

How to plant Jerusalem artichoke

In late April or early May, select small neat Jerusalem artichoke tubers for planting the size of a chicken egg, soak them in a solution of Zircon at the rate of 1 ml of the drug per 1 liter of water, and then plant them at a distance of 40 cm from each other in a trench 12-15 deep cm. The row spacing should be 60-70 cm. Mix the soil removed from the furrow with bone meal, and then fill the trench with this mixture.

Growing Jerusalem artichoke

How to grow Jerusalem artichoke

Caring for Jerusalem artichoke is very simple. At the first time after planting, the necessary care measures are loosening the soil and weeding the area from weeds. When the seedlings grow up to 30 cm in height, they are spudded with garden compost and continue to do this throughout the entire period as needed, and when they grow up to 1 m, posts are installed from both ends of the row, a wire in plastic wrapping is pulled horizontally between them and tied to her plants so that they do not break from the wind.

When Jerusalem artichoke begins to tie buds, it is better to remove them so that the plant does not expend energy on flowering and fruiting. For the same purposes, plants that are too elongated are shortened to 1.5-2 m.

Watering Jerusalem artichoke

carried out only during a period of prolonged drought - from 10 to 15 liters for each bush. If it's summer with rains, you don't have to worry about watering Jerusalem artichoke at all - natural precipitation will be enough for it.

Topinambur dressing

The cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke involves the introduction of dressings into the soil. In the spring, while loosening the site, fertilizer granules containing nitrogen and potassium are added to the soil. During the budding period, it is better to use liquid fertilizers. In the middle of summer, for example, it is a good idea to fertilize Jerusalem artichoke with a solution of seaweed or green manure infusion. Mineral fertilizers are applied to the soil annually, and organic fertilizers - once every 2-3 years.

Jerusalem artichoke propagation

Most often, Jerusalem artichoke is propagated in a vegetative way - tubers, their parts or eyes, and we told you about this method. But Jerusalem artichoke can also be grown from seeds, however, generative reproduction of Jerusalem artichoke is too painstaking and thankless work that requires special knowledge, and let the breeders do this. In addition, Jerusalem artichoke from seeds will take much longer than Jerusalem artichoke from tubers.

Jerusalem artichoke at home

Readers ask if Jerusalem artichoke can be grown at home. It can be planted in large containers or boxes with drainage. Caring for Jerusalem artichoke in a container is no different from caring for it in the open field, the only difference is regular watering of the soil.

Jerusalem artichoke pests and diseases

Jerusalem artichoke diseases

With almost absolute resistance to diseases, Jerusalem artichoke can still sometimes be affected by white rot, Alternaria or powdery mildew.

White rot or sclerotinosis, forms a moldy felt bloom on the stems of the plant, which makes them sick and, as a result, are covered from the inside with growths of black color. Infection occurs through the soil. The temperature difference at high air humidity contributes to the development of the disease. Diseased plants must be immediately removed from the site and burned.

Alternaria - a widespread disease, it affects all terrestrial parts of the plant. It can be diagnosed by dark brown or lighter spots with a yellowish border on the leaves. With the development of the disease, the spots grow between the veins of the leaf plate, and the petioles dry out along with the leaves. The most effective way to control the disease is to treat plants with fungicides at temperatures above 18 ºC. Sometimes one session is enough, but it is better to carry out two sprays with an interval of 10-12 days.

Powdery mildew manifests itself on Jerusalem artichoke in the second half of the growing season as a loose white bloom on the upper side of the leaves. Over time, the plaque becomes pinkish or turns brown, the affected leaves become brittle and brittle. Hot weather with sharp fluctuations in humidity and air temperature, as well as excess nitrogen, contributes to the development of the disease. A good result is given by treating Jerusalem artichoke on the leaves with fungicides - drugs such as Topaz, Bayleton, Quadris, Skor, Tilt, But, Topsin and the like.

Jerusalem artichoke pests

Jerusalem artichoke is damaged by slugs living in the soil of the bear, as well as the larvae of some insects. To protect the plants from slugs, special anti-slug granules are laid out on the site. If you know that there are pests on the site such as scoops, May beetles or beetles, Diazonon or Foxim are sealed before planting Jerusalem artichoke in the ground for digging.

