What and how to hide in the garden in autumn
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Until the frost struck
So autumn is coming to an end. A light breeze drives fallen leaves across the frozen ground. The mood is romantic. I'm happy to think about this free weekend. No weeding for you, no digging in the ground. And plantings with transfers are coming to an end.
We are going to the dacha. I am with brooms for a bath, and my wife is with an ax. What for? "Darling," she says, "you need to chop spruce branches." It's disgusting to enter the forest - it's damp and dirty. Yes, and it is inconvenient to cut along the road, and in the depths of the forest everything is already cut down. Yes, and it is prickly. Cleaning the trunk after spruce branches is also a pleasure.
What would replace it? By the way, what else is left to do in the garden? It is necessary to carry out a number of works to shelter plants for the winter. Secondly, from spring sunburn. Thirdly, from our friends: birds, mice, bunnies and many others. Are you late
Shelter roses for the winter
Let's start with roses. The most heat-loving "inhabitants" of our garden. In order for the roses to leave before winter with dignity, they need to be cooked. To do this, back in September, it was necessary to start pruning the leaves in the lower third of the bush. Be sure to cut out all faded and set buds. Further, after the first frosts, remove the remaining foliage, if you remove the leaves and cut the immature shoots until frost, then the plant will grow again and all the energy that it needs to save for the winter and spring, it will start up on the already unnecessary young shoots. How to cover? Previously, there was one way - wooden boxes and spruce branches.
In some cases, roofing or other dense material. In part, this method of shelter is used in modern times for standard roses. After all, not every rose can be bent to the ground and made a ground shelter. But now there are problems with spruce branches, and with the cleaning of fallen needles in the spring, there are also many unpleasant moments. How to replace it? Better covering material for roses is horse-drawn unadorned peat. It is sold in bales of 150, 250, 300 liters.
After the soil freezes and the roses are under ten-degree frost, you need to carefully clear the ground from snow around the plant and fill the bush with peat directly from the bucket. The resulting cone will get wet by 1-2 cm during the winter, and inside it will remain dry. In addition, peat is known to be an excellent antiseptic. In the spring, when the snow melts and the earth begins to recede, you need to sprinkle this mound with chalk and rake it with a thin layer over the surface of the garden. So the wintering ended. Then cut the frozen branches - and forward, to a new flowering!
With climbing roses, you need to do the same, but their long, powerful shoots must be pressed to the ground either with a load (through a burlap pad), or with special flyers stuck into the ground. Then we make a peat shelter, as for ordinary roses.
Park roses are considered the most resilient and practically do not need shelter. The only thing I could recommend is shelter for the first two years after landing. It will not be worse.
Shelter grapes for the winter
Grapes (table and wine varieties, coastal and Amur). The vine is generally frost-resistant. But the maximum damage from it is received by the shoots of the first year and buds blooming in spring. The grapes are afraid of recurrent frosts, so the main task is to lay the whips on spruce branches or reeds and cover them with the same reed mats or spruce branches. In the peat, unfortunately, the whips begin to whine. If your old vine has grown more than two meters, you can leave it. Only young shoots will freeze slightly, and even then only slightly. Spring frosts, as a rule, go on the ground no higher than 1-1.5 meters.
Chrysanthemums are very beautiful in the garden. But these are autumn flowers, for which our autumn is somewhat short. Therefore, it is recommended to put a small greenhouse over them in the spring in April - May. And in the fall, if possible, dig up chrysanthemums and store them in the basement in slightly damp ground (with subsequent planting in spring). If this is not possible, then it is possible to recommend planting chrysanthemums in nutritious, but not waterlogged soil and cover with a layer of peat 10-15 cm for the winter.
Some bulbs are also covered by the same method - certain types of tulips, hyacinths and some varieties of onions. You've probably noticed that the hyacinths grown in the garden and those that are sold in the store are significantly different from each other. Shop flowers are tall and strong, and in a flowerbed - with a low peduncle and a loose inflorescence. And the reason is the mismatch between the length of daylight hours and temperature. When the air and soil temperatures approach the optimum for bulb germination, in our latitudes the daylight hours are twice as long as necessary. Therefore, the sprouted peduncle must be shaded with a glass of opaque material until the flower arrow reaches the required size. As a rule, this period is no more than a week.
