How to grow a spruce on a plot without spending money on seedlings
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Almost any varietal spruce can be grown from seed - except for hybrids, they do not inherit the trait of the mother tree. This planting option is not for the lazy: it can take a lot of time to collect seeds and even more to prepare them for planting. But all the efforts pay off in full. Compared to the purchased seed, your seed harvested from coniferous cones will be fresher, and its germination rate will be higher.
What varieties of spruce can be grown from seeds
Almost any spruce can be grown from a cone. It is only necessary in late summer and early autumn to notice the adult tree that you want to plant on the site. In a forest zone or in a forest park, with a high probability, it will be possible to find only ordinary spruce, less often blue spruce. In city parks or on private plots of friends, acquaintances, Canadian or Serbian spruce is most often planted... It will be possible to find rare varieties - excellent, spruce up to 45 species, and all of them, except for hybrids, reproduce by seed.
With the tree from which you will collect planting material, that is, cones, it is worth deciding in advance for one simple reason - in winter, especially if it turns out to be snowy, it will be more difficult to do. First of all, the age should be assessed - the tree should be from 3 to 7 years old (these are heights of about 2-3 m) and the presence of formed cones... The older the tree, the lower the germination rate of the seeds collected from it will be.
You need to collect cones from a young tree, no more than 3 m high
When to collect buds
Cones for germination should be collected in late autumn and early winter, when the cold begins. In December-January, they will open, the seeds will scatter in order to “winter” under the snow cover until spring. The second "wave" of collecting cones begins in February - at this time they are again dense and closed. It is better to pick them (regardless of whether it is November or February in the yard) directly from the tree, on the ground at the roots there are usually those in which there are no seeds anymore.
Only young and dense cones are suitable for collection; they will have to be collected directly from the tree
If you are harvesting blue spruce cones, stock as much of them as possible. According to the experience of summer residents, of all seeds, only a third inherits the characteristics of the parent plant (this applies primarily to the blue color of the needles). At 60–70%, the seedlings will be green, like those of ordinary spruce. This is because blue spruce propagates more easily by cuttings - in this case, the chances of growing a blue spruce are much greater. Then look at the seedlings and choose the strongest ones.
Blue spruce germinates from seeds, but not all seedlings retain the characteristics of the mother tree, often the color changes to green
What to do with planting material
It is not enough to collect the cones in time, you need to properly prepare them for planting. In nurseries, they are placed in a bunker, where the temperature is constantly maintained at about 40about... It is quite problematic to ensure constant heating of the cones in an apartment, but this is not at all necessary.
How to make bumps open:
- Immediately after collecting, the cones must be disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then rinsed under the tap and left overnight in a bowl of water to swell.
- In the morning, drain the water, and put the cones in a box or box with sand and put on a radiator or in another warm and dry place.
The seeds can be shaken out when the cone scales are fully opened. Under natural conditions, this occurs in January. If at home they also managed to open up by the end of December or mid-January, and the winter turned out to be snowless, you can shake out the seeds (for this it is enough to knock the tip of the ripe cone on the table several times) and prepare them for planting. Seeds are not planted in the snow, but they can be planted on frozen soil under a thick layer of mulch: approximately the same happens to them in natural conditions... Until April, they lie under the snow - they are hardened. The better this hardening, the more amicably the seedlings will appear and the higher the immunity of young plants will be.
The seeds from the cone can be shaken out when the scales are fully opened.
If the cones did not open by January or there is a snow cover on the site, planting should be postponed until spring. The hotter the summer is in your region, the earlier you need to plant (approximately - the end of April-May). For areas with a cool climate, the deadline for planting seeds is June. For spring planting, seeds must be stratified, or hardened.
How it's done:
- At the bottom of a plastic container (a transparent one with a lid from a ready-made store salad or cookies is suitable), you need to lay wet peat.
- Treat the seeds with a 3% solution of potassium permanganate and lay them on peat.
- Cover the top with a layer of the same peat.
- Close the container with a lid, put in the refrigerator and store there until disembarkation.
Spruce seeds need to be hardened, for this they are placed in a container, sprinkled with soil and placed in the refrigerator until disembarkation
Any, even rare varietal spruce is propagated by seeds. No professional skills are needed for this business, only patience and time, as when growing any other plant.
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What conifers can be grown from cones? Did you eat? Pines? Larch trees?
Not a single gardener, perhaps, will think of selecting conifers for compositions according to the shape and size of the cones. But if you are making a garden for your family, then you involuntarily look at it differently. Try growing pine, spruce, larch, and even hemlock from seeds! To do this, you need to properly collect the cones and know some secrets of growing trees from seeds.