Jerusalem artichoke cleaning and storage

Jerusalem artichoke tubers ripen for at least 120 days. Harvesting them ahead of time is pointless, since tubers dug out too early will no longer ripen to the desired quality. Dug up Jerusalem artichoke in the spring, before the earth warms up, or in the fall, as soon as the soil begins to freeze. Jerusalem artichoke tubers can easily tolerate frosts down to -40 ºC in soil, if you throw dry soil or snow on the plot for the winter. It is best to dig up as many tubers in the fall as you can eat in the winter, and the rest can be dug up in the spring - during the period of vitamin deficiency, they will be very useful.

The main thing is not to forget to remove them before the onset of heat, otherwise the tubers will sprout, and Jerusalem artichoke will turn from a healthy and tasty vegetable into a weed.

The storage of Jerusalem artichoke is the same as the storage of root crops - in a box of sand. Before storing Jerusalem artichoke in the cellar, the dug tubers are first washed and dried well. If you do not have a cellar, place a box on a loggia or insulated balcony. A small amount of tubers can be kept in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator.

Jerusalem artichoke varieties

The main task of breeders today is to develop varieties of Jerusalem artichoke with the most compact placement of tubers in the soil, since the root system with nodules formed on it grows both in breadth and in depth. And in this matter, scientists have undoubted success. Another priority in breeding work is to increase the thickness of the stem for forage plant varieties. Well, and the third important task is the breeding of zoned varieties of Jerusalem artichoke.

The varieties of Jerusalem artichoke that exist today are divided into fodder and tuberous. Forage varieties yield green mass, but they form little tubers. It is these varieties that are grown on an industrial scale. In turn, both tuberous and fodder varieties are divided into early-maturing and late-maturing according to ripening periods. We offer you an acquaintance with some varieties of Jerusalem artichoke, among which you can choose one for yourself.

  • Interest - fruitful, intensive in growth, demanding on moisture, heat-resistant and winter-hardy late-ripening variety with powerful erect stems of medium branching, large, rough dark green leaves and smooth white tubers with deep eyes. Recommended for industrial cultivation in warm areas.
  • Leningradsky - a late-ripening high-yielding variety of a bushy shape with dark green stems, oval green leaves and white elongated medium-sized tubers, perfectly stored in the ground until spring. This variety is suitable for growing in the northwest region.
  • Volzhsky 2 - a drought-resistant and winter-hardy tall plant with a compact root system, a rounded stem, slightly pubescent green leaves and white pear-shaped tubers with light purple fragments.
  • Skorospelka - an undemanding frost-resistant early-ripening variety with a compact root system, heart-shaped leaves, cut along the edges with large teeth, a well-branched stem and smooth, rounded white tubers.
  • Pasko - a high-yielding late-ripening tuberous bushy and tall variety with weakly branching stems, large leaves and white rounded tubers weighing up to 80 g.
  • Solar Is a high-yielding late-ripening tuber variety suitable for growing in any area. Plants of this variety have moderate bushiness, strongly branched stems, large leaves and elongated elliptical white tubers of medium size weighing up to 60 g.
  • Find - a productive late-ripening variety with a weakly branched stem, large, asymmetrically arranged leaves, a compact root system and a pear-shaped white tubers with pink veins around the eyes. Designed for cultivation in the southern regions.

In addition to those described, the following varieties of Jerusalem artichoke are popular: White, Patat, Fusiform, Vadim, Red, Omsk White and North Caucasian.

Jerusalem artichoke properties - harm and benefit

The healing properties of Jerusalem artichoke

When studying the composition of Jerusalem artichoke, scientists were surprised by the variety of minerals and vitamins included in it. By the amount of iron in tubers, for example, the plant significantly surpasses such useful plants as carrots, turnips and beets, and 1 kg of Jerusalem artichoke contains 60-70 mg of carotene. What is included in Jerusalem artichoke? Potassium and calcium, chromium and fluorine, magnesium and manganese, silicon and sodium, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B7, C, PP, as well as fiber, pectin, fats, proteins, organic acids, natural analogue of insulin inulin and amino acids arginine, valine, leicine and lysine.

Jerusalem artichoke helps with urolithiasis, gout, salt deposition, obesity and anemia. A decoction from it lowers sugar levels and normalizes the work of the pancreas. The consumption of Jerusalem artichoke tubers is simply necessary for residents of large cities with an unfavorable environmental situation, because due to its fiber and inulin, it removes heavy metal salts, radionuclides, toxins and excess cholesterol from the body.

Jerusalem artichoke is recommended to eat:

  • for the prevention of diabetes mellitus;
  • with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • to lower blood pressure;
  • to remove toxins from the body;
  • to increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood;
  • to protect against viral infections.

