How to make a tandoor at your dacha: from a brick, wooden or plastic barrel
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Staying at the dacha is a unity with nature. I want to cook food on the fire, sit by the fire, listening to the twilight rustles. For cooking food on fire, grill or barbecue are most often used, and we suggest you make a tandoor with your own hands. What it is? This is an oriental brazier oven that allows you to cook a lot of delicious dishes that are simply impossible to cook otherwise. Samsa, lavash, oriental meat - all this can be done in the tandoor. Moreover, the meat turns out to be very tasty, because it is suspended in a horizontal position, as a result, the fat does not drip onto the coals, but flows down the pieces of meat, making it juicy and soft.
Shish kebab in tandoor turns out to be much tastier because of the vertically arranged skewers. On the grill, the meat needs to be watered with marinade or sprinkled with water, but here it turns out to be tender and juicy
It is very interesting, in the opinion of a European, that cakes and samsa are prepared in the tandoor - they are attached directly to the walls of the oven and baked in this way.
Oriental flatbreads and samsa are baked in a tandoor, stuck to the walls of the oven. This bread has a special taste. Having made a tandoor at home, you can bake samsa, pita bread and delicious flat cakes
The traditional shape of such a furnace is round. It can be located both above ground and underground. Today, a brick tandoor is built by many summer residents, making it not so difficult, but oriental cuisine will bring a lot of pleasure to both family members and guests.
In the East, the tandoor can also be located in the house, it is installed in the center of the room to warm the air in the room during the cold season.
Option # 1 - making a brick tandoor
A small tandoor can be made on a platform with wheels, you can transport it anywhere in the garden.
You can buy a tandoor if funds allow. Such a ready-made tandoor with a platform on wheels can be installed anywhere in the garden or in the house.
If the stove is stationary, it is better to place it on rocky or sandy soil, away from buildings and green spaces. The ground under the tandoor must be dry.
How to make a tandoor? For construction, you can use stone blocks, ceramic clay bricks or white refractory bricks. First, the base is laid out. The brick tandoor is quite heavy, so the base must be strong. The base of the furnace is like a foundation, in which an opening is made where the fuel is laid.
You can build a tandoor directly on the ground, in this case, you need to dig a hole in the shape of a circle with a diameter of 120-130 cm under the base. We fill the bottom with sand (layer 15-20 cm), and begin to lay out a brick well.
Base for tandoor - a sand cushion is made at the bottom of the base, the area around it is also covered with sand. It is convenient to place a grate at the bottom under the coals
As a mortar for masonry, you can use a ready-made oven mixture. It consists of plasticizer, red clay and quartz sand. The masonry can be either horizontal or vertical, in the first case the stove will retain heat longer, the second is more economical - much less bricks are needed.
Tandoor, lined with vertical masonry with a pipe for exhausting gases. Less material is consumed for the manufacture of such a furnace.
Brick tandoor, lined with horizontal masonry - the thickness of the wall is greater, so it keeps the heat inside longer. In any tandoor, there should be an opening for the exhaust of flue gases at the bottom.
In order to visually see the dimensions of the future furnace, you can first make an order - laying without mortar. We work with bricks with a grinder with a diamond cut-off wheel for ceramics.
The order is done for a visual representation of how your tandoor will look like. After such a calculation, you can start working with the solution. Tandoor can be built on the ground or on a brick base
It is not easy to make round masonry, a life-size drawing made with a protractor and a compass will help you, the ability to handle a grinder is not the least important.
The diagram clearly demonstrates the device of a brick tandoor. Features of the manufacture of the furnace may differ, but the basic principle of construction is always the same - a base with a hole for fuel and a body that is rounded up
A brick pattern is the basis for forming a circle. Do not feel sorry for the mortar when laying, and use a level to check the horizontal position.
For the manufacture of tandoor, oriental craftsmen used a similar pattern. Laying out the bricks according to the template, the oven will gradually take on a rounded shape tapering upwards.
The tandoor is narrowed upwards - this is done so that the heat is kept inside. In order to achieve this effect, the bottom layer of the brick must be cut off; when laid, the shape will resemble a vault. After the masonry is ready, the inside of the oven should be cleaned from traces of mortar. We use dry clay to fill the joints from the outside. The inner surface is also coated with clay, which is mixed with finely chopped grass.
When the oven is dry, it is first heated with paper, and then the firing temperature rises. This is the easiest way to make a tandoor, and if you want to refine it, you can coat the structure with clay. In the east, the stoves are decorated with mosaic tiles, sandstone, and ceramics.
The video demonstrates how to make a brick tandoor using the template:
Option # 2 - wooden barrel tandoor
Of course, a brick tandoor is the most durable and practical, but if you wish, you can use other methods, which we will now talk about. This requires the skill of working with clay.
We need to find a small barrel with poorly fitted hoops. The barrel is soaked from the inside with refined sunflower oil; we leave it overnight to soak it.