As an owner, you want the garden to be interesting for your children and grandchildren, and maybe great-grandchildren. Natural objects - cones, seeds, inflorescences - attract children: it is a great pleasure to find them in the garden, study their origin and properties, and find their use in games and creativity. And for the development of intelligence, this activity is even more useful than educational computer programs.
Germination of whole pine and spruce cones
How to grow pine cones
Walking with the children in the pine forest, invite them to look for cones of different shapes and sizes, and they will be able to make the first botanical discovery in their life: the cones of different forms of Scots pine differ.
If you want something a little more original, try growing other types of pine trees. For example, Weymouth - not everyone immediately recognizes pine cones in her cones. It grows well in the Non-Black Earth Region, but it is better to plant it away from currants - a rust fungus can spread. Otherwise, Weymouth pine is quite unpretentious and very good in appearance due to its dense and long fluffy needles.
Cones of various types of pine
Large - up to 10 cm - cones pine yellow, or Oregon, somewhat resemble bumps Crimean pine, which many of us used to stuff our suitcases in childhood, returning from the south. At the same time, yellow pine can grow in the Moscow region, although information about its winter hardiness is rather contradictory. "Dendrology" Bulygin claims that in St. Petersburg (where the climate is milder) it freezes in severe winters, but in the Main Botanical Garden and at the All-Russian Exhibition Center there are older (more than 20 years old) specimens of yellow pine and its more frost-resistant mountain subspecies. Now these are trees with a height of 7-15 m. None of these forms, according to the GBS, sets seeds, but some amateurs manage to get seedlings from these trees. Moscow pines successfully endured the last harsh winter - the adult trees may have been helped by the city's microclimate, and the seedlings escaped under the snowdrifts. If you like experimenting, try to get and plant this pine to find out for yourself if the conditions in your garden are right for it. She prefers sunny areas and fertile, drained soils.
How to grow Menzies' false sugars from cones and seeds
Not everyone can tell lyingfrom ateif you do not look at its cones, they cannot be confused with anything: the covering scales are longer than the seed ones and look very original. In the Non-Black Earth Region, by the age of 30, a pseudo-beet grows up to 8–10 m. The plant is more demanding for light and soil fertility than a spruce: if the top is in the shade, the tree may die. But in open places, the pseudo-beetle looks great: if there is no lateral shadow, the lower branches fall to the very ground even in mature trees, and a powerful root system provides the tree with wind resistance, which spruce trees lack.
How to grow spruce from cones yourself
The cones of different types of spruce are similar in shape, but different in size. Of course, you have a good idea of the bumps ate European up to 16 cm long. There are spruces with the same, but smaller cones. Have ayan ate they are no longer than 6 cm, with wavy scales along the edge, which in the open state gives them "splendor". And at ate canadian - even smaller, about 4 cm long. Little bumps arouse curiosity in children and adults, because they are like reduced copies of "normal" ones. It is very interesting to play with this similarity when coming up with New Year's decorations. Both spruces are suitable for growing in gardens near Moscow and in regions with a similar climate. For 30-40 years, they barely grow up to 10-15 m in our conditions, so they are better suited for a small garden European oil or prickly.
How to grow larch from cones
There is no material more convenient for handicrafts than larch cones: they have a strong "petiole" where it is convenient to attach floristic wire. Have European larch the cone is cylindrical, at Siberian larch - ovoid, and the most beautiful cones are in Japanese larch (Kempfer) - with slightly bent, like rose petals, scales.
Cones of different types of larch
How to grow a Canadian hemlock from cones
The forests formed by the giant hemlock shocked our tourists at the Vancouver Olympics. Some tried to find no less grandiose cones under the giant "Christmas trees", but they found only tiny cones 2 cm long. We have canadian hemlock it is unlikely to become a huge tree (in the Main Botanical Garden at 40, their height is about 13 m), but their cones will be the same: small, like flowers. In protected places, the hemlock grows successfully for many years, only occasionally freezes.
Canadian hemlock cones and Menzies pseudo-hemlock
Growing conifers from seeds: secrets and tricks
Sow conifers in the fall; in winters with little snow, insulate them with snow. If you are sowing plants exotic for your area, take more seeds: in conifers, their formation does not depend on pollination. Seeds without an embryo do not outwardly differ from viable ones; the difference can only be determined empirically. In a year unfavorable for pollination, a mass of sterile seeds can be set. This is often the case with larch: its heavy pollen settles on the ground in wet weather, or with thermophilic species. Could not get seedlings the first time - do not despair, try again next year, perhaps it's all about the quality of the seeds.
Many coniferous varieties do not bud. If you want to grow buds, it is best to buy or plant the original species.