Jerusalem artichoke surpasses sugar cane and beet in carbohydrate content. The most useful tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are immediately after harvesting, since during storage, as a result of hydrolysis, part of the inulin turns into fructose. However, there is nothing harmful in this, especially for diabetics, for whom fructose replaces sugar.

Jerusalem artichoke is able to relieve nausea, stop vomiting, neutralize high acidity, eliminate a bitter taste in the mouth. It is used during pregnancy to enrich the body with nutrients for the mother and fetus. Eating Jerusalem artichoke tubers in parallel with drug treatment of diseases contributes to a faster recovery, including by increasing immunity and by eliminating toxins from the body.

The use of Jerusalem artichoke juice reduces the acidity of gastric juice, eliminates headaches due to high blood pressure, promotes healing of wounds and ulcers, relieves arthritis, diseases of the stomach and duodenum. They drink it 50 g three times a day 15 minutes before meals.

Jerusalem artichoke is also in demand in cosmetology: it can be used to relieve inflammation or irritation of the skin, smooth wrinkles, and cleanse pores. To eliminate sagging skin, you need to wipe your face and neck overnight with Jerusalem artichoke juice. Oily skin is treated with a mask of grated Jerusalem artichoke with the addition of half a teaspoon of honey. Dry skin can be soaked by adding half a teaspoon of olive oil to the described composition of the face mask. The mask is washed off after 20 minutes with warm green tea, and after another 10 minutes, wipe the skin with a piece of ice. Cosmetic course - 20 procedures.

Jerusalem artichoke - contraindications

Jerusalem artichoke has no contraindications, unless you have an individual intolerance to this product. Eating Jerusalem artichoke raw can cause flatulence, but after a while the intestines will get used to it and you will no longer feel uncomfortable. If addiction does not occur, you can eat Jerusalem artichoke stewed or boiled. And, of course, do not try to eat all the tubers at one time - any product when overeating can cause discomfort.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Asteraceae
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Compositae (Asteraceae) Garden plants Plants on T Root crops


Actinidia kolomikta - a beautiful vine with tasty and healthy fruits

Speaking about such fruit and berry crops as actinidia, one cannot but recall the words of IV Michurin: to displace grapes ... not only to replace it in all types of use, but far surpassing it in the quality of its fruits ... "

There are many known species and varieties in the genus actinidia, here are some examples:

  • polygamous actinidia, it is also polygamous, nasal or sharp-fruited (Actinidia polygama) - vines reach 5 m in length, large fruits up to 4 cm in length and ripen in October
  • actinidia giraldii (Actinidia giraldii) - long lianas grow 25 m in length, flowers bloom on it bisexual flowers in a large number of fruits large up to 4 cm - this is the most large-fruited actinidia of the flora of Russia.

But special attention should be paid to Actinidia kolomikta (Actinidia kolomikta) - this is a vine native to Eastern China. Its fruit tastes like kiwi fruit. In addition, the liana foliage is very decorative, even in the absence of fruits.


Evening primrose flower description

Evening primrose can be either annual, biennial or perennial. The plant grows from 30 cm to 1.2 m in height. Stems are rigidly pubescent, can be straight or creeping. The leaves are arranged alternately. They can be simple, serrated, whole-edged, pinnately dissected, or lobed. The flowers are large enough, about 8 cm in diameter. The petals are white, yellow, pink, purple, blue or red, very fragrant. Solitary, but sometimes they can be collected in a bunch or brush. Flowering begins in June and lasts until September. Flowers live only one day, then wither. The fruit is a box in which more than three thousand primrose seeds ripen.


Stachis breeding rules

The seed method is usually used to get young plants, but in rare cases the vegetative method is also suitable, which involves rooting cuttings or planting tubers.

Reproduction of stachis using seeds. Seeding material can be purchased at any flower shop, while it is important that the seeds are healthy and there should be no defects on their surface in the form of darkening or putrefactive traces. After that, it is recommended to carry out stratification (holding for a long time (1-2 months) of the seed in cold conditions at a temperature of 0-5 degrees) and hardening. For planting, seedling boxes are used, which are filled with nutritious and loose soil mixture, it is made up of equal parts of peat and river sand. Sowing stachis seeds is carried out at the end of winter. After sowing, the seedling containers are placed in a warm place (with heat values ​​of 20-24 degrees). Crop care involves regular moistening of the soil when it dries out.

If the room where the germination is carried out is cold, then a piece of glass must be placed on the seedling boxes or wrapped in plastic transparent wrap. Then every day it will be necessary to air the stachis crops in order to get rid of the collected condensate. After 20-30 days from the moment of sowing, you can see the first shoots. When a pair of leaf plates unfold on the seedlings, it is recommended to dive into separate pots using the same nutrient substrate.