Then we prepare a solution - sheep wool for reinforcement (length up to 15 cm), fireclay clay, fireclay sand. The ratio, respectively, is 0.05 - 1 - 2. We make a thick solution and mold the furnace body on the inner surface of the barrel (thickness - 20-30 cm). The solution is smoothed and dried for a week using incandescent lamps. Then the hoops can be removed and the barrel disassembled. After that, the product is subjected to secondary firing.
Option # 3 - brazier using a plastic barrel
You will need a classic shaped plastic barrel. We fill it with water, after filling the barrel slightly increases in size, its outer surface is coated with chamotte solution, it is tamped down, smoothed until the contour of the furnace is formed. The product is also dried for a week, and then the water must be drained. The barrel will become smaller and can be removed from the new tandoor.
A cauldron can also be placed on top of the stove for cooking pilaf and other dishes, but for this you need to adjust the crown to the volume of the cauldron, the crown is coated with clay.
Building the stove is a highlight, but you will also need to make metal mounts for the chapmur. For example - these are three staples with a metal hoop in the center. The easiest option is to use a sturdy rod, put it along the crown, and attach the skewer to it.
If you have the skills of pottery, the tandoor can also be made as a decoration on the site. For example, to create such a “house” for cooking delicious oriental dishes
We examined several simple ways to make a tandoor in the country. These are the simplest answers to the question of how you can make a tandoor with your own hands. More complex options suggest the manufacture of a structure resembling a Russian stove, but this is a cumbersome structure and it is rather troublesome and difficult to build it, and a simple tandoor is quite suitable for a summer residence and the dishes in it turn out to be very tasty, try it, and you will see for yourself.
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Tandoors differ from a conventional oven in a special configuration, so you can forget about not fried meat and vegetables. They also prepare fragrant oriental cakes - right on the walls. Outwardly, a classic tandoor resembles a clay jug, into which firewood is stacked, and then skewers are hung.
To create Uzbek tandoors, sand and camel wool were added to fireclay clay. A volumetric dome with a wall thickness of about 5 cm was molded from it, dried for 3 weeks and used as a pommel for a hearth. It is very difficult to make such a blank without experience, but now even ready-made forms are being sold.
Tandoor in Armenia is called "tonir" and it is also used for heating houses. Armenian tandoors were made of fireclay bricks, because the local clay is not so malleable and durable. In fact, it is a brick cylinder with clay joints and a coated inner surface.
An earthen tandoor is made in a pit about 1-1.25 m deep with an air duct hole. The walls and the bottom are lined with fireclay bricks and clay mortar. Or you can immerse a ready-made clay blank into the pit and tamp it well. Such stoves retain heat best of all, but they can not be dug in far from every soil.
As the name implies, the ground tandoor is completely above the ground and looks more like a classic Russian stove. The firewood is put into the brazier, and the draft is provided by the hole at the bottom. The fuel is loaded from the top or from the side, and when it is completely burnt out, the products can be lowered.
Compact portable tandoors are great for giving and you can take them with you. They are made in the form of a keg or jug made of strong refractory clay with a lid and handles. Large models can be reinforced with steel strips.
Wood burning tandoor
This is a classic tandoor that uses wood or coal. There is always an opening at the bottom for air flow and ash removal, so that you can tightly close the lid during cooking. Only deciduous wood is used because of the specific resins in the needles.
This is a modern tandoor variation for professional kitchens and bakeries. Inside is the same clay pot, but the main body is steel. Instead of firewood, gas is used, so using such a tandoor is no more difficult than using a home stove.
Another modern variation, in which heating elements are placed on the bottom instead of fuel - tubular electric heaters. They do not burn or smoke, so the device can be used even indoors. But keep in mind that the taste of the cooked food will not be the same as on the wood.
Features of the tandoor
To build a tandoor with your own hands on the site, you need to know what kind of dishes this hearth is intended for, the temperature regime and design features. There are tandoors buried in the ground and structures raised above the surface.
Depending on the qualifications of the home craftsman and the presence of a power tool in his arsenal, a cylindrical "barrel" or a jug-shaped structure is constructed. Usually, a simpler version of the classic barrel with arched sides is chosen.
Assortment of dishes
The main task of the hearth is to prepare meals during a reception or family vacation in a suburban area. However, the tandoor is quite suitable for regular baking of bread / cakes, preparation of massive dishes, side dishes, boiling water. Therefore, it is considered a full-fledged summer kitchen.
Information on how to build a brick tandoor in the yard should begin with an assortment of dishes:
- cakes - require the skill of fixing the formed dough on the inner surface of the hearth
- kebab - skewers are arranged vertically in a circle, therefore, special devices are needed to fix them in a "pot" or "barrel"
- barbecue - by analogy with the previous dish, the grate must be placed in a "well", and then safely removed without getting burned
- first courses are cooked in a large cauldron installed on the neck of the tandoor
- shashlik, roast - they are also prepared in a cauldron in the same way.