Magic cone, or how to grow a Christmas tree from seeds
Walking through the forest or in the nearest city park, we enjoy admiring the graceful Christmas trees that remind us of the holiday, parental home, and eternity. What prevents us from indulging in happy memories on cozy warm evenings at home? Take your favorite pine cone with you and grow a real wonderful Christmas tree in a pot from its seeds.
Your Christmas tree will grow from seeds, it will definitely grow! And the most important thing is not at all in meticulous adherence to all recommendations, although this is undoubtedly important, but in a persistent desire to achieve a goal, in a desire to please yourself and loved ones with a beautiful tree.
To plant and grow a tree from seeds, you will need a cone that has not yet opened, which is better to collect in the park than in the forest. The most favorable time for harvesting is from early December to spring. Moreover, the best harvest is obtained from the cones that are harvested after the winter snow has melted. Collect a lot of cones from different trees.
Dry the bud to fully open before tackling the seeds directly. This can be done on a regular battery or simply put it in a dry, warm place, next to a gas stove, for example.
Seeds for germination must first be prepared. To do this, take a regular container, pour snow into it, put a few dozen seeds from the cone there and hide in the freezer. For a month, but not necessarily, if you want to speed up the process, a couple of days is enough. After the freezer, just keep in the refrigerator and place the swollen seeds on the windowsill in the prepared soil for further germination. Before planting in the ground, the grains can be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Prepare the soil for a home tree from seeds in advance. You can do it yourself, pick it up in the forest, or buy ready-made soil for conifers. A substrate used in hydroponics, such as coke shavings, will work. After planting the seeds in the ground, sprinkle on top with a mixture of soil with coniferous needles or sawdust.
Cover the seed pot with foil, they really need moisture and coolness. In order not to damage the unexpectedly appeared sprouts, build something like a mini greenhouse. This can be done with toothpicks, evenly placing them in the soil. Protect the seedlings from direct sunlight, while remembering good lighting. Spray them often, but do not over-wet the soil.
When the sprouts have risen a couple of centimeters, pick the strongest ones. Transplant them into separate pots, keeping the same conditions and creating a mini greenhouse for each future tree. When she takes root in a new place, do the first feeding.
For better germination, young Christmas trees need coolness, so do not worry, and feel free to put the seedlings on the balcony. If your home tree, grown from seeds, is indoors, place dishes with water next to it and rid it of the heat radiation from heating systems.
It is prudent to do the first transplant in a year, in the cold season, the next one in three years. Time flies quickly, and in four years you will be able to admire a real half-meter tree.
Elena Valker © "Site about plants" www.pro-rasteniya.ru Back to section
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How to grow a mini pine cone tree?
In a simple and accessible way, you can not harm nature and please yourself and your loved ones on the New Years. How to do it? We plant a pine cone and water it.
Cones for sprouting are picked in autumn when they are ripe. Bring a pine cone from the forest. Plant it in a pot of soil so that most of the bud is above the ground. Drink it daily with a small amount of water. Excess water will harm - the cone will mold and rot. After some time, green shoots will appear on the cone.
The water must be soft, otherwise the salts will be on the bump. If the room is dry, it is advisable to cover it with something to maintain humidity, but not tight. If you want your tree to delight you for many years, then two years after pecking from seeds, it's time to accustom it to fresh air. Periodically, the plant needs to be exposed to the street, gradually increasing the intervals. This period of addiction should last for a couple of months, after which the tree will acquire the ability to live under the open sky.
When planting on a site, it is advisable to add a little forest land to the hole, and after the tree has acquired a new place, some time before it is rooted, it is necessary to water the tree. As soon as the tree takes root, polishes are not required, except perhaps in dry seasons.
Growing a tree from seeds is not as difficult as many other plants. However, the result of your efforts will not grow for one, or even two years, but for decades and even centuries.It is for this that the tree is very different from other plants, and its planting in open ground is carried out once and for a long time.
Even a novice gardener can handle: how to grow a spruce from a cone at home
My dad loves conifers very much, so one day he decided to plant spruce trees in the yard. This tree is quite tall (it can grow up to 40 meters, depending on the variety), so if you want to grow spruce on your site, you need to know some rules.
Spruce has an interesting root system, which you must know about if you want to plant a tree next to your house. Until the age of 15, spruce has a taproot, which then dies. At the same time, the tree continues to live with the help of surface roots. This means that the trunk is no longer stable and a hurricane wind can knock it down, damaging nearby buildings.
Ate became popular on the plots because of their simplicity in care. The easiest way is to buy a young seedling, but, by the way, it costs impressively. Therefore, my dad grew spruce from seed. This is a longer process (but more fun and interesting), but not costly.
You just need to find a fresh bud with ripe seeds. But the bump shouldn't be exposed. At home, you need to dry the cone before opening and removing seeds from it.