When the temperature stabilizes, and recurrent frosts will no longer threaten the seedlings of the chanterelle, it is planted in open ground, but before that it is necessary to harden it for 2-3 weeks. Stachis seedlings in pots are taken out into the open air for 10–15 minutes at first, slightly increasing the time spent outdoors every day, gradually bringing it to around the clock.

Reproduction of stachis by cuttings. In order to cut the cuttings from the bush, for this, after the end of flowering, healthy branches are selected. The length of the cutting should be 8–10 cm. The workpieces are planted in pots filled with a peat-nutrient mixture and placed under a glass or plastic container. Care for stachis cuttings consists in airing and watering the soil when its surface is a little dry. The rooting place should be with good lighting, but shaded from direct sunlight and warm (the approximate temperature is 20-24 degrees). When root shoots form on the cuttings and buds begin to bloom, this will be a sign that rooting has been completed successfully. When the time is right, you can plant the seedlings of the cleaver in a prepared place in the garden.

Reproduction of stachis with tubers. Usually, planting material is purchased in specialized stores, or if there are bushes in the garden, then they simply dig out the available ones. Tubers are planted in the spring or autumn. Planting holes are placed no closer than 30 cm, and if the tubers are planted in rows, then 40 cm are left between them. The depth of the backlog should not exceed 5-8 cm, but this indicator directly depends on the density of the soil on the site. After planting stachis tubers, abundant watering is recommended. It is noted that after planting, the germination rate of tubers is very low. When growing, weeding is carried out a couple of times throughout the growing season, in the period August-September, the bushes are hilled. This action will help the formation of more tubers on stolon stems that are underground.


Breeding features

The plant tolerates bush division well. The procedure is carried out in spring or autumn after flowering. The whole bush is removed from the soil, several shoots with roots are separated from the plant, which are planted in a new place. For reproduction, bushes are used, the age of which has reached 3 years.

"Delenki" are sometimes planted in pots or flowerpots. Plants adapt, leave for the winter in a cool room and periodically ventilate. Planting in open ground is carried out in the spring.


Planting castor oil plants in open ground

When to plant castor oil plant

Castor oil plant is completely undemanding to growing conditions, but if you plant it in a sunny, warm place in moist, nutritious loose soil, it will amaze you with its rapid growth and brightness of leaves. Most of all, castor bean loves black soil. Castor bean planting in open ground is carried out only after the return frosts have passed, that is, in late May or early June.

How to plant castor oil plant

Before planting castor bean seedlings, they are well watered, and then transferred into holes along with an earthen clod, sprinkled with garden soil, which is then compacted and watered abundantly.

Planting castor bean in the ground without growing seedlings is carried out at the beginning of May, and 2-3 seeds are placed in each shallow hole. We remind you: castor bean seeds are very poisonous, a lethal dose for an adult is 20 grains, and for a child - only six! Do not neglect protective measures - wear rubber gloves before working with castor oil.


Evening primrose properties: harm and benefit

Evening primrose has a large number of useful properties, since it contains saponin, carotenoid, steroid, flavonoid, tannin, phenolcarboxylic acid, polysaccharide, anthocyanin, mucus, polyterpenoid, vitamin C in large quantities, as well as macro- and microelements calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, manganese, selenium and iron.

The roots of the plant also contain many beneficial substances. The donkey is one of the important ingredients in folk recipes that are aimed at treating colds and tuberculosis. In addition to the roots and stems of the plant, evening primrose seeds are of great value. They make oil, which contains a large amount of polyunsaturated and fatty acids, amino acids and proteins. Evening primrose seed oil helps fight blood clots in blood vessels, has a good effect on the body in case of liver diseases and eczema. It also helps to relieve diathesis and itchy ichthyosis.

Various preparations with the addition of evening primrose help fight arthritis, thrombosis, asthma, tumors and fungal diseases. Evening primrose tincture helps fight diarrhea and improves dehydration.

As for contraindications, they include without control use of preparations containing evening primrose. Because of this, side effects in the form of headaches and nausea can begin. Evening primrose is also not recommended for people suffering from epilepsy and schizophrenia. Evening primrose should not be taken simultaneously with epileptogenic drugs and phenothiazines. It is necessary to take various means in which there is evening primrose only if there is an indication for this and only in the dosage that is necessary.


Watch the video: Tuberous Vegetable Harvest - 6 Varieties of Jerusalem Artichokes


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