Shelter for aquatic plants
Driving plants of our climatic zone (arrow-leaved, calla arum, rump, hedgehog, umbelliferae, etc.) can winter without shelter. And the nymphs require them to be immersed in the non-freezing zone of the pond. In our conditions, this is a depth of 1-1.5 meters. If it is impossible to move the nymphs to such a depth, and they overwinter in standard plastic pools with a depth of 60-80 cm, then we recommend the following measures:
- move the nymphs to the deepest area of the pool;
- put a few logs in the water (this will save the pool walls from irreparable deformations when freezing);
- cover the pool from above with a shield made of boards and foam, 5-10 cm thick.
Now let's touch on a more interesting period. The solstice has passed, and at the end of January - beginning of February, the sun begins to show through our latitudes. Clean frosty air. The snow is so silvery.
What can threaten our plants during this period? After all, they are asleep. Sleep - but not quite. The roots continue to supply the plant with nutrients and moisture. The crown of the plant is heated by the sun during the day and cooled to ambient temperature at night. And such daily drops can reach 40-60 ° C. It is especially bad for plants if they are covered with materials such as spunbond. This material has the ability to accumulate heat, and such differences become 15-20 ° more. What to do?
Old fruit trees are whitened, but young ones with delicate skin cannot be whitened. They must be wrapped in 2-3 layers of gauze. Freshly planted thuja and junipers are wrapped with it (their undeveloped root system cannot adequately supply water and nutrients to a large crown). Plants such as Canadian spruce Konica, berry yew, rhododendrons (if planted in the sun) should also be wrapped in 2-3 layers of gauze.
From the experience of our nursery, I know that covering with burlap is not always justified. A very strong darkening of the plant with burlap causes a light shock when it is removed. To avoid this, it is necessary to shoot this shelter on a rainy, cloudy day in the evening. It is desirable that there is no bright sun for the next 2-3 days.
About our lesser friends
Birds, dogs, mice, bunnies, moose and wild pigs - all of them, just like a person, love to use the results of other people's labor. And if moose and wild boars are quite rare guests on our sites, and there is only one method of defense against them - a bullet, then passive methods of defense can also be used against others.
The trunks of apple trees and other fruit crops can be protected from mice and hares with a small masonry net rolled into a tube. One end of this pipe is dug into the ground by 2-5 cm, and the other is tied to the trunk through burlap. In the spring, the mesh is carefully removed, cleaned, painted and removed until next year. Moreover, the height of the mesh tube should be half a meter higher than the snow cover. Holes can be cut for branches in the mesh.
Dogs (especially masculine ones), running around the site, constantly mark their territory. They especially like thujas, dwarf conifers and junipers. But the plants don't like it. The branches are covered with a black sticky coating, and the bark of the trunk cracks. This can be avoided only by limiting the access of the "favorite" to his "favorites". There are many methods:
- lightweight but durable fence;
- installation of temporary fascines;
- creation of pens for dogs;
- making a high-quality fence from people and running dogs.
Birds. How can they damage the garden? Yes, practically nothing, except for one thing - they are hungry. And one of the best treats for them is buds, especially flower buds. According to our observations, bullfinches are very fond of edible honeysuckle flower buds. There is only one way to save the future harvest - to cover these plants with a thick fine-mesh net or gauze. Also, do not forget to hang the feeders and place seeds in them periodically. In response, grateful birds in the spring and summer will constantly cleanse your site of pests.
Good and good winter to all!
Mikhail Mikhailov, director of the company "Mika"
The list of plants that are planted before winter in the garden and garden is very large. Long-term observations of scientists conducting experiments with the effect of low temperatures on horticultural crops suggest that the seeds left in the ground in winter do not die. After harvesting summer vegetables from the beds, you need to prepare for sowing. The soil is loosened, fertilizers are applied - humus, compost, peat.
Crops that can be sown in the garden before winter include:
- greens - parsley, cilantro, spinach, basil.
- vegetables - tomatoes, beets, celery, radishes, potatoes, carrots, peas, onions
- berries - victoria, strawberries, strawberries.
This is a good time to sow green manures - plants that help improve the condition of the soil. It is recommended to plant peas, beans, mustard in those beds where onions, carrots or garlic used to grow. Rye or oats are planted in a potato field. These cereals help to remove weeds. As a result, in the spring, after digging up the soil, harmful plants become much less.
To find the right time for winter sowing, you need to study the weather forecast for a month in advance. Planting dry seeds should begin when the daytime temperature drops to 3-5 degrees Celsius, and at night there will be 1-3 degrees of frost. The first decade of October is suitable for planting strawberry seedlings. The bushes are planted at intervals of 15 cm in furrows that are 30-35 cm apart. In the middle of the month, winter garlic and fruit bushes should be planted. Onions are planted at the end of October.