If necessary, this hearth can be used to boil tea water in a large saucepan.
Using different sizes and shapes of the inner surface of the hearth, you can ensure the temperature inside it is 250 - 400 degrees, which is unattainable for barbecues and barbecues by default due to significant heat loss.
Initially, the earthen tandoor looked like a pit in which firewood turned into coals, and the wind could not blow out the flame. Then the walls began to be made of clay, which turns into ceramics during high-temperature firing.
There are vertical and horizontal tandoors, however, it is the first structures that are considered multifunctional. The horizontal hearth-barrel is more suitable for industrial baking of flat cakes.
External and internal dimensions
For the above reasons, the construction of a tandoor should take into account the factors:
- ease of maintenance - firewood and food are loaded inside, and ash is taken out through the same neck
- dimensions - the standard for the tandoor is 1 - 1.5 m height, 1 m diameter in the middle part of the barrel and a 0.4 - 0.6 m diameter hatch, reinforced with a metal ring.
To preserve heat and increase efficiency, additional masonry is usually erected around the tandoor (a well or a square of 4 walls), the space between them is filled with refractory material (expanded clay, slag).
The quality of the combustion process can be improved by blowing from below, and operation - by the chimney on the side and the ash chamber under the grate (only for ground structures of the tandoor). From bad weather, the neck is closed with a sealed lid.
Even with occasional use of the hearth, the brick is exposed to extreme temperatures. Therefore, it is better to use refractory chamotte, and the outer structure is made of ordinary or facing ceramic bricks.
Instructions for creating a tandoor with your own hands
The traditional size of the tandoor has the following indicators:
- height 1 or 1.5 meters,
- boiler diameter 1 meter,
- the diameter of the hole located at the top is 55-65 cm.
In order to make the inner body of a tandoor, clay is indispensable. We need fireclay clay. This new kind of material is referred to by the masters as "living". You can safely use bricks for lining the brazier. Accordingly, you will first need to stock up on a sufficient amount of clay, bricks, as well as the amount of sheep wool that is possible for you. Camel's wool is classically used, but in our latitude it is not so common.
Now we start making
- Wool fibers must be cut into pieces 10-15 mm long and mixed with clay. After that, like a dough, the clay itself is kneaded. When it gets the consistency of sour cream, you need to leave it and place it in a warm place for a week. However, you should never forget about it. It should be checked periodically. The mixture may produce excess water and will need to be removed. However, care must also be taken to keep the mixture sufficiently moist. If it dries up, the tandoor will quickly crack and be unusable.
- When the homemade tandoor acquires an even consistency, it will be possible to take the next step and proceed to further work. Linear sheets should be molded from the resulting mixture. Their thickness can be any, but it is desirable that they be within 5-15 cm. In order to independently form a tandoor from the obtained sheets, it is necessary to have well-developed skills. If not, then a simple barrel will help.It is necessary to slightly loosen its hoops, fill it with water and let it swell for 5-6 days. After that, the water is drained, the barrel dries up, and the walls are treated with sunflower oil from the inside. Within a week, she should be saturated with it. Then the oven mold will be ready for use.
- The builder will need to consider that both the barrel and the clay must be prepared for construction at the same time. Now you will need to roll up oblong bars 50 cm long and 6 cm in diameter from the finished clay. After that, you need to unfold them and roll them out to a thickness of 2 - 2.5 cm. Cut them into ribbons and then fold them into the inside of the barrel. It is necessary to tamp these tapes tightly along the walls of the workpiece. In the upper part, we narrow the hole to half of the diameter of the workpiece. In no case should the bottom be covered with clay.
- After the insides of the barrel are completely filled, the clay must be leveled very carefully so that the walls are completely smooth. After that, the structure is left to dry. When the clay completely lags behind the walls of the barrel, you will need to remove the hoops and take out the finished tandoor.
- But that's not all. Only the inside is ready. It must be installed on a foundation prepared in advance. It can be made of clay or concrete. The base must be placed on a brick cushion, in which there should already be holes for blowing.
- Now you need to build a thermal shirt. We need bricks here. From the bottom in the second row we leave holes that will play the role of blowing. The bottom rows of bricks will fit snugly against the oven. If there are gaps, especially at the top, they should never be left empty. Gaps will need to be filled with sand, clay residues or salt. It is desirable that these are bulk materials.
- Now we thoroughly tamp them, and carefully coat the finished structures with fireclay clay. Also, to preserve the structure, you can make a shed for the tandoor. Then he will not be afraid of the rain, and the cakes prepared on its walls will not get wet. Or you can place this structure under a natural plantation, for example, under a herringbone.
Congratulations, the tandoor is ready to go.
For the first use of the tandoor, you will need to warm it up thoroughly for 6 hours, lubricating its walls with sunflower oil. This treatment will further exclude the sticking of fireclay clay to the bread and the flat cake that can be baked on it.