- Next, the seeds must be placed in dry sand (peat can be added) for a month and a half, and kept at a temperature of 2-3 ° C heat.
- At the end of winter, the seeds must be planted in the ground and sent to a warm and bright place. At this time, abundant watering is important, which must be reduced after germination.
And only two years later, young spruce seedlings need to be planted in their permanent habitat. Fertilizers can be poured into the hole. In the first season of growing a tree outdoors, it needs to be watered weekly. In this case, be sure to do it carefully, without getting on the needles. To prevent root decay, you need to abundantly fill the area with dry needles or sawdust, so the moisture will linger longer.
In the first year of eating outdoors, it is not necessary to do top dressing. Is that watering the spruce with a growth stimulant. But in subsequent years (until the tree has become an adult), it is necessary to apply special fertilizers for conifers, but only once a year.
Not all types of spruce can be cut. But my dad annually removes the lowest branches that literally fall to the ground on New Year's Eve. This saves space on the site, and for the holiday you can collect a Christmas tree from branches. Agree, it turns out profitable.
In the first year of cultivation, make sure that water does not get on the needles.
Fir trees have many diseases, some of which are treated with fungicidal agents. Against spider mites, acaricides should be used for prevention. But usually sick and weak trees are exposed to diseases. Therefore, your task is to properly care for the tree, and then your Christmas tree will delight with its beauty for many years.
Types and varieties of spruce
Spruce has many varieties: they differ not only in appearance, but also in the color of the needles. Let's consider the most common ones:
- Ordinary. In other words, this is our usual Russian tree, green, tall, like a cone. The height can be very impressive, up to 50 m. It tolerates frost well, shade and is generally unpretentious in care. Lives for more than one hundred years, reaches its highest point of growth by the age of 150.
- Canadian. Beautiful spruce with a bluish tint. The height of an adult tree is 10 m. The needles are short and have a slight smell of black currant. Loves light, but is quite capable of enduring shadow, as well as severe frosts. The trunk reaches 4 m in thickness. It does not like high humidity, but it will survive the drought.
- Akrokona. A variety of common spruce. An excellent choice for those who are looking for an interesting decoration for their site. These are small trees, usually no more than 4 m in height, grow in an irregular bush. The needles seem to be directed downward. A special highlight is the multi-colored needles. At first, it is bright green, and then darkens a lot. The combination of both colors creates a very beautiful composition. Cones appear all over the tree, and by the spring they become bright burgundy.
- Inversa. The crown of this spruce resembles a weeping willow. All branches are directed downward and seem to flow around the trunk. Height is about 6 meters. Its crown can be directed, then the tree will grow in a given direction. If you do not create any support for the trunk, the spruce will not grow above knee level at all, it will creep along the ground.
- Serbian. This decorative spruce is one of the slender ones. It grows rapidly, reaching a height of 15 m. It tolerates frost well, but not an abundance of moisture in the soil. The needles are bright green, brightening towards the bottom of the trunk. The decoration is purple cones. It is almost impossible to meet Serbian spruce in the wild. It is easy to cut; in strong winds, the tree may fall, as the roots go shallowly into the ground. In Europe, this spruce is very popular and is often used as a traditional decoration for Christmas.
- Nana. This is one of the varieties of Serbian spruce. A low tree up to 3 m in height with bluish needles. It is undemanding to care for, tolerates frost well and looks very beautiful. But it grows slowly, no more than 3 cm per year.
How many years do Christmas trees live?
I must say that among conifers, Christmas trees cannot be called centenarians: they rarely live up to three hundred years of age. Usually they live up to 150 years, the age depends both on the type of spruce and on the place of growth. However, the roots remaining from the dead trunk can give new clone shoots if all clones from one root are considered one plant, then the life span of the spruce increases significantly: the oldest such tree - Old Tikko - lives for almost 10 thousand years. It is located in Sweden, on Mount Fulufjellet. It is the oldest woody organism on Earth.
Since the branches of the Christmas tree, like the araucaria, are located in "floors", you can determine the age of the tree by counting the "floors", each of which corresponds to one year, and adding 3 - 4 years required for the formation of the first "floor".
Fir trees grow in the forest quite close to each other, which makes the fir forest the darkest among all other types of forests. In summer, it is never hot in it, since most of the sun's rays do not penetrate into it. This feature of spruce trees was one of the reasons for the cold resistance of the plant - a cool temperature is needed for the spruce seed to germinate.
The Christmas tree is an evergreen tree, but in the fall it sheds one seventh of its needles. Of course, in this sense, larch is more effective, which sheds all the needles for the winter, which is why it got this name. Spruce needles are used to prepare fortified feed for livestock, however, an infusion of needles will also be useful for humans.
Grow a tree from seeds and let it never cease to delight you!