When the ground is already covered with frost, but the snow has not yet fallen, you can plant carrots and beets in the garden before winter. This period is chosen because the planted seeds will no longer germinate during the thaw and will not die in winter. By the end of November, when the snow covers the ground by 10-15 cm, planting is carried out in a greenhouse before winter. Vegetables such as tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, celery, and cabbage work well.
Garden hydrangea - care in the fall
The plant, without regular fertilizing, will endow only 2-3 inflorescences. A stunted resemblance of a hydrangea will grow on the site. A bush that has received constant feeding with the necessary trace elements every week, during flowering, will be strewn with inflorescences.
At the end of the season, the bush must be subjected to a general cleaning, removing weak and small shoots, dried inflorescences. In winter, the hydrangea should leave only with healthy powerful lashes.
The most persistent variety of hydrangeas, paniculate, it can withstand frosts down to -30 ° C. This variety does not need to be completely covered. It is enough to cover the root circle. Thus, you will protect the root system from freezing. Therefore, this variety is ideal for the Moscow region and the middle zone.
- Pour dry loose soil in a layer of up to 20 cm in the place of the root system.
- You can make a combined shelter of the roots, pour a layer of humus 10 centimeters, then a layer of leaves, the same thickness and a layer of garden soil 10 cm.
- Further, you do not have to worry about your pet, she will calmly endure severe frosts.
The hydrangea tree variety also winters well, but it should still be covered completely. In the southern regions of the country, they don't even worry about it. Someone cleans the bush from small growth in the fall, and who leaves this work in the spring.
Hydrangea loves water, but in the fall, during the period of heavy rains, make a hut over the bush. It is better to sew a small wigwam from a waterproof fabric, or from plastic wrap. This will help reduce the amount of water going to the roots.
Excessive moisture can lead to freezing of the roots. This precaution is especially true in regions with harsh winters.
Before covering the hydrangea bush, tie the shoots in several bundles and bend them to the ground. First, on the ground where you will lay the shoots, lay a layer of spruce branches. If it is not possible to collect coniferous branches, cover with any small branches or substitute boxes. Cover the bush with any covering material or the same spruce branches. Lastly, cover the bush with plastic wrap, pressing the edges of the shelter well.
One-year-old seedlings require particularly careful shelter.
- First, you need to huddle the root area, warm up as much earth as possible.
- Then carefully cover young shoots, one-year-olds often freeze out.
- Fill them with spruce branches, or with small branches, then there is agrotex or lutrasil and then polyethylene.
- Interestingly, hydrangeas do not like the wind very much. So you have to dig in the edges of the shelter. You can throw an old blanket or carpet over the top.
In the spring, you will open the seedlings gradually, with interruptions in time. They removed the cover layer, wait a week, then the next one, do not forget at the end of this long procedure, to shake off the earth from the trunk circle. Do not rush to remove the shelter from the hydrangea, before the first days of May, the main thing is to protect it from return frosts.
What to do if you haven't fertilized your garden in the fall
However, if you do not have enough time or desire to cultivate the garden in the fall, you can catch up in the spring. As soon as the snow melts, take care of the bushes on the site. Make a fire, boil water in a large container and pour boiling water over the bushes - this way you will destroy the pests that have overwintered in the kidneys. This treatment must be carried out before the kidneys open.
If you haven't pruned your plants in the fall, do this in the spring. Remove dry or lichen-covered branches, topshoots (shoots in the axils of the main branches).
After the snow melts, dig up the area and mark it in beds for the main crops you plan to plant. It is recommended to use a crop rotation, i.e. change crops grown in one section of the garden. At the same time, you should not alternate plants that suffer from common pests or oppress each other - for example, strawberries cannot be planted after tomatoes, potatoes or raspberries.
On the other hand, many plants form a kind of symbiosis if they grow side by side and give an increased yield. For example, onions and garlic ward off pests from strawberries and raspberries. You can plant a bed of basil next to a tomato plantation, but it is better to grow potatoes further away: these nightshades are antagonists. You can plant any varieties of cabbage next to potatoes - the proximity of these crops will be mutually beneficial.
Many gardeners prefer to fill the entire area with fertilizers before digging. This method has a significant drawback: you are guaranteed to get a good harvest of weeds, even if you spend the whole summer fighting them. It is better to fertilize the beds or holes for seeds or seedlings. As organic fertilizers, you can use compost, rotted manure or dung.
Mineral fertilizers must necessarily contain nitrogen (it is especially important in spring for the growth of green mass), phosphorus and potassium. Microelements are highly desirable: Mg, Cu, Mn, Co, etc.If they are not part of a compound fertilizer, buy these supplements in pill form.
If you are applying the fertilizer in the form of granules, loosen and stir the soil to distribute them evenly and to speed up dissolution in the soil. You can immediately dissolve the fertilizer in water and water the soil with the solution before planting. Carefully read the instructions for use and observe the rate of fertilization in the ground: an overdose can lead to the fact that the plants will start to hurt, and the fruits and berries - quickly deteriorate during storage.
Gardening in September
Greetings, dear readers of the site "Private home garden and vegetable garden"!
I am writing this article in August, since September is just around the corner and now you need to think about what gardening in September we have to do.
So, let's start with the most common garden crop - apples. At this time, a massive harvest of apples of autumn varieties is carried out, and at the end of the month we need to start picking the most valuable winter varieties for us.
For storage, you need to select fruits that do not have scratches and dents, without damage to the skin and pulp by the codling moth and sawfly. Apples intended for storage must be collected in boxes, carefully wrapping each fruit in paper, or the apples must be peeled off with paper. Autumn varieties of apples lie in the storehouse for 60 - 80 days, and winter varieties - 120 - 210 days. Freshly harvested fruits cannot be immediately placed in the basement. For several days, boxes with fruits must be held under a canopy, or in a shed, in order for the fruits to cool as much as possible. Only after such preliminary cooling, early in the morning, should the apples be brought into the basement. It is advisable to ventilate the store at night in order to reduce the temperature as much as possible due to the cold night air. Read on for a detailed article on how to store apples in winter.
After the harvest of apples is harvested, it is necessary to remove the trapping belts from the boles of the apple trees and burn them, and the bark of the trees should be carefully examined, to destroy the nests with cocoons of the codling moth, as well as other pests.
Having chosen a wet day, you need to clean off the dead bark with a frequent iron brush or scraper, both on the boles and on the bases of the skeletal branches. Lay burlap or plastic under the tree.
Since at the end of October we have to whitewash the boles, before that we need to seal all the cracks with garden pitch, clean the hollows and disinfect them with 3% copper sulfate, or 5% iron sulfate, or nitrafen solution.
Until about September 10-15, you need to plant seedlings of garden strawberries, and 7-14 days after planting, check if the heart of our seedlings is buried. If this happens, it must be raised to ground level. The soil around the plant should be squeezed tightly. After September 15, I do not advise planting strawberry seedlings, since it does not take root well and a larger percentage of it will die in winter.
In September, currant seedlings are dug up, currant and gooseberry cuttings are also separated from the mother bushes (see how to plant gooseberries) and planted in a permanent place.
In September, you can already start pruning and shaping our favorite berry bushes. You need to start by cutting out broken branches from adult gooseberry and currant bushes. You also need to shorten those branches that are in contact with the soil. In 6 - 8 year old and older blackcurrant bushes, 2 - 3 of the most obsolete branches should be removed by cutting them out with a hacksaw at the very base. They need to be replaced with three to four strong young branches of the growth of this year, which branch off from the base of adult branches or grew from the soil (that is, from the underground part of our bush). In bushes of white, red, pomegranate and pink currants, the branches are more durable, therefore, all annual young growths that have formed at the base of the bush in the current year should be removed from these plants, while leaving one, the strongest branch.
Similar work needs to be done on gooseberry bushes. This plant is prone to self-thickening, therefore, all small branches need to be cut out.
For sea buckthorn in the crown, it is also necessary to cut off all dry branches, before the beginning of leaf fall, the same must be done in the crowns of plums and cherries.
Autumn pruning is preferable because in the spring, our brother gardener, it is much more difficult to identify dead twigs, and in the fall they are very clearly visible.
Until mid-September, cuttings of black currant are planted (see propagation of black currant by cuttings). Also, you can already start digging the root layers of our favorite - raspberries, sprouted far from the main row, and then transplant them to another new place. (See the article on how to grow raspberries). At the same time, in order to exclude the possibility of destruction of a clod of earth and damage to the root system, you need to water the soil around the bush, compact it with your foot, and then cut the soil with a seedling with a shovel from four sides.
At the end of September, you need to start tilting the raspberry shoots to the ground. To do this, it is necessary to tilt the branches by 30-40 centimeters to the soil surface and tie them with twine. For an ordinary planting of raspberries with a distance of 1x1 meter, two adjacent bushes should be tilted one to the other and tied. It is very convenient to tilt raspberries into the aisles using a rail 3.5 - 4 meters long. This rail is reinforced with metal studs near the surface of the earth.
And yet, the most important and significant work in the garden in September is the mass planting of berry bushes, and at the end of September - planting of plums, cherries, apple trees, pears, sea buckthorns, and black chokeberries. You can find detailed articles about the planting of all these plants in the section of the site "Planting trees and shrubs".
This month, maximize the compost heap with various organic materials.
An important point is the preparation of the strapping material, which will protect the apple tree trunks from rodents. For this, stalks of sunflower, reed, blackberry, raspberry are suitable. You can also use spruce branches, roofing felt, roofing felt and other materials.
A few words about the work in the flower garden.
At this time, you can dig, divide and plant lilies, at the end of September you can plant tulips.
If frosts are expected, dahlias must be covered with cloth sheets or foil.
Also in September, you need to think about the seeds of flower crops for future periods. At this time, they are dried and put away for winter storage.
That's all for today, dear friends! Of course, I forgot something, so I will be very grateful if you add something in the comments and tell you about what else gardening in September need to do. See you!
Gardening in November
Hello dear friends!
In this damp and cold period, sometimes you don't want to do anything, but you have to, because there is a lot of work in the garden in November. Let's talk about what we need to do to prepare the garden for the winter period.
The trunks of fruit trees from one to twelve years old should be sheltered from rodents for the winter. To do this, you can use branches from raspberries, wormwood, blackberries, sunflowers, reeds, spruce. Also, pieces of roofing material, glass cloth bandages are useful for this. Make the harness tight, and bury its lower part into the soil.
You can coat the stems with a special deterrent mixture (1 part of mullein and clay, 2 tablespoons of ground black pepper, 50 grams of stationery glue and 100 grams of tar soap per 1 bucket)
Remember to tie the skeletal branches of two to three year old seedlings. This is done so that in the spring, when the snow melts, they do not break.
Strawberries can be covered with a layer of forest species or spruce branches can be placed on the beds to protect plants from low temperatures. Do this only when the soil is slightly frozen, otherwise the strawberries will undermine the early laid cover layer.
It’s the very time for the last time in the current season to re-lay the compost with a garden pitchfork, add ash and superphosphate to it, spray or water the surface of the compost heap with a solution of urea at the rate of 700 grams per 10 liters of water. This will help destroy the spores of dangerous diseases.
In November, you can prepare a place or pit for the accumulation of organic waste in winter. Dry peat is harvested in a barn or other similar room. You will need it for re-bedding household waste in a newly made compost pit from December to March. They also prepare containers for storing ash. Before laying, the ash should be passed through a net to weed out various objects and nails.
Take a close look at the storage area for the fruit, rodents become very active at this time. Your basement should be designed so that shrews, rats, and mice cannot access the tasty and juicy produce of your garden.
It's time to get busy with the instrument as well. Clear inventory from soil, dirt and rust, sharpen, coat with any machine oil or wipe with pork skin.
Beginning in mid-November, the remaining diseased fruits can be removed from the trees. You cannot leave them, as they are a breeding ground for many diseases. It is also necessary to remove the nests of wintering pests - gold-tails, hawthorns.
Of course, talking about the work in the garden in November, one cannot but recall our favorite flowers. This month you need to cover your roses for the winter. If your roses are planted in rows, you can put the frame at a height of 35 to 50 centimeters from the ground. The top of the frame must be covered with roofing material, slate, plastic, etc. The sides can be closed with any other material. Only first, before installing the frame, you need to huddle the rose bushes with earth or pour a mound of dry sand. If the daytime temperatures in November are very low, then the entire shelter must be additionally insulated with leaves.
At this time, the tubers of dahlias are transferred to the basement, they continue to dry the corms of gladioli, separating the varietal baby.
Also in November, it is worth preparing the nutrient soil that you will need for planting one- and two-year-old flowers in the room.
Planting sites for irises, peonies, bulbous and many other wintering flowers also need to be insulated. For this you need sawdust, leaves, peat.
Don't be lazy, friends! Comfortable wintering of green pets depends on your work in the garden in November. They will rest, and not spend their tiny strengths during the dormant period in order to survive and not freeze.